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      • KCI등재

        주제; 박목월 문학의 재인식과 현재성 : 신경숙의 《엄마를 부탁해》 프랑스어 번역본에 관한 고찰

        김경희 ( Kyung Hee Kim ) 한국언어문화학회 2015 한국언어문화 Vol.0 No.57

        Please Look After Mom, is composed of four chapters and epilogue. The author sets the eldest daughter, eldest son, and husband as the main character of the first three chapters each, who confess their feelings of guilt about disappearance of their mother and wife. Uniquely, the story is developed from the Mom's perspective throughout the novel, with the first and third chapters written in the first person point-of-view, while the second chapter written in the third person point-of-view. Please Look After Mom was translated into both English and French. While the English version is generally considered to succeed in a faithful translation of the original, though criticized for incomplete transmission of the meanings of the source text due to a domesticating translation, the French version, Prends soin de maman, has more serious problems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the problems of the French version by comparing it with the English version. First, the French version has lots of inaccurate translation that may result from a lack of understanding of the original. Such inaccuracies frequently failed to highlight the delicate style of writing unique to the author. Second, the English version utilized the soliloquies or thoughts of the characters in a free direct speech in the first person in the same way as the original, and marked them in italics. It would have helped make a clear distinction of this kind of soliloquies from others. In contrast, unlike the original, the soliloquies or thoughts of the characters were translated in a free indirect speech in the French version. It might have caused some confusion about whom these soliloquies belong to. Finally, while the source texts were translated faithfully in the English version, they weren't in the French version. This translational unfaithfulness in the French version is considered to result from the various causes, including the omission, excessive abridgment, and redundant explanation of the contents of the original as well as the arbitrary insertion of the contents that do not appear in the original. While the literal translation, used in the English version, is thought to have successfully conveyed the contents of the original stories, the excessive liberal translation, used in the French version, seems to have failed to get an achievement as good as in the original. We have a prejudice that “natural translation” should be done with a liberal translation, not with a literal translation. Although the English version of Shin Kyung-Sook's novel, Please Look After Mom, also contains faults which are mostly related to a domesticating translation, its success in gaining public favor by the faithful translation using a literal translation suggests that the literary translators keep this in mind to improve the quality of their translation.Kim, Kyunghee. 2015. A study on Prends soin de maman. Shin Kyung-Sook's novel, Please Look After Mom, is composed of four chapters and epilogue. The author sets the eldest daughter, eldest son, and husband as the main character of the first three chapters each, who confess their feelings of guilt about disappearance of their mother and wife. Uniquely, the story is developed from the Mom's perspective throughout the novel, with the first and third chapters written in the first person point-of-view, while the second chapter written in the third person point-of-view. Please Look After Mom was translated into both English and French. While the English version is generally considered to succeed in a faithful translation of the original, though criticized for incomplete transmission of the meanings of the source text due to a domesticating translation, the French version, Prends soin de maman, has more serious problems. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the problems of the French version by comparing it with the English version. First, the French version has lots of inaccurate translation that may result from a lack of understanding of the original. Such inaccuracies frequently failed to highlight the delicate style of writing unique to the author. Second, the English version utilized the soliloquies or thoughts of the characters in a free direct speech in the first person in the same way as the original, and marked them in italics. It would have helped make a clear distinction of this kind of soliloquies from others. In contrast, unlike the original, the soliloquies or thoughts of the characters were translated in a free indirect speech in the French version. It might have caused some confusion about whom these soliloquies belong to. Finally, while the source texts were translated faithfully in the English version, they weren't in the French version. This translational unfaithfulness in the French version is considered to result from the various causes, including the omission, excessive abridgment, and redundant explanation of the contents of the original as well as the arbitrary insertion of the contents that do not appear in the original. While the literal translation, used in the English version, is thought to have successfully conveyed the contents of the original stories, the excessive liberal translation, used in the French version, seems to have failed to get an achievement as good as in the original. We have a prejudice that “natural translation” should be done with a liberal translation, not with a literal translation. Although the English version of Shin Kyung-Sook's novel, Please Look After Mom, also contains faults which are mostly related to a domesticating translation, its success in gaining public favor by the faithful translation using a literal translation suggests that the literary translators keep this in mind to improve the quality of their translation.

