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Chronic ethanol consumption leads to memory impairment and also induces brain damage. The hippocampus has been particularly regarded as a possible target organ of alcoholic intoxication, since this structure plays a prominent function in memory processes. Cordyceps has been used as a traditional medicine in Asian countries for a long time. Different types of Cordyceps extract were reported to have various pharmacological activities including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and immune modulatory effects. Guem Chung Cho is an artificial cultivated Cordyceps, and was supplied from GCordy (Seoul, Korea). Ethanol extract of Cordycep (50 g) was made by rotary evaporate, and resulting powder 8.29 g was obtained (yield 17%). In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extract of Geum Chung Cho on short-term memory, cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of ethanol-treated gerbils. The gerbils were divided into 5 groups (n = 10 in each group): Control group, alcohol-treated group, alcohol-treated and 0.001 mg/kg Geum Chung Cho-applied group, alcohol-treated and 0.01 mg/kg Geum Chung Cho-applied group, and alcohol-treated and 0.1 mg/kg Geum Chung Cho-applied group. Gerbils in the alcohol-treated groups were orally administered ethanol (1 g/kg) once a day for 2 weeks. Gerbils in the Guem Chung Cho-applied groups were orally administered Guem Chung Cho extract at each dosage 1 hour before ethanol consumption. Our results revealed that consumption of alcohol for 2 weeks deteriorated short-term memory, induced apoptosis, and inhibited cell proliferation, and reduced expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB). However, Guem Chung Cho treatment alleviated alcohol-induced short-term memory impairment through enhancing cell proliferation and BDNF expression with inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus. Guem Chung Cho showed maximum effects at 0.1 mg/kg. Based on these results, alcohol extract of Guem Chung Cho may provide therapeutic value for the treatment of chronic alcohol-inducted brain injury. This study was supported by GCordy company.
본 병원에 내원한 절단된 이하선관 환자 총 20명(남자:10명 여자 10명)중 4명을 제외한 16명에서 추적조사가 가능하였으며 이 중 14명에서 이하선관의 원활한 관통이 이루어졌고 1명에서 관의 폐세기 생겨 2차 수술이 필료 했으며 다른 1명의 경우 농의 배출이 있었으나 항생제 투여와 구강위생등으로 별 다른 문제 없이 치료 되었고 또 1례의 이하선 타석을 치험하여 보고하는 바이다. Due to increasing trend of traffic accident, number of patient has been gradually increased. Facial injury, for its anatomical vulnerability, is most common site of injury and greatly exceeding injuries of other body region in trauma patient. There are occasional report of Stensen`s duct damage accompanying facial injury and much problem can arise when first aid is performed without knowledge of anatomy or concern for patient. Generally, Stensen`s duct located at mid 1/3 portion of line passing through tragus of ear and subnasale, another word, above the masseter muscle. Once deep lacerated wound has occurred in this region, one must suspect damage of Stensen`s duct. Among the 20 patients (Male: 10, Female:10) who have beeb treated at Chonnam National University Hospital for severed Srensen`s duct, 14 cases have obtained favorable result, not counting 4 patients with whom follow-up study was not possible. In unsuccessful cases of two, 1 case required secondary operation due to occurance of ductal stricture. In another case, leakage of pus has been observed but with proper oral care and antibiotic administration, it has been treated withiut any difficulty. Facial nerve injury accompanying Stensen`s duct been frequently observed, buccal branch being the most common site of involvement. Time interval from severance of duct to repairing the duct was 7 to 21 hours on average and time delay of this level has not impose much limit to obtain successful result. Suture material for Dowel, no matter what kind used, has achieved favorable result and time interval of 9 to 21 days given before the removal was long enough to obtain successful operative result without any development of complication. It is generally accepted view that salivary stone is most common disease entity among the salivery glands and ducts, and stone mostly occur in submandibular duct and rarely in Stensen`s duct. We have performed end-to-end anatomosis using a 23 guage polyethylene catheter as a Dowel in severed duct in 20 patients who have been admitted our hospital for cut repair and obtained satisfiable result. In 1 case, we have experienced stone on the Stensen`s duct, therby reporting this case with through reviews of literature.
