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아동관련 국제협약은 국제사회 아동인권의 지침이 된다. 또한 국가인권위의 아동인권 결정례는 아동인권에 대한 사회적인 변화를 내포하고 있으며 이러한 법적, 정책적인 변화는 국민들의 인식변화로 이어지고 확산될 때 아동에 대한 실질적인 인권향상을 가져올 수 있다. 이러한 확산방안으로 통합적 사고를 적용해 보고 실제 정책에서의 원용을 통해 아동권리 향상에 이바지하는 것이 본 연구의 목적이다. 국제 사회와 한국의 국가인권위는 각종 협약과 결정례를 통해 아동인권에 대해 가이드를 주고 있다. 국제협약과 인권위의 결정은 동인권에 대한 인식변화를 내포한다. 또한 더 나아가 본 연구에서는 통합적 사고(Intergrated Thinking)는 직관적 사고나 분석적 사고의 한쪽이 아니라 이에 대해 통합적으로 접근하는 사고 방법이다. 또한 문제의 새로운 해결책을 탐색하기 위하여 확산적 사고와 수렴적 사고과정을 반복하여 창의적인 문제해결의 답을 찾는 디자인적 사고의 기초이다. 이러한 방식은 변화하는 아동인권에 대한 인식을 확산하는 하나의 방안이 될 수 있다. International Convention on Children is a guide to child human rights in the international community. In addition, the NHRC's decision on children's human rights implies social changes in children's human rights, and such legal and policy changes can lead to changes in people's perceptions and lead to real human rights improvements for children when they spread. The purpose of this study is to apply integrated thinking to this problem and contribute to the improvement of children's rights through the use of original policies. The international community and South Korea's National Human Rights Commission are giving guidelines on child human rights through various conventions and precedents. The decisions of the International Convention and the Human Rights Commission imply a change in the perception of children's human rights. Furthermore, integrated thinking is not one of intuitive or analytical thinking, but an integrated approach to it. It is also the basis to find creative solution of problem solving by repeating the diffusion and convergent thinking processes. This approach could be a way to spread awareness of changing child human rights.
Background: The benefits of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) have been demonstrated over the past decades; as a result, VATS has become the gold-standard treatment for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP). Due to improvements in surgical technique and equipment, single-port VATS (s-VATS) is emerging as an alternative approach to conventional three-port VATS (t-VATS). The aim of this study was to evaluate s-VATS as a treatment for PSP by comparing operative outcomes and recurrence rates for s-VATS versus t-VATS. Methods: Between March 2013 and December 2015, VATS for PSP was performed in 146 patients in Kyungpook National University Hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these patients. Results: The mean follow-up duration was 13.4±6.5 months in the s-VATS group and 28.7±3.9 months in the t-VATS group. Operative time (p<0.001), the number of staples used for the operation (p=0.001), duration of drainage (p=0.001), and duration of the postoperative stay (p<0.001) were significantly lower in the s-VATS group than in the t-VATS group. There was no difference in the overall recurrence- free survival rate between the s-VATS and t-VATS groups. Conclusion: No significant differences in operative outcomes and recurrence rates were found between s-VATS and t-VATS for PSP. Therefore, we cautiously suggest that s-VATS may be an appropriate alternative to t-VATS in the treatment of PSP.
We report a case of calcific tendinopathy of the gluteus medius initially misdiagnosed as a lumbar herniated intervertebral disc. It was successfully treated with barbotage under ultrasonographic guidance finally. A 56-year-old woman was referred to interventional pain clinic for right hip pain due to an L5-S1 disc herniation. Serial L5 and S1 spinal nerve root blocks and epidural steroid injections were administered. However, pain relief was sustained only for a very short period. Plain radiography of the right hip revealed a solid calcific nodule at adjacent to the insertion site of the gluteus medius tendon. Physical modalities and extracorporeal shock wave therapy failed to improve the pain. Therefore, we attempted ultrasound-guided barbotage of the calcification. Barbotage was performed twice serially and her pain was considerably improved. At 6-month follow-up, the calcification was completely resolved.