      • KCI등재

        홍산문화 女神廟에 나타난 ‘삼원오행'형 ‘마고7여신'과 ‘마고 제천'

        정경희(Jung, Kyung-Hee) 비교민속학회 2016 비교민속학 Vol.0 No.60

        홍산문화의 기반 문화인 선도문화의 요체는 우하량 단․묘․총 유적 및 총에서 출토된 옥기 유물과 같은 제천 유적․유물에 잘 나타나 있다. 이중에서도 특히 묘(여신묘)는 제천의 신격을 여신, 그것도 등신대의 3배․2배․1배 크기로 3구분되는 총7구의 여신으로 표현하는 바, 홍산문화시기 선도 제천의 성격을 명확하게 보여주는 선도문화의 시금석이다. 우하량 여신묘는 십자형 구조였으며 여신상 또한 등신대의 3배․2배․1배 크기로 3구분된 7여신상이 십자형으로 배치되고 있었는데, 이러한 십자형의 의미는 선도기학적 세계관인 ‘삼원오행론'에 잘 나타나 있다. 선도 전통에서는 모든 존재의 본질이자 우주의 근원적인 생명력인 일기․삼기의 ‘물질화(현상화)' 과정을 신화의 방식으로 표현하는 전통이 있어왔다. 곧 일기․삼기를 ‘마고여신(하느님․삼신, 마고․삼신할미)'으로 표현하고, 또 이러한 일기․삼기가 분화하여 물질화(현상화)하는 과정을 마고가 궁희․소희를 낳고 다시 궁희․소희가 4천녀․4천인을 낳아 4천녀․4천인의 단계에 이르러 기․화․수․토로 이루어진 물질계(현상계)가 만들어지는 것으로 표현하였다. 여기에서 마고, 궁희․소희, 4천녀와 같은 여신(‘마고 7여신')은 물질계를 이루는 4대 원소인 기․화․수․토의 보이지 않은 차원, 곧 물질화 이전의 단계에 대한 상징임을 알게 된다. 또한 일기․삼기(마고)의 분화 과정은 ‘입체 十字形', 또는 ‘입체 球形'의 형태로 표상화되었다. 이것이 ‘마고신화'이며 선도기학적으로는 ‘삼원오행론'으로 개념화된다. 이러한 마고신화(삼원오행론)의 ‘마고7여신'이 여신묘의 7여신으로 나타났으니 여신묘의 7여신을 ‘삼원오행형 마고7여신'으로 이름해보게 된다. 이러할 때 여신묘의 ‘마고 7여신'이란 보이지 않는 생명氣의 차원일 뿐 물질(현상) 세계에서의 구체성을 지닌 특정의 인격신이 아니며, 따라서 여신묘에서 행해진 제천의 본질도 우주의 근원적 생명氣과 사람속의 생명氣의 합일을 추구하는 천인합일(신인합일, 인내천)의 수행임을 알게 된다. 반면 중국학계는 홍산문화를 중국문화의 원류로 인식, 여신묘나 여신신앙에 대해서도 후대 중국 왕조의 천인분리(신인분리)적 제의 체계나 제의 방식을 투영, 천인합일(신인합일, 인내천)과 정반대의 해석을 하였다. 여신묘나 단․묘․총은 물론 홍산문화 전반에 대한 연구가 한단계 깊어지기 위해서는 선도문화, 특히 그 본질인 천인합일(신인합일, 인내천)에 대한 이해가 선행되어야 할 것이다. The key of Sundo仙道 Culture, the cultural foundation of Hungshan Culture(Baedalkook倍達國) is the remains and relics of ‘Sundo Heaven rituals 祭天' like Altar壇․Shrine廟․Tomb塚 and jade tools. Especially the godship of Shrine(Goddess Shrine) in Uharyang牛河梁 remains is 7Goddess clay statues that are classified into three categories of 3times-sized, 2times-sized and life-sized of human. These 7Goddess accurately show the character of Sundo Heaven rituals in the period of Hungshan Culture. Goddess Shrine of Uharyang is the cruciform building and 7Goddess statues are arranged crosswise. The meaning of these cruciform symbol is written in the idea of the five natural elements of the three dimensions(三元五行論), the core theory of Korean Sundo. In Sundo tradition, the differentiation(materialization) processes of One Ki氣-Three Ki, the primal Ki of the cosmos used to be symbolized to myth.[Mago myth]. That is to say, One Ki-Three Ki is symbolized to ‘Mago goddess'. And the differentiation(materialization) processes of One Ki-Three Ki into ‘Ki氣․ fire火․water水․earth土, 4 elements of the material world is symbolized that Mago goddess gives birth to 2 daughters, Gung-hee and So-hee and Gung-hee and So-hee give birth to 4 daughters, 4 heavenly maid. These 7Goddess, i.e. Mago․Gung-hee and So-hee․4 heavenly maid is just the symbol of the pre-differentiation(materialization) stages of the material world. In addition, the differentiation(materialization) processes of Mago is represented to cubic globular shape and a plane figure of it is cruciform.[the idea of the five natural elements of the three dimensions三元五行論] These 7Goddess of the idea of the five natural elements of the three dimensions are nothing but 7Goddess of Goddess Shrine. Thus we can understand that ‘Mago 7Goddess of Goddess Shrine' is only invisible and primal Ki of the cosmos, not a personal God and the essence of Sundo Heaven rituals in Goddess Shrine is Sundo practice pursuing for the unification of primal Ki of heaven and inner Ki of human, i.e. ‘Unification of heaven(God) and human天人合一'. On the other hand, Chinese scholars misread Sundo Heaven rituals in Goddess Shrine as ‘Separation of heaven(God) and human天人分離' conversely.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Long-Term Intake of High Doses of Vitamin C Down-regulates Anti-oxidant Enzymes in Human Erythrocytes

