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The behavior variation of concrete dam is investigated, based on a new method for analyzing the data model of concrete dam in service process for the limitation of wavelet transform for solving concrete dam service process model. The study takes into account the time and position of behavior change during the process of concrete dam service. There is no dependence on the effect quantity for overcoming the shortcomings of the traditional identification method. The panel data model is firstly proposed for analyzing the behavior change of composite concrete dam. The change-point theory is used to identify whether the behavior of concrete dams changes during service. The phase space reconstruction technique is used to reconstruct the phase plane of the trend effect component. The time dimension method is used to solve the construction of multi-transformation model of composite panel data. An existing 76.3-m-high dam is used to investigate some key issues on the behavior change. Emphasis is placed on conversion time and location for three time periods consistent with the practical analysis report for evaluating the validity of the analysis method of the behavior variation of concrete dams presented in this paper.
( Jiong-jie Yu ),( Ju-dong Li ),( Xin-fei Xu ),( Zhen-li Li ),( Jun Han ),( Hao Xing ),( Han Wu ),( Jian-hong Zhong ),( Yi-sheng Huang ),( Ya- Hao Zhou ),( Ting-hao Chen ),( Hong Wang ),( Wei-min Gu ) 대한간학회 2018 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2018 No.1
Aims: There is a striking sex difference in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with a strong predominance for males. However, the impact of sex on the incidence of recurrence after curative resection of HCC remains controversial. Herein, we assess sex differences in the risks of recurrence and mortality for patients undergone curative resection of HCC. Methods: Data from 1,435 HCC patients undergone curative resection (1,228 males and 207 females) between 2004 and 2014 at five institutions in China were retrospectively analyzed. Patients’ baseline characteristics, operative variables, and rates of early recurrence (≤ 2 years after resection), late recurrence (> 2 years) and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) were evaluated and compared. Multivariable competing-risks regression analyses were performed to identify predictors associated with CSM, early and late recurrence. Results: The early recurrence rates between males and females were similar (43.3% vs. 42.0%, P=0.728), but the late recurrence and CSM rates in males were higher when compared to females (17.2% vs. 11.2%, P=0.044; 42.8% vs. 34.3%, P=0.022). Multivariable competing-risks regression analyses revealed no sex difference in early recurrence; however, males had significantly higher late recurrence rate [hazard ratio (HR), 1.752; 95% CI, 1.145-2.682; P=0.010] and CSM rate (HR, 1.307; 95% CI, 1.015-1.683; P=0.038) than females. Conclusions: Males had significantly higher late recurrence and CSM rates after curative resection of HCC than females. This suggests postoperative surveillance for HCC recurrence be varied by sex, especially for patients without recurrence at 2 years after resection.
The influence of environment changing, e.g. background beam change, trees waggle, and rain or snow day brings More difficult for moving target detecting. A background dynamic generation algorithm is presented in the paper, and the background dynamic generation algorithm is used to dynamically construct background image, the impact of the environment change is reduced in a certain extent for the moving target detection. Secondly, the background difference method is used to detect the moving target, when the moving target exists, the direction and the coordinate of the moving target is determined according to the result of continuous 2 frame images subtract the background. Finally, an algorithm for calculating the rotation angle of the pan/tilt/zoom is presented, the horizontal rotation angle and the vertical rotation angle of the pan/tilt/zoom is calculated according to the pan/tilt/zoom rotation angle algorithm, and the moving target detection and automatic tracking function is realized.
The optimization of layout and sizes of the stiffeners in heavy-duty box girder could make this kind of the structure more compact and reasonable, which has certain engineering values. In this study, on the basis of the establishment of parametric finite element model, the function approaching method and gradient search method are combined to form a high-precision optimization algorithm, which makes structural analysis be integrated into the optimization process. The optimization takes the type and location of longitudinal stiffening ribs and the thickness and hole position of transverse diaphragms as design variables, the box girder structural behaviors as constraint conditions, and the total volume as objective function. Finally, the weight is reduced by nearly 7%. More importantly, the new asymmetrical layout of the stiffeners is obtained, the distance between the longitudinal stiffening ribs on the main web and the neutral layer is longer than the distance between the longitudinal stiffening ribs on the secondary web and the neutral layer, and the hole position of transverse diaphragms is close to the secondary web. Compared with the current production of symmetrical layout structure, this layout provides a new idea for the design of stiffeners in the bias-rail box girder.