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Park, J.K.,Lee, D.H.,Cho, C.H.,Yuk, S.S.,To, E.O.,Kwon, J.H.,Noh, J.Y.,Kim, B.Y.,Choi, S.W.,Shim, B.S.,Song, M.K.,Lee, J.B.,Park, S.Y.,Choi, I.S.,Song, C.S. Elsevier Scientific Pub. Co 2014 Veterinary microbiology Vol.169 No.3
Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 has been evolving rapidly and vaccine escape variants have been reported to cause circulation of infections and economic losses. In the present study, we developed and evaluated ectodomain of the AIV matrix 2 (M2e) protein as a supplementing antigen for oil-based inactivated H9N2 vaccine to increase resistance against vaccine escape variants. AIV H9N2 M2e antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli and supplemented to inactivated H9N2 oil emulsion vaccine. Specific pathogen-free chickens received a single injection of inactivated H9N2 oil emulsion vaccines with or without M2e supplementation. At three weeks post vaccination, hemagglutination inhibition tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine serological immune responses. Challenge study using a vaccine escape H9N2 variant was performed to evaluate the efficacy of M2e supplementation. M2e antigen supplemented in oil emulsion vaccine was highly immunogenic, and a single M2e-supplemented vaccination reduced challenge virus replication and shedding more effectively than non-supplemented vaccination.
Time-dependent effects of Klebsiella pneumoniae endotoxin on the pharmacokinetics of chlorzoxazone and its main metabolite, 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone, in rats: restoration of the parameters in 96 hour in KPLPS rats to control levels
<P>It has been reported that chlorzoxazone (CZX) was primarily metabolized via hepatic Cyp2e1 to form 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (OH-CZX) in rats, and the activity of aniline hydroxylase (a Cyp2e1 marker) in the liver was significantly decreased in rats at 24 h after pretreatment with lipopolysaccharide derived from Klebsiella pneumoniae (24 h KPLPS rats), whereas the levels were not changed at 2 h and 96 h in the KPLPS rats. Thus, the time-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters of CZX and OH-CZX were evaluated after the intravenous administration of CZX (20 mg/kg) to control rats, and the 2 h, 24 h and 96 h KPLPS rats along with the time-dependent changes in the protein expression of hepatic Cyp2e1. After the intravenous administration of CZX to 24 h KPLPS rats, the AUC<SUB>0–2 h</SUB> of OH-CZX and AUC<SUB>OH-CZX, 0–2 h</SUB>/AUC<SUB>CZX</SUB> were significantly smaller (by 40.5% and 71.2%, respectively) than those of controls due to the significant decrease (by 75.3%) in the protein expression of hepatic Cyp2e1. However, in 96 h KPLPS rats, the pharmacokinetic parameters of both CZX and OH-CZX were unchanged compared with controls due to the restoration of the protein expression of hepatic Cyp2e1 to control levels. These observations highlighted the existence of the time-dependent effects of KPLPS on the pharmacokinetics of CZX and OH-CZX in rats. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</P>
To develop a potent hypoxia-inducible promoter, we evaluated the usefulness of chimeric combinations of the (Egr-1)-binding site (EBS) from the Egr-1 gene, the metal-response element (MRE) from the metallothionein gene, and the hypoxia-response element (HRE) from the phosphoglycerate kinase 1 gene. In transient transfection assays, combining three copies of HRE (3 × HRE) with either EBS or MRE significantly increased hypoxia responsiveness. When a three-enhancer combination was tested, the EBS–MRE-3 × HRE (E–M–H) gave a hypoxia induction ratio of 69. The expression induced from E–M–H-pGL3 was 2.4-fold higher than that induced from H-pGL3 and even surpassed the expression from a human cytomegalovirus promoter-driven vector. The high inducibility of E–M–H was confirmed by validation studies in different cells and by expressing other cDNAs. Gel shift assays together with functional overexpression studies suggested that increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, metal transcription factor-1 and Egr-1 may be associated with the high inducibility of the E–M–H chimeric promoter. E–M–H was also induced by hypoxia mimetics such as Co<SUP>2+</SUP> and deferoxamine (DFX) and by hydrogen peroxide. Gene expression from the E–M–H was reversible as shown by the reduced expression of the transgene upon removal of inducers such as hypoxia and DFX. In vivo evaluation of the E–M–H in ischemic muscle revealed that erythropoietin secretion and luciferase and LacZ expression were significantly higher in the E–M–H group than in a control or H group. With its high induction capacity and versatile means of modulation, this novel chimeric promoter should find wide application in the treatment of ischemic diseases and cancer.Gene Therapy (2006) 13, 857–868. doi:10.1038/sj.gt.3302728; published online 9 February 2006