Numerous leaching procedures for coal ash have demonstrated that the quantity of the extracted major and trace elements can be extremely variable, depending on the nature of both the coal ash and the leaching solution. It is difficult to identify the suitable leaching method for coal ash according to the particular situation in the field area. Nevertheless, to reduce deviations between leaching test estimates in the laboratory and measurements in the field, the appropriate leaching test must be identified and the appropriate leaching procedures with the right conditions must be selected. Site-specific conditions must be given due attention in the selection of a leaching test for coal ash. In South Korea, there is one legal leaching procedure: KLP(Korea leaching procedures). To find suitable leaching procedures for using coal ash at mine reclamation sites in South Korea, several leaching procedures relative to coal ash were reviewed and evaluated. To evaluate KLP according to its release of coal ash elements by comparing it with that of other leaching methods, data on several leaching methods, such as KLP, TCLP(Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure), SPLP(Synthetic precipitation leaching procedure), and MWLP(Mine water leaching procedure) were collected and analyzed. It was observed from this research that the KLP might have underestimated the leaching potential of nearly each trace metal in the analysis. Also, KLP appeared to have in accurately predicted the long-term effect of coal ash in mine environments. Most Korean coal ashes have alkaline characteristics, and when their alkalinity has been exhausted, their leachate becomes acidic. There is no suitable leaching procedures for acid environments in Korea. Due to this fact, the pH of the MWLP buffer solution was lower than that of other procedures. MWLP effectively exhausts elements of coal ash and helps determine the long-term leaching behavior of waste placed in acid environments. Therefore, MWLP mab be a more appropriate leaching test for the environmental impact assessment of the use of coal ash at mine reclamation sites in Korea.
The pitch-loblolly pine hybrid (Pinus rigida 9 P. taeda) has useful characteristics of the parents,but its exploitation is hindered by restrictions of conventional breeding and propagation methods. This study was undertaken to establish an effective in vitro system for propagating pitch-loblolly hybrid pine through somatic embryogenesis and to unravel the relationship between the efficiency of embryogenic tissue initiation and zygotic embryo development. To initiate embryogenic tissue,megagametophytes of developing seeds were used as explants. Seeds were collected weekly, examined, and tested during June and July 2004. The medium and seed collection date were the most important factors for the successful somatic embryogenesis of P. rigida 9 P. taeda. Five embryogenic lines were obtained using a modified P. taeda basal medium, and the highest initiation rate was 0.55%, for seeds collected in 2 weeks, between July 3 and 16. Histological observation revealed that zygotic embryos of those seeds were mostly at the proembryonic stage or in transition to precotyledonary stages. For the successful maturation of somatic embryos, abscisic acid and gellan gum were needed in the medium. The results show that,although further tests and development are required,somatic embryogenesis could provide a viable option for propagating P. rigida 9 P. taeda hybrids.
In this article we extend the discrete Weibull regression model in the presence of missing data. Discrete Weibull regression models can be adapted to various type of dispersion data however, it is not widely used. Recently Yoo (Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society, 30, 11-22, 2019) adapted the discrete Weibull regression model using single imputation. We extend their studies by using multiple imputation also with several various settings and compare the results. The purpose of this study is to address the merit of using multiple imputation in the presence of missing data in discrete count data. We analyzed the seventh Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VII), from 2016 to assess the factors influencing the variable, 1 month hospital stay, and we compared the results using discrete Weibull regression model with those of Poisson, negative Binomial and zero-inflated Poisson regression models, which are widely used in count data analyses. The results showed that the discrete Weibull regression model using multiple imputation provided the best fit. We also performed simulation studies to show the accuracy of the discrete Weibull regression using multiple imputation given both under- and over-dispersed distribution, as well as varying missing rates and sample size. Sensitivity analysis showed the influence of mis-specification and the robustness of the discrete Weibull model. Using imputation with discrete Weibull regression to analyze discrete data will increase explanatory power and is widely applicable to various types of dispersion data with a unified model.