        Hee,Joon,Kim,Min-Kyung,Park,Kwang-Ho,Rhee,Hee-Sang,Youn,Seong-Hee,Ko,Hyun-Sook,Kim,Myung-Hee,Chung 한국식품영양과학회 2008 Preventive Nutrition and Food Science Vol.13 No.3

        We located a group of healthy young males (aged 20~30) who had been taking a high dose (more than 5 g) of vitamin C daily for more than one year. We observed that this vitamin C group had plasma levels of vitamin C that were more than three times that of the control group. The control group had not taken any additional vitamin C except for that included in their diets. But the vitamin C group showed significantly lower amounts of Cu/ZnSOD, catalase and glutathione-s-transferase and lower activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in erythrocyte lysates than the control group. However, there was no difference in the plasma levels of lipid peroxides between the two groups. These results suggest that vitamin C offsets its own contribution to anti-oxidant activity by repressing the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and also excludes the possibility that vitamin C acts as a pro-oxidant in vivo.

      • KCI등재

        Gender and Age Differences in Dietary Behaviors and Food Consumption Pattern of Korean Americans Living in Western Parts of USA

        Hee-Kyung,Ro,Connie,Georgiou 한국식품영양과학회 2005 Preventive Nutrition and Food Science Vol.10 No.2

        This study was conducted to find the gender and age differences in dietary behaviors and food consumption pattern of Korean American adults living in western parts of USA. The structured survey forms and self-administered food frequency questionnaire were used to assess dietary behavior and nutrient intakes. It was found that younger subjects kept their meal time more irregularly and skipped breakfast more often than older subjects due to lack of time. There were significant age differences in skipping meals, kind of skipping meals, and the reasons for skipping meals. Young subjects consumed more American type food while older subjects consumed more traditional Korean food. Nutrient intakes of males' except for the elderly were significantly higher in energy, protein, Fe and P than those of females'. Vitamin A and vitamin C intake were significantly higher in females. Energy ratio of carbohydrate : protein : fat was 56.2 : 16.8 : 27.0. Females consumed more plant food as their dietary sources of protein, fat, Ca and Fe, compared to males. Ca intakes of participants' were below 75% of RDA except for the youngest male and 30~49 aged male and females. Futhermore, Ca intake was below 70% after age 50 in both genders. Effective nutrition education program targeting Korean Americans in the community should be developed and implemented to increase Ca consumption.