Interpretation of cryogenic-temperature Charpy fracture initiation and propagation energies by microstructural evolution occurring during dynamic compressive test of austenitic Fe-(0.4,1.0)C-18Mn steels
In the present study, Charpy impact energy (E<SUB>T</SUB>) composed of fracture initiation energy (E<SUB>I</SUB>) and propagation energy (E<SUB>P</SUB>) of austenitic Fe-(0.4,1.0)C-18Mn steels was evaluated in the temperature range from room to cryogenic temperatures by an instrumented Charpy impact tester, and was interpreted by microstructural evolution of dynamically compressed specimens. In the 1.0C-18Mn steel, the E<SUB>I</SUB> and E<SUB>P</SUB> decreased slightly with decreasing temperature, but the E<SUB>P</SUB>/E<SUB>T</SUB> ratio was kept to be about 0.5. In the 0.4C-18Mn steel, the E<SUB>I</SUB> remained almost constant or slightly decreased with decreasing temperature, while the E<SUB>P</SUB>/E<SUB>T</SUB> ratio steadily decreased, thereby leading to the lower (about 30%) cryogenic-temperature E<SUB>T</SUB> than that of the 1.0C-18Mn steel. Under the dynamic compressive loading, a considerable number of ε-martensites were formed in the 0.4C-18Mn steel, whereas they were not found in the 1.0C-18Mn steel, and their volume fractions increased steadily with decreasing temperature. This γ→ε-martensite transformation was attributed to the decrease in stacking fault energy, and resulted in the very low E<SUB>P</SUB> and resultant E<SUB>T</SUB>.
Kim, Y.I.,Park, S.J.,Kwon, H.I.,Kim, E.H.,Si, Y.J.,Jeong, J.H.,Lee, I.W.,Nguyen, H.D.,Kwon, J.J.,Choi, W.S.,Song, M.S.,Kim, C.J.,Choi, Y.K. Elsevier Science 2017 INFECTION GENETICS AND EVOLUTION Vol.53 No.-
<P>During the outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 viruses in 2016 in South Korea, novel H5N8 viruses were also isolated from migratory birds. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the HA gene of these H5N8 viruses belonged to clade 18.104.22.168, similarly to recent H5Nx viruses, and originated from A/Brk/Korea/Gochang1/14(H5N8), a minor lineage of H5N8 that appeared in 2014 and then disappeared. At least four reassortment events occurred with different subtypes (H5N8, H7N7, H3N8 and H10N7) and a chicken challenge study revealed that they were classified as HPAI viruses according to OIE criteria. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>
<P>To investigate cross-protective vaccine efficacy of highly-pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses against a recent HPAI H5N8 virus, we immunized C57BL/6 mice and ferrets with three alum-adjuvanted inactivated whole H5N1 vaccines developed through reverse-genetics (Rg): [Vietnam/1194/04xPR8 (clade 1), Korea/W149/06xPR8 (clade 2.2), and Korea/ES223N/03xPR8 (clade 2.5)]. Although relatively low cross-reactivities (10-40 HI titer) were observed against heterologous H5N8 virus, immunized animals were 100% protected from challenge with the 20 mLD(50) of H5N8 virus, with the exception of mice vaccinated with 3.5 mu g of Rg Vietnam/1194/04xPR8. Of note, the Rg Korea/ES223N/03xPR8 vaccine provided not only effective protection, but also markedly inhibited viral replication in the lungs and nasal swabs of vaccine recipients within five days of HPAI H5N8 virus challenge. Further, we demonstrated that antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of an antibody-coated target cell by cytotoxic effector cells also plays a role in the heterologous protection of H5N1 vaccines against H5N8 challenge. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</P>