[Purpose] Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heritable, chronic, neurobehavioral disorder that is characterized by hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. It is commonly believed that the symptoms of ADHD are closely associated with hypo-function of the dopamine system. Dopamine D2 receptor activation decreases the excitability of dopamine neurons, as well as the release of dopamine. Physical exercise is known to improve structural and functional impairments in neuropsychiatric disorders. We investigated the therapeutic effect of exercise on ADHD. [Methods] Open field task and elevated-plus maze task were used in the evaluation of hyperactivity and impulsivity, respectively. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were evaluated by western blotting. [Results] The present results indicated that ADHD rats showed hyperactivity and impulsivity. Dopamine D2 receptor expression in the substantia nigra and striatum were increased in ADHD rats. Exercise alleviated hyperactivity and impulsivity in ADHD rats. Furthermore, dopamine D2 receptor expression in ADHD rats was also decreased by exercise. [Conclusion] We thus showed that exercise effectively alleviates ADHD-induced symptoms through enhancing dopamine D2 expression in the brain.
Han, Kyung-Hoon,Park, Young-Sam,Cho, Doo-Hee,Han, Yoonjay,Lee, Jonghee,Yu, Byounggon,Cho, Nam Sung,Lee, Jeong-Ik,Kim, Jang-Joo American Chemical Society 2018 ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES Vol.10 No.22
<P>Recently, we have addressed that a formation mechanism of a nanolens array (NLA) fabricated by using a maskless vacuum deposition is explained as the increase in surface tension of organic molecules induced by their crystallization. Here, as another research using finite difference time domain simulations, not electric field intensities but transmitted energies of electromagnetic waves inside and outside top-emitting blue organic light-emitting diodes (TOLEDs), without and with NLAs, are obtained, to easily grasp the effect of NLA formation on the light extraction of TOLEDs. Interestingly, the calculations show that NLA acts as an efficient light extraction structure. With NLA, larger transmitted energies in the direction from emitting layer to air are observed, indicating that NLAs send more light to air otherwise trapped in the devices by reducing the losses by waveguide and absorption. This is more significant for higher refractive index of NLA. Simulation and measurement results are consistent. A successful increase in both light extraction efficiency and color stability of blue TOLEDs, rarely reported before, is accomplished by introducing the highly process-compatible NLA technology using the one-step dry process. Blue TOLEDs integrated with a <I>N</I>,<I>N</I>′-di(1-naphthyl)-<I>N</I>,<I>N</I>′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine NLA with a refractive index of 1.8 show a 1.55-times-higher light extraction efficiency, compared to those without it. In addition, viewing angle characteristics are enhanced and image blurring is reduced, indicating that the manufacturer-adaptable technology satisfies the requirements of highly efficient and color-stable top-emission displays.</P> [FIG OMISSION]</BR>
Autism is a complex developmental disorder with impairments in social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior and motor skills. Exer-cise enhances cognitive function, ameliorates motor dysfunction, and provides protective profits against neurodegeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of treadmill exercise on the motor coor-dination and Purkinje cell loss in relation with reactive astrocytes and microglial activation in the cerebellum using valproic acid (VPA)-in-duced autism rat model. On the 12th day of pregnancy, the pregnant rats in the VPA-exposed group received intraperitoneal injections of 600-mg/kg VPA. After birth, the rat pups were divided into four groups: the control group, the exercise group, the VPA-treated group, the VPA- treated and exercise group. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. In the present results, motor balance and coordination was dis-turbed by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise alleviated motor dysfunction in the autistic rats. Purkinje cell loss, reactive astro-cytes, and microglial activation were occurred by induction of autism, in contrast, treadmill exercise enhanced survival rate of Purkinje neu-rons through inhibition of reactive astrocytes and microglia in the autis-tic rats. The present study showed that exercise may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of motor dysfunction in autistic patients.
