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        • KCI등재

          IL-12 and IL-23 Production in Toxoplasma gondii- or LPS- Treated Jurkat T Cells via PI3K and MAPK Signaling Pathways

          Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed Ismail,강병훈,김재수,이재형,최인욱,차광호,육재민,이영하 대한기생충학ㆍ열대의학회 2017 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.55 No.6

          IL-12 and IL-23 are closely related in structure, and have been shown to play crucial roles in regulation of immune responses. However, little is known about the regulation of these cytokines in T cells. Here, we investigated the roles of PI3K and MAPK pathways in IL-12 and IL-23 production in human Jurkat T cells in response to Toxoplasma gondii and LPS. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly increased in T cells after stimulation with T. gondii or LPS. T. gondii and LPS increased the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 in T cells from 10 min post-stimulation, and peaked at 30-60 min. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway reduced IL-12 and IL-23 production in T. gondii-infected cells, but increased in LPS-stimulated cells. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly reduced by ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK inhibitors in T. gondii- and LPS-stimulated cells, but not in cells treated with a JNK1/2 inhibitor. Collectively, IL-12 and IL-23 production was positively regulated by PI3K and JNK1/2 in T. gondii-infected Jurkat cells, but negatively regulated in LPS-stimulated cells. And ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK positively regulated IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells. These data indicate that T. gondii and LPS induced IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells through the regulation of the PI3K and MAPK pathways; however, the mechanism underlying the stimulation of IL-12 and IL-23 production by T. gondii in Jurkat T cells is different from that of LPS.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Intestinal Parasite Infections in Pigs and Beef Cattle in Rural Areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea

          Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed,Jeon, Hyung-Kyu,Yu, Yong-Man,Do, Chang-Hee,Lee, Young-Ha The Korea Society for Parasitology and Tropical Me 2010 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.48 No.4

          The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          IL-12 and IL-23 Production in Toxoplasma gondii- or LPS-Treated Jurkat T Cells via PI3K and MAPK Signaling Pathways

          Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed,Kang, Byung-Hun,Kim, Jae-Su,Lee, Jae-Hyung,Choi, In-Wook,Cha, Guang-Ho,Yuk, Jae-Min,Lee, Young-Ha The Korea Society for Parasitology and Tropical Me 2017 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.55 No.6

          IL-12 and IL-23 are closely related in structure, and have been shown to play crucial roles in regulation of immune responses. However, little is known about the regulation of these cytokines in T cells. Here, we investigated the roles of PI3K and MAPK pathways in IL-12 and IL-23 production in human Jurkat T cells in response to Toxoplasma gondii and LPS. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly increased in T cells after stimulation with T. gondii or LPS. T. gondii and LPS increased the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 in T cells from 10 min post-stimulation, and peaked at 30-60 min. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway reduced IL-12 and IL-23 production in T. gondii-infected cells, but increased in LPS-stimulated cells. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly reduced by ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK inhibitors in T. gondii- and LPS-stimulated cells, but not in cells treated with a JNK1/2 inhibitor. Collectively, IL-12 and IL-23 production was positively regulated by PI3K and JNK1/2 in T. gondii-infected Jurkat cells, but negatively regulated in LPS-stimulated cells. And ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK positively regulated IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells. These data indicate that T. gondii and LPS induced IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells through the regulation of the PI3K and MAPK pathways; however, the mechanism underlying the stimulation of IL-12 and IL-23 production by T. gondii in Jurkat T cells is different from that of LPS.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Gene Expression Profiles in Genetically Different Mice Infected with $Toxoplasma$ $gondii$: ALDH1A2, BEX2, EGR2, CCL3 and PLAU

          Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed,Quan, Juan-Hua,Wei, Zhou,Choi, In-Wook,Cha, Guang-Ho,Shin, Dae-Whan,Lee, Young-Ha,Song, Chang-June The Korea Society for Parasitology and Tropical Me 2012 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.50 No.1