<P>We analyzed the results from nationwide surveillance of avian influenza (AI) from birds in South Korea's major wild bird habitats and the demilitarized zone of South Korea, 2003-2008. Of 28,214 fecal samples analyzed, 225 yielded influenza viruses, for a prevalence of 0.8%. Hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes H1-H12 and all nine neuraminidase (NA) subtypes were detected. The dominant HA subtypes were H6, H1, and H4, and the most common NA subtypes were N2, N1, and N6. Among the 38 HA/NA subtype combinations, the most common were H4N6, H6N1, and H5N2. Thirty-seven low-pathogenic AI (LPAI) viruses of the H5 and H7 subtype were detected. Among them, we identified bird species for 16 H5- and H7-positive fecal samples using a DNA bar-coding system instituted in 2007; all birds were identified as Anseriformes. The HA gene of the H5 wild bird isolates belonged to the Eurasian avian lineage, and could be clearly distinguished from the sublineage H5N1 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) of the Eurasian and American avian lineages. Whereas H7 LPAI viruses did not group as a separate sublineage with H7 HPAI viruses, H7 isolates were closely related with the Eurasian avian lineage.</P>
The Yaba-like disease viruses (YLDV) are members of the Yatapoxvirus family and have double-stranded DNA genomes. The E3L protein, which is essential for pathogenesis in the vaccinia virus, consists of two domains: an N-terminal Z-DNA binding domain and a C-terminal RNA binding domain. The crystal structure of the E3L orthologue of YLDV (yabZα<SUB>E3L</SUB>) bound to Z-DNA revealed that the overall structure of yabZα<SUB>E3L</SUB> and its interaction with Z-DNA are very similar to those of hZα<SUB>ADAR1</SUB>. Here we have performed NMR hydrogen exchange experiments on the complexes between yabZα<SUB>E3L</SUB> and d(CGCGCG)<SUB>2</SUB> with a variety of protein-to-DNA molar ratios. This study revealed that yabZα<SUB>E3L</SUB> could efficiently change the B-form helix of the d(CGCGCG)<SUB>2</SUB> to left-handed Z-DNA via the active-mono B-Z transition pathway like hZα<SUB>ADAR1</SUB>1.
The replication and persistence of extra chromosomal Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) episome in latently infected cells are primarily dependent on the binding of EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) to the cognate EBV oriP element. In continuation of the previous study, herein we characterized EBNA1 small molecule inhibitors (H20, H31) and their underlying inhibitory mechanisms. In silico docking analyses predicted that H20 fits into a pocket in the EBNA1 DNA binding domain (DBD). However, H20 did not significantly affect EBNA1 binding to its cognate sequence. A limited structure-relationship study of H20 identified a hydrophobic compound H31, as an EBNA1 inhibitor. An in vitro EBNA1 EMSA and in vivo EGFP-EBNA1 confocal microscopy analysis showed that H31 inhibited EBNA1-dependent oriP sequence-specific DNA binding activity, but not sequence-nonspecific chromosomal association. Consistent with this, H31 repressed the EBNA1-dependent transcription, replication, and persistence of an EBV oriP plasmid. Furthermore, H31 induced progressive loss of EBV episome. In addition, H31 selectively retarded the growth of EBV-infected LCL or Burkitt's lymphoma cells. These data indicate that H31 inhibition of EBNA1-dependent DNA binding decreases transcription from and persistence of EBV episome in EBV-infected cells. These new compounds might be useful probes for dissecting EBNA1 functions in vitro and in vivo.
<P>Oxidative stress is a well-known pathogenic mechanism of a diverse array of neurological diseases, and thus, numerous studies have attempted to identify antioxidants that prevent neuronal cell death. GV1001 is a 16-amino-acid peptide derived from human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Considering that hTERT has a strong antioxidant effect, whether GV1001 also has an antioxidant effect is a question of interest. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of GV1001 against oxidative stress in neural stem cells (NSCs). Primary culture NSCs were treated with different concentrations of GV1001 and/or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for various time durations. The H2O2 decreased the viability of the NSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, with 200 mu M H2O2 significantly decreasing both proliferation and migration. However, treatment with GV1001 rescued the viability, proliferation and migration of H2O2 injured NSCs. Consistently, free radical levels were increased in rat NSCs treated with H2O2, while co-treatment with GV1001 significantly reduced these levels, especially the intracellular levels. In addition, GV1001 restored the expression of survival-related proteins and reduced the expression of death associated ones in NSCs treated with H2O2. In conclusion, GV1001 has antioxidant and neuroprotective effects in NSCs following treatment with H2O2, which appear to be mediated by scavenging free radicals, increasing survival signals and decreasing death signals. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</P>