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      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Rhizobium etli USDA9032 Engineered To Produce a Phenazine Antibiotic Inhibits the Growth of Fungal Pathogens but Is Impaired in Symbiotic Performance

        Krishnan, Hari B.,Kang, Beom Ryong,Hari Krishnan, Ammulu,Kim, Kil Yong,Kim, Young Cheol American Society for Microbiology 2007 Applied and environmental microbiology Vol.73 No.1

        <B>ABSTRACT</B><P>Phenazine production was engineered in <I>Rhizobium etli</I> USDA9032 by the introduction of the <I>phz</I> locus of <I>Pseudomonas chlororaphis</I> O6. Phenazine-producing <I>R. etli</I> was able to inhibit the growth of <I>Botrytis cinerea</I> and <I>Fusarium oxysporum</I> in vitro. Black bean inoculated with phenazine-producing <I>R. etli</I> produced brownish Fix<SUP>−</SUP> nodules.</P>

      • KCI등재

        Biochemical and Ultrastructural Trends in Proteolysis of the $\beta$-subunit of 7S Protein in the Cotyledons During Germination of Soybean Seeds

        Krishnan, Hari B. The Korean Society of Crop Science 2002 Korean journal of crop science Vol.47 No.2

        Antibodies raised against the purified p-subunit of $\beta$-conglycinin were used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor the pattern of $\beta$-conglycinin mobilization in the cotyledons during soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed germination. Western blot analysis revealed that the break down of the $\beta$-subunit of $\beta$-conglycinin commenced as early as 2 days after seed imbibition (DAI). Concurrent with the degradation of the $\beta$-subunit of $\beta$-conglycinin, accumulation of 48, 28, and 26 kD proteolytic intermediates was observed from 2 to 6 DAI. Western blot analysis also revealed that the acidic subunit of glycinin was mobilized earlier than the basic subunit. The basic glycinin subunit was subjected to proteolysis within 2 DAI resulting in the appearance of an intermediate product approximately 2 kD smaller than the native basic glycinin subunit. In contrast to the major seed storage proteins, lipoxygenase was subjected to limited proteolysis and was detected even after 8 DAI. The first sign of $\beta$-conglycinin breakdown was observed near the vascular strands and proceeded from the vascular strands towards the epidermis. Protein A-gold localization studies using thin sections of soybean cotyledons and antibodies raised against the $\beta$-subunit of $\beta$-conglycinin revealed intense labeling over protein bodies. A pronounced decrease in the protein A-gold labeling intensity over protein bodies was observed at later stages of seed germination. The protein bodies, which were converted into a large central vacuole by 8 DAI, contained very little 7S protein as evidenced by sparse protein A-gold labeling in the vacuoles.

      • KCI등재

        Biochemical and Ultrastructural Trends in Proteolysis of the β-subunit of 7S Protein in the Cotyledons During Germination of Soybean Seeds

        Hari B. Krishnan 韓國作物學會 2002 Korean journal of crop science Vol.47 No.2

        Antibodies raised against the purified p-subunit of β -conglycinin were used in immunohistochemical studies to monitor the pattern of β -conglycinin mobilization in the cotyledons during soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed germination. Western blot analysis revealed that the break down of the β -subunit of β -conglycinin commenced as early as 2 days after seed imbibition (DAI). Concurrent with the degradation of the β -subunit of β -conglycinin, accumulation of 48, 28, and 26 kD proteolytic intermediates was observed from 2 to 6 DAI. Western blot analysis also revealed that the acidic subunit of glycinin was mobilized earlier than the basic subunit. The basic glycinin subunit was subjected to proteolysis within 2 DAI resulting in the appearance of an intermediate product approximately 2 kD smaller than the native basic glycinin subunit. In contrast to the major seed storage proteins, lipoxygenase was subjected to limited proteolysis and was detected even after 8 DAI. The first sign of β -conglycinin breakdown was observed near the vascular strands and proceeded from the vascular strands towards the epidermis. Protein A-gold localization studies using thin sections of soybean cotyledons and antibodies raised against the β -subunit of β -conglycinin revealed intense labeling over protein bodies. A pronounced decrease in the protein A-gold labeling intensity over protein bodies was observed at later stages of seed germination. The protein bodies, which were converted into a large central vacuole by 8 DAI, contained very little 7S protein as evidenced by sparse protein A-gold labeling in the vacuoles.

      • KCI등재

        Impact of Upper Limb Joint Fluid Variation on Inflammatory Diseases Diagnosis

        Hari Krishnan G,Ananda Natarajan R,Anima Nanda 대한전기학회 2014 Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology Vol.9 No.6

        Joint pain is generally a common disorder not only for the old aged people but also for the immunocompromised patients. The present proposed study reveals the presence of inflammatory diseases in joint generally diagnosed by removing synovial fluid and changes in the volume and composition are examined for the presence of WBC and crystals. This study implement a non-invasive approach to identify the changes in joint fluid by measuring the changes in electrical property of the synovial tissue under the influence of electrical current signal with frequency range between 100 kHz to 300 kHz. The response of tissue for the current signal was measured in terms of potential drop across the tissue. The hardware system design consists of input and output sections. The input section which applies current signal to upper limb joint region is made of ICL8038 function generator IC with amplifier and voltage to current converter. The output section picks voltage variation using metal surface electrode, amplifier, ADC, PIC microcontroller and LCD interface. 100 patient inclusive of normal and disease affected patients where examined for upper limb synovial fluid variation and inflammatory diseases were identified.