      • KCI등재

        Chemical Constitutions and Antioxidant Activities of Tomato Leaf Extracts

        ( Kyung Jun Lee ), ( Gi-an Lee ), ( Kyung-ho Ma ), ( Sebastin Raveendar ), ( Yang-hee Cho ), ( Jung-ro Lee ), ( Jong-wook Chung ) 한국육종학회 2016 Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Vol.4 No.3

        The present study aimed to determine the contents of five flavonols and two glycoalkaloids as well as the antioxidant activities of leaf ethanol extracts of 50 tomato accessions. The antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: 2,2`-azino bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO), and total polyphenol content (TPC). Flavonols and glycoalkaloids contents were determined using a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector system. Among five flavonols and two glycoalkaloids, naringenin and tomatine were detected in tomato leaves at high concentrations. Of the 50 tomato accessions, IT 229711, IT2365203, and IT 207224 were found to have the highest contents of quercetin, kaempferol, and tomatine, respectively. Leaf extract of IT189949 exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). Among the five flavonols, myricetin showed positive correlations with DPPH, ABTS, and NO, while isorhamnetin had positive correlation with DPPH. These results will expand the chemical constitution database and provide information on tomato leaves. They are valuable for the development of functional foods or feed-additives.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재후보

        Gender Differences in Physical Activity, Dietary Habit and Nutrient Intake of Upper Grade Students in Elementary School

        Hee-Kyung,Ro 한국식품영양과학회 2003 Preventive Nutrition and Food Science Vol.8 No.4

        This study was conducted to find gender differences in physical activity, dietary habit and nutrient intake in 4~6th grade students in elementary school. Physical activity assessment showed that males significantly engaged in more vigorous activity with longer duration than females. It was found that females skipped their breakfast more often and had more snack than males. On the other hand, males were more indulged in peaky eating, despite their good practice of drinking milk. Twenty-four hour dietary recall revealed that energy intakes in both males and females were not sufficient. Furthermore, subjects, regardless of gender, consumed marginal intakes of Ca and Fe. Special attention should be given to marginal intakes of Ca in the subjects. Due to low Fe intake in females, more caution should be taken to include a meal which can enhance iron absorption. It might be suggested that effective intervention strategies need to be developed and implemented to choose nutrient dense foods and activities that lead to better health.

      • KCI등재

        Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rubus Accessions Using Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

        ( Kyung Jun Lee ), ( Gi-an Lee ), ( Hee-kyoung Kang ), ( Jung-ro Lee ), ( Sebastin Raveendar ), ( Myoung-jae Shin ), ( Yang-hee Cho ), ( Kyung-ho Ma ) 한국육종학회 2016 Plant Breeding and Biotechnology Vol.4 No.3

        Sixty-nine Rubus accessions were analyzed to determine the genetic relationships using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Twenty-three SSR markers generated a total of 351 alleles from all accessions, with an average of 15.3 alleles per locus. The average value of polymorphism information content was 0.76, ranging from 0.52 to 0.91. As a result of population structure analysis, 69 Rubus accessions of six Rubus species were subdivided into six subpopulations. Four subpopulations included distinct Rubus species accessions; pop2 (Rubus crataegifolius var. subcuneatus, 2 accessions), pop3 (R. crataegifolius Bunge., 18 accessions), pop4 (R. fruticosus L., 3 accessions) and pop6 (R. coreanus Miq., 36 accessions) while The pop1 and pop5 mainly included R. idaeus L. and R. parvifolius L., respectively. In cluster analysis, 69 Rubus accessions were divided into three groups. Group I contained 35 Rubus accessions, which consisted of six Rubus species. Groups II and III had 30 and 4 Rubus accessions, respectively. They consisted of only R. coreanus. The uncertain diversity of species and artificial groups of the Rubus genus has created confusion with respect to the correct classification of the species at both commercial and scientific levels. The results of the present study will provide basic information for phylogeny, taxonomy and breeding programs of Rubus species.

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