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      • KCI등재

        Gene Expression Profiles in Genetically Different Mice Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

        Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed Isma,Juan-Hua Quan,Zhou Wei,In-Wook Choi,Guang-Ho Cha,Dae-Whan Shin,Young-Ha Lee,Chang-June Song 대한기생충학열대의학회 2012 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.50 No.1

        Toxoplasma gondii can modulate host cell gene expression; however, determining gene expression levels in intermediate hosts after T. gondii infection is not known much. We selected 5 genes (ALDH1A2, BEX2, CCL3, EGR2 and PLAU) and compared the mRNA expression levels in the spleen, liver, lung and small intestine of genetically different mice infected with T. gondii. ALDH1A2 mRNA expressions of both mouse strains were markedly increased at day 1-4 postinfection (PI) and then decreased, and its expressions in the spleen and lung were significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than those of BALB/c mice. BEX2 and CCR3 mRNA expressions of both mouse strains were significantly increased from day 7 PI and peaked at day 15-30 PI (P<0.05), especially high in the spleen liver or small intestine of C57BL/6 mice. EGR2 and PLAU mRNA expressions of both mouse strains were significantly increased after infection, especially high in the spleen and liver. However, their expression patterns were varied depending on the tissue and mouse strain. Taken together, T. gondii-susceptible C57BL/6 mice expressed higher levels of these 5 genes than did T. gondii-resistant BALB/c mice, particularly in the spleen and liver. And ALDH1A2 and PLAU expressions were increased acutely, whereas BEX2, CCL3 and EGR2 expressions were increased lately. Thus, these demonstrate that host genetic factors exert a strong impact on the expression of these 5 genes and their expression patterns were varied depending on the gene or tissue.

      • KCI등재

        IL-12 and IL-23 Production in Toxoplasma gondii- or LPS- Treated Jurkat T Cells via PI3K and MAPK Signaling Pathways

        Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed Ismail,강병훈,김재수,이재형,최인욱,차광호,육재민,이영하 대한기생충학ㆍ열대의학회 2017 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.55 No.6

        IL-12 and IL-23 are closely related in structure, and have been shown to play crucial roles in regulation of immune responses. However, little is known about the regulation of these cytokines in T cells. Here, we investigated the roles of PI3K and MAPK pathways in IL-12 and IL-23 production in human Jurkat T cells in response to Toxoplasma gondii and LPS. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly increased in T cells after stimulation with T. gondii or LPS. T. gondii and LPS increased the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 in T cells from 10 min post-stimulation, and peaked at 30-60 min. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway reduced IL-12 and IL-23 production in T. gondii-infected cells, but increased in LPS-stimulated cells. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly reduced by ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK inhibitors in T. gondii- and LPS-stimulated cells, but not in cells treated with a JNK1/2 inhibitor. Collectively, IL-12 and IL-23 production was positively regulated by PI3K and JNK1/2 in T. gondii-infected Jurkat cells, but negatively regulated in LPS-stimulated cells. And ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK positively regulated IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells. These data indicate that T. gondii and LPS induced IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells through the regulation of the PI3K and MAPK pathways; however, the mechanism underlying the stimulation of IL-12 and IL-23 production by T. gondii in Jurkat T cells is different from that of LPS.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        IL-12 and IL-23 Production in Toxoplasma gondii- or LPS-Treated Jurkat T Cells via PI3K and MAPK Signaling Pathways

        Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed Isma,Byung-Hun Kang,Jae-Su Kim,Jae-Hyung Lee,In-Wook Choi,Guang-Ho Cha,Jae-Min Yuk,Young-Ha Lee 대한기생충학열대의학회 2017 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.55 No.6

        IL-12 and IL-23 are closely related in structure, and have been shown to play crucial roles in regulation of immune responses. However, little is known about the regulation of these cytokines in T cells. Here, we investigated the roles of PI3K and MAPK pathways in IL-12 and IL-23 production in human Jurkat T cells in response to Toxoplasma gondii and LPS. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly increased in T cells after stimulation with T. gondii or LPS. T. gondii and LPS increased the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 in T cells from 10 min post-stimulation, and peaked at 30-60 min. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway reduced IL-12 and IL-23 production in T. gondii-infected cells, but increased in LPS-stimulated cells. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly reduced by ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK inhibitors in T. gondii- and LPS-stimulated cells, but not in cells treated with a JNK1/2 inhibitor. Collectively, IL-12 and IL-23 production was positively regulated by PI3K and JNK1/2 in T. gondii-infected Jurkat cells, but negatively regulated in LPS-stimulated cells. And ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK positively regulated IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells. These data indicate that T. gondii and LPS induced IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells through the regulation of the PI3K and MAPK pathways; however, the mechanism underlying the stimulation of IL-12 and IL-23 production by T. gondii in Jurkat T cells is different from that of LPS.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재

        Intestinal Parasite Infections in Pigs and Beef Cattle in Rural Areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea

        Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed Ismail,전형규,유용만,도창희,이영하 대한기생충학ㆍ열대의학회 2010 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.48 No.4

        The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Intestinal Parasite Infections in Pigs and Beef Cattle in Rural Areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea

        Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed,Jeon, Hyung-Kyu,Yu, Yong-Man,Do, Chang-Hee,Lee, Young-Ha The Korean Society for Parasitology 2010 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.48 No.4

        The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Gene Expression Profiles in Genetically Different Mice Infected with $Toxoplasma$ $gondii$: ALDH1A2, BEX2, EGR2, CCL3 and PLAU

        Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed,Quan, Juan-Hua,Wei, Zhou,Choi, In-Wook,Cha, Guang-Ho,Shin, Dae-Whan,Lee, Young-Ha,Song, Chang-June The Korean Society for Parasitology 2012 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.50 No.1

        $Toxoplasma$ $gondii$ can modulate host cell gene expression; however, determining gene expression levels in intermediate hosts after $T.$ $gondii$ infection is not known much. We selected 5 genes ($ALDH1A2$, $BEX2$, $CCL3$, $EGR2$ and $PLAU$) and compared the mRNA expression levels in the spleen, liver, lung and small intestine of genetically different mice infected with $T.$ $gondii$. ALDH1A2 mRNA expressions of both mouse strains were markedly increased at day 1-4 postinfection (PI) and then decreased, and its expressions in the spleen and lung were significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice than those of BALB/c mice. BEX2 and CCR3 mRNA expressions of both mouse strains were significantly increased from day 7 PI and peaked at day 15-30 PI ($P$<0.05), especially high in the spleen liver or small intestine of C57BL/6 mice. EGR2 and PLAU mRNA expressions of both mouse strains were significantly increased after infection, especially high in the spleen and liver. However, their expression patterns were varied depending on the tissue and mouse strain. Taken together, $T.$ $gondii$-susceptible C57BL/6 mice expressed higher levels of these 5 genes than did $T.$ $gondii$-resistant BALB/c mice, particularly in the spleen and liver. And ALDH1A2 and PLAU expressions were increased acutely, whereas BEX2, CCL3 and EGR2 expressions were increased lately. Thus, these demonstrate that host genetic factors exert a strong impact on the expression of these 5 genes and their expression patterns were varied depending on the gene or tissue.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        IL-12 and IL-23 Production in Toxoplasma gondii- or LPS-Treated Jurkat T Cells via PI3K and MAPK Signaling Pathways

        Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed,Kang, Byung-Hun,Kim, Jae-Su,Lee, Jae-Hyung,Choi, In-Wook,Cha, Guang-Ho,Yuk, Jae-Min,Lee, Young-Ha The Korean Society for Parasitology 2017 The Korean Journal of Parasitology Vol.55 No.6

        IL-12 and IL-23 are closely related in structure, and have been shown to play crucial roles in regulation of immune responses. However, little is known about the regulation of these cytokines in T cells. Here, we investigated the roles of PI3K and MAPK pathways in IL-12 and IL-23 production in human Jurkat T cells in response to Toxoplasma gondii and LPS. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly increased in T cells after stimulation with T. gondii or LPS. T. gondii and LPS increased the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 in T cells from 10 min post-stimulation, and peaked at 30-60 min. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway reduced IL-12 and IL-23 production in T. gondii-infected cells, but increased in LPS-stimulated cells. IL-12 and IL-23 production was significantly reduced by ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK inhibitors in T. gondii- and LPS-stimulated cells, but not in cells treated with a JNK1/2 inhibitor. Collectively, IL-12 and IL-23 production was positively regulated by PI3K and JNK1/2 in T. gondii-infected Jurkat cells, but negatively regulated in LPS-stimulated cells. And ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK positively regulated IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells. These data indicate that T. gondii and LPS induced IL-12 and IL-23 production in Jurkat T cells through the regulation of the PI3K and MAPK pathways; however, the mechanism underlying the stimulation of IL-12 and IL-23 production by T. gondii in Jurkat T cells is different from that of LPS.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of Using Organic Acids to Substitute Antibiotic Growth Promoters on Performance and Intestinal Microflora of Broilers

        Hassan, H.M.A.,Mohamed, M.A.,Youssef, Amani W.,Hassan, Eman R. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2010 Animal Bioscience Vol.23 No.10

        A grower broiler experiment (from 14 to 35 days of age) was conducted to study the effect of using two commercial mixtures of organic acids (Galliacid$^{(R)}$ and Biacid$^{(R)}$) to substitute antibiotic growth promoter (Eneramycin$^{(R)}$) on performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microflora. 400 (Ross 308) broiler chicks were used. A basal corn-soybean meal diet were formulated and served as a control treatment. The control diet was supplemented with either 0.06% Galliacid, 0.1% Biacid or 0.02% Eneramycin. Birds fed the Galliacid-supplemented diet had 16% (p<0.001) more gain than the control, while those fed the Biacid- or Enramycinsupplemented diets recorded 3 and 5.5% more gain, respectively. Organic acids mixtures and Enramycin supplementation significantly (p<0.001) improved feed conversion ratio. These results indicated that birds fed either organic acid mixtures or Enramycinsupplemented diets utilized feed more efficiently than those fed the control diet. Galliacid significantly (p<0.01) increased dressing percentage and bursa weight (% body weight). No significant differences were detected on liver, spleen and thymus (% body weight) among treatments. Galliacid or Biacid significantly (p<0.001) decreased intestinal Escherichia coli and Salmonella compared to the control and Enramycin-supplemented diets. Dietary Enramycin significantly (p<0.001) decreased Escherichia coli, but had no effect on Salmonella counts. In conclusion, organic acid mixtures are more efficient than antibiotic growth promoter (Enramycin) in improving broiler performance and decreasing intestinal Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., and could be successfully used to substitute antibiotic growth promoters in broiler diets. However, not all of the organic acid mixtures gave the same effect either on performance or intestinal bacterial counts.

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