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Isobutanol is a valuable chemical and is considered a new generation biofuel. Construction of isobutanol synthesis pathways in bacteria is a hot topic in isobutanol production. Here, we show that an isobutanol synthesis pathway exists naturally in <I>Klebsiella pneumoniae</I>; however, this pathway is dormant in the wild-type bacterium. <I>K. pneumoniae</I> is a 2,3-butanediol producer, and the synthesis pathways of 2,3-butanediol, valine and isobutanol all start from condensation of two pyruvate molecules to yield α-acetolactate. Inactivation of α-acetolactate decarboxylase (encoded by <I>budA</I>) resulted in α-acetolactate flowing into the valine pathway, which led to synthesis of isobutanol and 2-ketoisovalerate (a precursor of isobutanol). <I>ldhA</I> (lactate dehydrogenase) deletion further increased the isobutanol and 2-ketoisovalerate production. In the first step of this pathway, <I>BudB</I> (α-acetolactate synthase) was identified as responsible for most of the α-acetolactate synthesis. Complementation of <I>ilvBN</I> or <I>ilvIH</I> (isoenzymes of <I>budB</I>) both resulted in a remarkable increase in 2-ketoisovalerate production. Thus, α-acetolactate formation is the rate-limiting step of 2-ketoisovalerate production. <I>ilvC</I> (acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase) and <I>ilvD</I> (dihydroxy acid dehydratase) were identified responsible for 2-ketoisovalerate synthesis from α-acetolactate. <I>ipdC</I>, which encodes an indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase, was identified responsible for most of the isobutyraldehyde formation from 2-ketoisovalerate, and isobutanol production was increased 15.7 fold in the <I>ipdC</I> complementation strain, with a final titer of 2.45g/L. Isobutanol dehydrogenase activity is distributed across multiple alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes expressed by <I>K. pneumoniae</I>. BudC, DhaT, DhaD and YqhD all had isobutanol dehydrogenase activity <I>in vitro</I>. YqhD uses NADPH as the coenzyme, while the other dehydrogenases use NADH. However, inactivating one or two of these dehydrogenases had no effect on isobutanol production <I>in vivo</I> with isobutyraldehyde as the substrate. These results reveal a novel method for biological production of isobutanol and 2-ketoisovalerate.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> An isobutanol synthesis pathway exists naturally in <I>K. pneumoniae</I>. </LI> <LI> <I>budA</I> knockout resulted in the production of 2-ketoisovalerate and isobutanol. </LI> <LI> <I>budB</I> is responsible for most of the α-acetolactate formation. </LI> <LI> <I>ipdC</I> is responsible for the conversion of 2-ketoisovalerate to isobutyraldehyde. </LI> <LI> Isobutanol dehydrogenase activity is distributed across multiple alcohol dehydrogenase. </LI> </UL> </P>
In this paper, a plasma photonic crystal (PPC) for infrared radiation modulation which is composed of indium tin oxide (ITO) and plasma is proposed. The performance of plasma photonic crystal in near infrared radiation modulation is researched by transfer matrix method (TMM). The simulation results show that the near infrared radiation pass band can be adjusted by the changing of plasma frequency of plasma. The reflection to near infrared radiation by plasma photonic crystal increases with plasma frequency and that of absorption decreases. In addition, the modulation performance of the plasma photonic crystal at different incidence wave angles is also studied. The results show that the incident wave angles have little effect on the transmission of plasma photonic crystal in near infrared band. The reflection of the plasma photonic crystal to near infrared radiation decreases with increasing of the incident wave angle, but that of the absorption increases with the incident wave angle. Therefore, the proposed plasma photonic crystal has a potential application in tunable near infrared filter devices.
Due to habitat fragmentation, the loss of species diversity has been extensively studied. On the contrary, the effects of habitat fragmentation on functional diversity is still poorly understood. In the Thousand Island Lake, we conducted studies of insect functional diversity on a set of 29 isolated islands. We used 10 functional diversity indices from three aspects (functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence) to respectively describe functional diversity of insects on sample islands. We found the following results: (i) The functional indices selected could reflect the functional diversity of sample islands and it is further proved that in general, three components of functional diversity were independent of each other; (ii) Sample islands could be divided into two categories, island JSD and the remaining islands; (iii) Functional richness increased with island area and shape index, but had no significant correlation with isolation. Likewise, both functional evenness and functional divergence had no significant correlation with island attributes. The conclusion to emphasize from our research is that: (i) habitat fragmentation reduced the biological functional diversity to some extent, further demonstrating the importance of habitat continuity in biodiversity protection; and (ii) for functional diversity protection of insects in a fragmented landscape, an island which has high approximate shape index values of at least hundred hectare magnitude order has a critical promoting effect.
Population agglomeration in urban areas makes it easy to share valid urban facilities and services that make up a high Quality of Life (QoL). However, most cities in a developing stage face the problem of under-service; this means the supply of service facilities cannot catch up with the agglomeration of the population. Additionally, insufficient transport infrastructure also does not meet the swift growth of transport demand. Urban QoL inevitably decreases under the conditions of insufficient service facilities and transport infrastructure. This paper investigates an integrated methodology to evaluate QoL by measuring the aggregated values of urban services: education services, shopping services, and medical care services. All the values of urban services are evaluated in three stages: existing values, accessible values, and perceived values, in which existing values are examined by the scale of service facilities; accessible values are effected by travel costs and obtained by applying spatial analysis in GIS and using the road and subway network in the city; and perceived values are affected by people’s preferences to each service and obtained by a questionnaire that was conducted in Nanjing. As a result, this paper integrates both the objective and subjective approaches of QoL calculation and illustrates that QoL distribution in Nanjing is spatially unbalanced and unequal among different population groups; which is highlighted in that QoL distribution is visualized in 1000 m× 1000 m grids in Nanjing city. Moreover, this method can aggregate for any size of space and combination of people’s attributes, which allows it to provide overall information for urban planning and policy making.