          $Toxoplasma$ $gondii$ can modulate host cell gene expression; however, determining gene expression levels in intermediate hosts after $T.$ $gondii$ infection is not known much. We selected 5 genes ($ALDH1A2$, $BEX2$, $CCL3$, $EGR2$ and $PLAU$) and compared the mRNA expression levels in the spleen, liver, lung and small intestine of genetically different mice infected with $T.$ $gondii$. ALDH1A2 mRNA expressions of both mouse strains were markedly increased at day 1-4 postinfection (PI) and then decreased, and its expressions in the spleen and lung were significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than those of BALB/c mice. BEX2 and CCR3 mRNA expressions of both mouse strains were significantly increased from day 7 PI and peaked at day 15-30 PI ($P$<0.05), especially high in the spleen liver or small intestine of C57BL/6 mice. EGR2 and PLAU mRNA expressions of both mouse strains were significantly increased after infection, especially high in the spleen and liver. However, their expression patterns were varied depending on the tissue and mouse strain. Taken together, $T.$ $gondii$-susceptible C57BL/6 mice expressed higher levels of these 5 genes than did $T.$ $gondii$-resistant BALB/c mice, particularly in the spleen and liver. And ALDH1A2 and PLAU expressions were increased acutely, whereas BEX2, CCL3 and EGR2 expressions were increased lately. Thus, these demonstrate that host genetic factors exert a strong impact on the expression of these 5 genes and their expression patterns were varied depending on the gene or tissue.

        • KCI등재

          Intestinal Parasite Infections in Pigs and Beef Cattle in Rural Areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea

          Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed Ismail,전형규,유용만,도창희,이영하 대한기생충학ㆍ열대의학회 2010 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.48 No.4

          The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings.

        • Lack of Increased P15<sup>INK4B</sup> Protein Expression in Basal Cell Carcinomas

          Moad, Ahmed Ismail Hassan,Tan, Mei Lan,Kaur, Gurjeet,Mabruk, Mohamed Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2012 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.13 No.12

          Background: The basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSK). BCC might develop because of the faulty cell cycle arrest. $p15^{INK4b}$ is a tumor suppressor gene, involved in cell cycle arrest and inactivated in most human cancers. The role of $p15^{INK4b}$ protein expression in the genesis of BCC is as yet unknown. In a previous study we showed the absence of $p15^{INK4b}$ expression in the majority of tissue microarray cores of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCCs), another type of non-melanoma skin cancer, indicating that $p15^{INK4b}$ could possibly be involved in the pathogenesis of cutaneous SCC. The aim of this study was to investigate $p15^{INK4b}$ protein expression in BCCs. Materials and Method: Protein expression of $p15^{INK4b}$ in 35 cases of BCC tissue arrays and 19 cases of normal human skin tissue was studied using an immunohistochemical approach. Results: The expression of $p15^{INK4b}$ was not significantly different in the BCC cases as compared with normal human skin (p=0.356; p>0.05). In addition, there were no significant relationship between clinicopathologic variables of patients (age and sex) and $p15^{INK4b}$ protein expression. Conclusions: Our finding may indicate that $p15^{INK4b}$ protein expression does not play a role in the genesis of BCC.

        • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

          Population Dynamics of Intermediate-Host Snails in the White Nile River, Sudan: A Year-Round Observational Descriptive Study

          Ismail, Hassan A.H.A.,Ahmed, Abed el Aziz A. el R.M.,Lee, Young-Ha,Elhag, Mousab Siddig,Kim, Youngjin,Cha, Seungman,Jin, Yan The Korea Society for Parasitology and Tropical Me 2021 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.59 No.2

          We aimed to explore the population dynamics of snail in 3 sites of the White Nile in Sudan. More specifically, we aimed to investigate the annual patterns of snail populations that act as intermediate hosts of schistosomes and monthly snail infection rates and ecological characteristics presumably related to snail populations. We collected snails for 1 year monthly at 3 different shore sites in the vicinity of El Shajara along the White Nile river in Khartoum State, Sudan. In addition, we measured air and water temperatures, water turbidities, vegetation coverages, and water depths and current speeds. Most of the collected snails were Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus truncatus. The population densities of snails and their infection rates varied across survey sites. The collected snails liberated S. mansoni and S. haematobium cercariae as well as Amphistome and Echinostome cercariae. Infected snails were found during March-June. The ecological characteristics found to be associated with the absence of snails population were: high turbidity, deep water, low vegetation coverage (near absence of vegetation), high water temperature, and high current speed. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study of the snail population and ecological characteristics in the main basin of the White Nile river.

