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This paper examines a monopolistic supplier's optimal decision of input prices when two downstream sellers simultaneously choose their advertisement efforts and, then, output levels. In contrast to the previous literature, it demonstrates that allowing third-degree price discrimination leads the supplier to offer one seller (cost-efficient seller if they are asymmetric) a price discount and charge the other (inefficient seller) a higher fee to clarify the claim on the demand enhanced by informative advertisement and to avoid the under-advertisement problem. Therefore, it may increase aggregate output, consumer surplus, and social surplus- the reverse of the welfare implications in the previous literature.
This study was designed to investigate the effects of iron supplementation on the parameters of oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle tissue of hyperthyroidism induced rats. Hyperthyroidism was found to cause an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn SOD) activity, but decreases in the glutathione-peroxidase (GSH Px) activity and glutathione (GSH). Iron supplementation caused an increase in TBARS and a decrease in GSH. Iron supplementation in hyperthyroid rats attenuated the hyperthyroid state, but lowered the plasma ferritin level, which is considered an indicator of thyroid hormone action. Iron supplementation caused no additional increase in the TBARS in hyperthyroid rats, ameliorated the decrease in GSH content and abolished the induction of Cu, Zn SOD. Our findings suggested no increase, but a decrease, in the risk of oxidative stress in iron supplemented hyperthyroid rats. Whether supplementation of iron would have similar effects in humans should be further investigated in clinical studies.
Background: The treatment options for oral lichen planus (OLP) are numerous and include topical and systemic agents. Intralesional and systemic corticosteroids are used; however, the therapeutic results are often disappointing. Objective: To compare the influence of ozone, laser, and topical corticosteroid therapies in the treatment of OLP. Methods: One hundred twenty adult patients with ≤3 cm atrophic-erosive biopsy- proven OLPs in the tongue or buccal mucosa were recruited into the study. They were randomly assigned, by preoperative envelope drawing, to be treated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT group), ozone therapy (ozonated group), and topical corticosteroid therapy (positive control group). A placebo treatment containing base ointment without the active corticosteroid component was administered to patients in the negative control group. Response rate scores were determined on the basis of changes in the appearance score and pain score of the lesions between baseline and after each treatment. Results: The study subjects consisted of 56 male and 64 female OLP patients with a combined mean age of 42.6±8.3 years (range, 28∼55 years). No statistically significant difference was detected in clinical severity among the groups. The sign scores decreased in almost all scoring groups; however, statistically significant improvement was found in the ozonated and corticosteroid-treated groups. Symptom improvement was achieved after treatment with LLLT, ozone, and corticosteroid (p<0.05). The efficacy indices were significantly higher in the ozonated and corticosteroid- treated groups. Conclusion: Ozone and corticosteroid therapies were more effective than 808-nm LLLT in the treatment of OLP. (Ann Dermatol 27(5) 485∼491, 2015)
Purpose: Metabolic syndrome and obesity have been advocated to be risk factors for the development of overactive bladder (OAB). Additionally, insulin resistance is the underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association of insulin resistance with overactive bladder in female patients. Methods: We prospectively conducted the study in our urology department. Female patients aged between 30 and 76 years old applied to our policlinics with or without OAB symptoms were enrolled. One hundred and twenty-two patients with OAB and 62 age-matched controls without OAB were included into the study. Fasting serum insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), and triglycerides levels were measured. Insulin resistance value was obtained via the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculator. The chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare differences in variables. Results: Serum insulin level was found higher in female patients with OAB (11.5±6.2 μU/mL) relative to controls (6.4±2.1 μU/mL), statistically significant (P=0.036). In addition, HOMA-IR was significantly found higher in the OAB group, 2.86 (0.76 to 17.04) in comparison to controls, 1.32 (0.67 to 224), P=0.018. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-c) were significantly found lower in females with OAB. Conclusions: Insulin resistance can be associated to overactive bladder and may play significant role in pathogenesis.
The flow rate of the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) from a input shaft to the clutch plates have been simulated as a three-dimensional and transient-state using the free surface method of commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. During the disengagement of the wet clutch plates, amount of heat energy dissipated by the lubricating oil that flow the nominal gap between the plates which have relative rotating speed. To supply the oil equally into the nominal clearances among the friction plates, a lay out of the lubrication passage hole configuration is very important. Since the hole configurations can be changed by the hole number, shape and the position at the hub, the optimization of the oil hole configuration is necessary. It is difficult to estimate the flow rate of the lubricating oil exactly at each part of the automatic transmission because of its structural complexity under rotating conditions. This paper suggest the method that can estimate the optimal oil hole configurations which affect the temperature of the plates by using 1D ATF oil circuit simulation and the numerical thermal analysis program “clutchtherm” with the 3D CFD results. From this result, we can obtain various information about the lubricating state at every part of the plates and can help our judgment of whether lubrication is sufficient.
In this experimental study which is based on qualitative and quantitative data collection from an experimental and a control group, it has been found that when some educational terms in English Language Teacher Training programs are strengthened in meaning through some adaptations to better convey the message, their effectiveness is increased. Therefore, it is suggested that foreign or second language teachers in the Asia-Pacific region should not teach the target language only for linguistic and communicative purposes but also to introduce characteristics of different cultures and to contribute to educating people who enjoy similarities, respect differences and value human rights.
The flow rate and the behavior of the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) from a input shaft to the clutch plates have been simulated as a three-dimensional and transient-state using the free surface method of commercial CFD code STAR-CD. During disengagement of the wet clutch plates, amount of heat energy dissipated by the lubricating oil that flow the nominalgap between the plates which have relative rotating speed. To supply the oil equally into the nominal clearances among the friction plates, a lay out of the lubrication passage hole configuration is very important. Since a hole configuration can be changed by the hole number, shape and the position at the hub, the optimization of the oil hole configuration is necessary. It is difficult to estimate the flow rate of the lubricating oil exactly at each part of the automatic transmission because of its structural complexity under rotating conditions. This paper suggest the oil hole configurations which can distribute the ATF uniformly around the multi-plates with the optimization method. From this result, we can obtain various information about the lubricating state at every part of the plates and can help our judgment of whether lubrication is sufficient