      • KCI등재

        An Ultrastructural Investigation of Infection Threads in Sesbania rostrata Stem Nodules Induced by Sinorhizobium sp. Strain MUS10

        Hari B. Krishnan 韓國作物學會 2004 Korean journal of crop science Vol.49 No.4

        Sinorhizobium sp. strain MUS10 forms nitrogen-fixing stem nodules on Sesbania rostrata, a tropical green manure crop. In this study, the ultrastructural events associated with the formation of stem nodules were investigated. Sinorhizobium sp. strain MUS10 entered the host tissue through cracks created by the emerging adventitious root primordia and multiplied within the intercellular spaces. During early phases of infection, host cells adjacent to invading bacteria revealed cellular damage that is typical of hypersensitive reactions, while the cells at the inner cortex exhibited meristematic activity. Infection threads were numerous in S-day-old nodules and often were associated with the host cell wall. In several cases, more than one infection thread was found in individual cells. The junction at which the host cell walls converged was often enlarged due to fusion of intracellular branches of infection threads resulting in large infection pockets. The infection threads were made up of a homogeneous, amorphous matrix that enclosed the bacteria. Several finger-like projections were seen radiating from these enlarged infection threads and were delineated from the host cytoplasm by the plasma membrane. As in Azorhizobium caulinodans induced root nodules, the release of Sinorhizobia from the infection threads into the plant cells appears to be mediated by 'infection droplets'. A 15-day-old Sesbania stem nodule revealed typical ultrastructure features of a determinate nodule, containing several bacterioids within symbiosomes.

      • KCI등재

        A Simple and Rapid Method to Isolate Low Molecular Weight Proteinase Inhibitors from Soybean

        Hari B. Krishnan 韓國作物學會 2004 Korean journal of crop science Vol.49 No.4

        Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the 60~% isopropanol extract of soybean(Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seed revealed two abundant proteins with molecular masses of 19 and 10 kDa. Amino acid analysis revealed that the isopropanol-extractable protein fraction was rich in cysteine. Two-dimensional gel electro-phoretic analysis indicated that the 19kDa and 10kDa proteins had pI of 4.2 and 4.0 respectively. Peptide mass fingerprints of trypsin digests of the two proteins obtained using matrix-assisted, laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy revealed the 19kDa protein was Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and the 10kDa protein was Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor. When resolved under non-denaturing conditions, the isopropanol-extracted proteins inhibited trypsin and chymotrypsin activity. Results presented in this study demonstrate that isopropanol extraction of soybean seed could be used as a simple and rapid method to obtain a protein fraction enriched in Kunitz trypsin and Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitors. Since proteinase inhibitors are rich in sulfur amino acids and are putative anticarcinogens, this rapid and inexpensive isolation procedure could facilitate efforts in nutrition and cancer research.

      • KCI등재

        An Ultrastructural Investigation of Infection Threads in Sesbania rostrata Stem Nodules Induced by Sinorhizobium sp. Strain MUS10

        Krishnan Hari B. The Korean Society of Crop Science 2004 Korean journal of crop science Vol.49 No.4

        Sinorhizobium sp. strain MUS10 forms nitrogen-fixing stem nodules on Sesbania rostrata, a tropical green manure crop. In this study, the ultrastructural events associated with the formation of stem nodules were investigated. Sinorhizobium sp. strain MUS10 entered the host tissue through cracks created by the emerging adventitious root primordia and multiplied within the intercellular spaces. During early phases of infection, host cells adjacent to invading bacteria revealed cellular damage that is typical of hypersensitive reactions, while the cells at the inner cortex exhibited meristematic activity. Infection threads were numerous in S-day-old nodules and often were associated with the host cell wall. In several cases, more than one infection thread was found in individual cells. The junction at which the host cell walls converged was often enlarged due to fusion of intracellular branches of infection threads resulting in large infection pockets. The infection threads were made up of a homogeneous, amorphous matrix that enclosed the bacteria. Several finger-like projections were seen radiating from these enlarged infection threads and were delineated from the host cytoplasm by the plasma membrane. As in Azorhizobium caulinodans induced root nodules, the release of Sinorhizobia from the infection threads into the plant cells appears to be mediated by 'infection droplets'. A 15-day­old Sesbania stem nodule revealed typical ultrastructure features of a determinate nodule, containing several bacterioids within symbiosomes.

      • TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE & GREENER TOMORROW: AN INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURIAL APPROACH FOR GENERATION OF GREEN ENERGY FROM BIOMASS WASTE

        Neeraj Sharma,Hari Krishnan G,Rajat Agrawal 글로벌지식마케팅경영학회 2018 Global Marketing Conference Vol.2018 No.07

        Energy is a major input for overall socio-economic development. With fossil fuels expected to get exhausted in another 40 years or so, renewable sources of energy have emerged as an alternative to fossil fuels. India with an area of almost 328 million hectares is the 7th largest country in the world producing 450-500 million tonnes of biomass per year as per EAI. As per a recent report almost 200 million tonnes of household and agro processing waste annually generated in India are disposed-off in a dispersed manner. Also, there are about 63 million ha waste land in the country, out of which about 40 million ha area can be developed for use. Additionally Urban, municipal and industrial wastes alone have a roughly 1700 MW potential of cheap and affordable power generation. The research work illustrates a specific case for North East India as to how this can be achieved through an innovative entrepreneurial approach for generation of green energy from biomass waste.

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