        • KCI등재

          Population Dynamics of Intermediate-Host Snails in the White Nile River, Sudan: A Year-Round Observational Descriptive Study

          Hassan A. H. A. Ismail,Abed el Aziz A. el R. M. Ahmed,Young-Ha Lee,Mousab Siddig Elhag,Youngjin Kim,Seungman Cha,Yan Jin 대한기생충학열대의학회 2021 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.59 No.2

          We aimed to explore the population dynamics of snail in 3 sites of the White Nile in Sudan. More specifically, we aimed to investigate the annual patterns of snail populations that act as intermediate hosts of schistosomes and monthly snail infection rates and ecological characteristics presumably related to snail populations. We collected snails for 1 year monthly at 3 different shore sites in the vicinity of El Shajara along the White Nile river in Khartoum State, Sudan. In addition, we measured air and water temperatures, water turbidities, vegetation coverages, and water depths and current speeds. Most of the collected snails were Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus truncatus. The population densities of snails and their infection rates varied across survey sites. The collected snails liberated S. mansoni and S. haematobium cercariae as well as Amphistome and Echinostome cercariae. Infected snails were found during March-June. The ecological characteristics found to be associated with the absence of snails population were: high turbidity, deep water, low vegetation coverage (near absence of vegetation), high water temperature, and high current speed. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study of the snail population and ecological characteristics in the main basin of the White Nile river.

        • The mTOR Signalling Pathway in Cancer and the Potential mTOR Inhibitory Activities of Natural Phytochemicals

          Tan, Heng Kean,Moad, Ahmed Ismail Hassan,Tan, Mei Lan Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2014 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.15 No.16

          The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase plays an important role in regulating cell growth and cell cycle progression in response to cellular signals. It is a key regulator of cell proliferation and many upstream activators and downstream effectors of mTOR are known to be deregulated in various types of cancers. Since the mTOR signalling pathway is commonly activated in human cancers, many researchers are actively developing inhibitors that target key components in the pathway and some of these drugs are already on the market. Numerous preclinical investigations have also suggested that some herbs and natural phytochemicals, such as curcumin, resveratrol, timosaponin III, gallic acid, diosgenin, pomegranate, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCC), genistein and 3,3'-diindolylmethane inhibit the mTOR pathway either directly or indirectly. Some of these natural compounds are also in the clinical trial stage. In this review, the potential anti-cancer and chemopreventive activities and the current status of clinical trials of these phytochemicals are discussed.

        • Induction of Protective Immune Responses by a Multiantigenic DNA Vaccine Encoding GRA7 and ROP1 of Toxoplasma gondii

          Quan, Juan-Hua,Chu, Jia-Qi,Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed,Zhou, Wei,Jo, Eun-Kyeong,Cha, Guang-Ho,Lee, Young-Ha American Society for Microbiology 2012 Clinical and vaccine immunology Vol.19 No.5

          <B>ABSTRACT</B><P>Toxoplasma gondiiis distributed worldwide and infects most species of warm-blooded animals, including humans. The heavy incidence and severe or lethal damage caused byT. gondiiinfection clearly indicates the need for the development of a vaccine. To evaluate the protective efficacy of a multiantigenic DNA vaccine expressing GRA7 and ROP1 ofT. gondiiwith or without a plasmid encoding murine interleukin-12 (pIL12), we constructed DNA vaccines using the eukaryotic plasmids pGRA7, pROP1, and pGRA7-ROP1. Mice immunized with pGRA7, pROP1, or pGRA7-ROP1 showed significantly increased serum IgG2a titers; production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α);<I>in vitro</I>T cell proliferation; and survival, as well as decreased cyst burdens in the brain, compared to mice immunized with either the empty plasmid, pIL12, or vector with pIL12 (vector+pIL12). Moreover, mice immunized with the multiantigenic DNA vaccine pGRA7-ROP1 had higher IgG2a titers, production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, survival time, and cyst reduction rate compared to those of mice vaccinated with either pGRA7 or pROP1 alone. Furthermore, mice immunized with either a pGRA7-ROP1+pIL12 or a single-gene vaccine combined with pIL12 showed greater Th1 immune response and protective efficacy than the single-gene-vaccinated groups. Our data suggest that the multiantigenic DNA antigen pGRA7-ROP1 was more effective in stimulating host protective immune responses than separately injected single antigens, and that IL-12 serves as a good DNA adjuvant.</P>

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