본 연구에서는 트레드밀 운동이 파킨슨병 쥐의 혹색질에서 염증반응에 미치는 영향을 실험하였다. 6주령의 수컷 쥐를 사용하였으며, 파킨슨병은 뇌정위 수술(stereotaxic surgery) 후 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)를 주입하여 유발하였다. 각각 가성수술군(sham-operation group; n=10). 가정수술 운동군(sham-operation and exercise group; n=10), 파킨슨병군(6-OHDA-injection group; n=10), 파킨슨병 운동군(6-DHDA-injection and exercise group; n= 10)으로 나누어 파킨슨병 유발 4주후부터 운동군은 하루 30분 총 14일간 트레드밀 달리기를 하였다. 흑색질의 염증반응은 cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) 및 inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNCG) 면역조직화학법으로 분석하였다. 흑색질의 COX-2 양성세포수는 가정수술군이 54.19±3.68. 운동군이 42.94±3.0l, 파킨슨병 유발군이 98.22±4.73. 파킨슨병 유발 운동군이 61.78±3.86을 나타내었으며, iNOS 양성세포수는 가성수술군이 57.93±3.38. 운동군이 51.64±5.l7. 파킨슨병 유발군이 126.56±7.04, 파킨슨병 유발 운동군이 92.69±8.28을 나타내었다. 본 실험을 통하여 6-OHDA 처치로 인해 염증반응이 증가하였으며, 트레드밀 운동이 COX-2 및 iNOS의 발현을 유의하게 감소시켜, 운동이 파킨슨병으로 인한 뇌신경세포의 염증반응을 완화시키는 긍정적인 효과를 보이는 것을 알 수 있었다. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on inflammatory reaction in the substantia nigra of the Parkinson`s rats. Parkinson`s disease was made by injection of 6-hydroxyckJpamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum using 6-week-old male rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operation group (n=10), sham-operation and exercise group (n=10), 6-OHDA-injection group (n=10), and 6-OHDA-injection and exercise group (n=10). The animals in the exercise groups were put on the treadmill to run for 30 minutes once a day for 14 consecutive days, starting 4 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. For the detection of inflammatory reaction in the substantia nigra immunohistochemistry for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNCG) was performed The number of CQX-2-positive cells in substantia nigra was 54.19±3.68 in the sham-operation group, 42.94±3.0l in the sham-operation and exercise group, 98.22±4.73 in the 6-OHDA-injection group, and 61.78±3.86 in the 6-OHDA-injection and exercise group. The number of iNOS-positive cells in sull3tantia nigra was 57.93±3.38 in the sham-operation group, 51.64±5.17 in the sham-operation and exercise group, 126.56±7.04 in the 6-OHDA-injection group, and 92.69±8.28 in the 6-OHDA-injection and exercise group. In the present results, 6-OHDA injection increased inflammatory reaction in the substantia nigra, and treadmill exercise alleviated the expression of COX-2 and iNOS in the sull3tantia nigra. These results suggest that treadmill exercise may ameliorate inflammatory reaction in the Parkinson`s disease patients.
Park, Young-Sam,Han, Kyung-Hoon,Kim, Jehan,Cho, Doo-Hee,Lee, Jonghee,Han, Yoonjay,Lim, Jong Tae,Cho, Nam Sung,Yu, Byounggon,Lee, Jeong-Ik,Kim, Jang-Joo The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017 Nanoscale Vol.9 No.1
<P>To date, all deposition equipment has been developed to produce planar films. Thus lens arrays with a lens diameter of <1 mm have been manufactured by combining deposition with other technologies, such as masks, surface treatment, molding etc. Furthermore, a nano-lens array (NLA) with a sufficiently small lens diameter (<1 mu m) is necessary to avoid image quality degradation in high resolution displays. In this study, an organic NLA made using a conventional deposition technique - without combining with other techniques - is reported. Very interestingly, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GI-SAXS) experiments indicate that the NLA is formed by the crystallization of organic molecules and the resulting increase in surface tension. The lens diameter can be tuned for use with any kind of light by controlling the process parameters. As an example of their potential applications, we use NLAs as a light extraction film for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The NLA is integrated by directly depositing it on the top electrode of a collection of OLEDs. This is a dry process, meaning that it is fully compatible with the current OLED production process. Devices with NLAs exhibited a light extraction efficiency 1.5 times higher than devices without, which corresponds well with simulation results. The simulations show that this high efficiency is due to the reduction of the guided modes by scattering at the NLA. The NLAs also reduce image blurring, indicating that they increase color stability.</P>
조백설 ( Baik Seol Cho ),강귀언 ( Gui Eon Kang ),이홍주 ( Hong Jue Lee ),천상훈 ( Sang Hoon Cheon ),조출현 ( Chool Hyun Cho ),김성희 ( Seong Hee Kim ),이정한 ( Jung Han Lee ),조삼현 ( Sam Hyun Cho ),김승룡 ( Seung Ryong Kim ) 대한산부인과학회 2009 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.52 No.10
목적: 복강경을 이용한 자궁근종 절제술 환자 185명을 대상으로 복강경적 자궁근종 절제술의 안전성 및 임상적 효용성을 평가하고자 하였다. 연구 방법: 2004년1월부터 2008년 12월까지 한양대학교 의과대학 구리병원 산부인과에서 자궁근종 절제술을 받은 환자 185명의 의무기록을 통해 연령, BMI (body mass index), 출산력, 자궁근종의 크기, 개수, 종류 및 수술 술기 (투관침의 개수, 근종체외배출 방법 등), 수술시간, 수술 후 헤모글로빈 감소치, 수혈량, 합병증, 입원기간 등을 조사하였다. 결과: 자궁근종의 종류는 근층내 (intramural) 근종이 115명 (62.2%)으로 가장 많았으며, 각 환자의 가장 큰 자궁근종의 평균 직경은 6.67±0.16 cm (range, 2.5~15 cm)이었고 자궁근종의 개수는 평균 2.07±0.15개 (range, 1~15개) 이었다. 과거 수술력, 골반 내 유착의 유무는 수술시간과 관련이 없는 요인이었고, 근종의 종류, 크기, 개수, 투관침 (trocar)의 개수, 근종 제거방법은 수술 시간과 관련이 있었다. 가장 큰 근종 직경이 8 cm 미만이거나, 개수가 4개 이하인 저위험군 (n=122)과 가장 큰 근종의 직경이 8 cm 이상이고, 개수가 5개 이상인 고위험군 (n=63)으로 나누어 두 군을 비교 분석한 결과, 고위험군에서 수술 시간(137.58±4.37 min vs. 193.73±9.88 min) 뿐만 아니라, 수술 후 헤모글로빈감소량 (2.89±0.10 g/dL vs. 4.03±0.23 g/dL) 및 수혈량 (2.89±0.10 pints vs. 4.03±0.23 pints)이 유의하게 증가하였으나 (각각 P-value=0.000), 입원기간은 차이가 없었다 (4.98±0.12일 vs. 5.44±0.24일, P-value=0.098). 결론: 본 연구를 통해 근종 절제술의 대상이 확대되고 있음을 알 수 있었다. 수술 시간에 영향을 주는 요인으로는, 근종의 크기와 무게, 근종의 개수, 근종의 종류, 투관침 (trocar)의 개수, 근종의 체외배출 방법 등이었고, 과거의 수술 유무, 골반 내 유착, BMI 등은 영향 요인이 아니었다. 또한 근종의 직경이 8 cm 이상이거나 근종의 개수가 5개 이상인 고위험군은 저위험군에 비하여 수술시간과 수술 후 헤모글로빈 감소량이 증가하였다. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and the clinical efficacy of the laparoscopic myomectomy through analyzing several operation factors. Methods: There were 185 cases of laparoscopic myomectomy between January 2004 and December 2008 at the department of obstetrics and gynecology in Hanyang University Guri Hospital. Retrospectively many factors of the operation were analyzed. The factors include the size, number and type of the myoma, BMI (body mass index), operation method, operation time, and complication and the prognosis of the operation. Results: For the type of myomas, 115 (62.2%) cases were intramural myomas, 38 (20.5%) cases were subserosal types and 32 (17.3%) cases were mixed types. The average diameter of the biggest myoma was 6.67±0.16 cm (range, 2.5~15 cm) and the average number of the myoma was 2.07±0.15 (range, 1~15). Previous operation history and pelvic adhesion did not show correlation with the operation time. The size, type and number of myoma and the operation methods showed correlation with the operation time. According to myoma size and number, we divided the cases into two groups, low risk group (122 cases) and high risk group (63 cases). The analysis showed that post-operation hemoglobin drop (2.89±0.10 g/dL vs. 4.03±0.23 g/dL) and blood transfusion amount (2.89±0.10 pints vs. 4.03±0.23 pints) as well as the operation time (137.58±4.37 min vs. 193.73±9.88 min) showed noticeable increase in the high risk group. Conclusion: This statistics show that laparoscopic myomectomy is now being applied to patients with larger and more myomas. Factors affecting operation time were the weight of myomas, number of myomas, type of myomas, number of trocars and methods of resected myomas removal. Also, operation time and post-operative hemoglobin drop increased in the high risk group.