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      • An ESR Study of Amino Acid and Protein Free Radicals in Solution - PART II. Identification of Amino Acid Free Radicals Produced by Ti-$H_2O_2$ Flow System

        홍순주,Hong,,Sun-Joo,Piette,,L.H. 생화학분자생물학회 1971 한국생화학회지 Vol.4 No.1

        Ti-$H_2O_2$ flow-mixing system에서 만들어진 아미노산 자유기를 ESR법으로 동정하고 이 결과와 방사선에 의해 생성된 경우와를 비교 검투했다. 이 system으로 만들어진 각 아미노산의 자유기는 반드시 한 가지 만은 아님이 밝혀졌는데 이 실험에서 얻은 각 ESR 스펙트럼은 glycine에서는 주로 $\dot{C}H({NH_3}^+)COO^-$, DL-$\alpha$-alanine에서는 주로 $\dot{C}H_2CH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$, $\beta$-alanine에서는 주로 $CH_2({NH_3}^+)\dot{C}H{COO_3}^-$, DL-valine에서는 $(CH_3)_2\dot{C}CH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$와 거의 동율로 $\dot{C}H_2CH(CH_3)\dot{C}H({NH_}^+)COO^-$, DL-serine에서는 $\dot{C}H(OH)CH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$, L-cysteine, cystine 및 gIutathione에서는 주로 $RCH_2\dot{S}$, DL-threonine에서는 주로 $CH_3\dot{C}(OH)CH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$, DL-leucine에서는 주로 $\dot{C}H_2CH(CH_3)CH_2CH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$, DL-methionine에서는 주로 $CH_2SCH_2\dot{C}HCH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$, 그리고 L(+)arginine에서는 주로 $HN=C(NH_2)NHCH_2\dot{C}HCH_2CH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$의 생성을 나타내고 있음을 확인했다. 결국, 방사선에 의한 아미노산 자유거의 생성은 알파위치에서 수소원자를 떼어냄으로서 생성되는데 반해 이 system에서는 일차적으로 생성된 친(親)전자성인 수산기가 아미노산 분자의 guanidium 기, carboxyl 기 또는 proton이 더해진 amino 기에서 가급적 먼 위치에서 수소원자를 떼어 냄으로써 생성됨을 알았다. 본실험에서 수산기수소에 의한 splitting이 선명하게 들어난 것은 특기할 일이며 이 실험에서 다룬 아미노산 중에서 L-cysteine과 DL-methionine을 제외한 모든 아미노산의 경우에는 그의 자유기 생성이 염산에 의해 저해를 받은 반면, 황산은 염산의 경우와 정반대의 영향을 끼친다는 사실을 알았다. Free radicals generated by exposing amino acids to Ti-$H_2O_2$ flow mixing system were identified by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Hydrogen atom abstraction by the reactive primary radical, having electrophilic character, was found to occur at the carbon atom furthest from the guanidium, carboxyl and protonated amino group, and sulfur atom. The main radical species from DL-leucine, DL-methionine. and L(+)arginine were assigned to be $\dot{C}H_2CH(CH_3)CH_2CH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$, $\dot{C}H_3SCH_2\dot{C}HCH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$ and $NH=C(NH_2)NHCH_2\dot{C}HCH_2CH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$ respectively. The splitting for the hydroxyl hydrogen was also clearly observed in the system for DL-serine free radical, $\dot{C}H(OH)CH({NH_3}^+)COO^-$. Generally, HCl appeared to interfere with the free radical production for most of the amino acids investigatd except L-cysteine and DL-methionine in contrast with $H_2SO_4$ which enhances most signals but not with the latter.

      • KCI등재

        A comparative study on the performance of different advanced oxidation processes (UV/O3/H2O2) treating linear alkyl benzene (LAB) production plant's wastewater

        H.,Zangeneh,A.A.L.,Zinatizadeh,M.,Feizy 한국공업화학회 2014 Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Vol.20 No.4

        A detailed investigation on photooxidation of linear alkyl benzene (LAB) industrial wastewater is presented in this study. The process analysis was performed by varying four significant independent variables including two numerical factors (initial pH (3–11) and initial H2O2 concentration (0–20 mM)) and two categorical factors (UV irradiation and ozonation). The experiments were conducted based on a central composite design (CCD) and analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM). To assess the process performance, two parameters viz. TCOD removal efficiency and BOD5/COD were measured throughout the experiments. A maximum reduction in TCOD was 58, 53, 51, and 49%, respectively for UV/H2O2/O3, H2O2/O3, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2 processes at the optimum conditions (initial pH of 7, initial H2O2 concentration of 100 mM, and reaction time of 180 min). A considerable increase in BOD5/COD ratio was obtained in the combined processes (0.46, 0.51, 0.53, and 0.55 for UV/H2O2, UV/O3, H2O2/O3 and UV/H2O2/O3, respectively) compared to the single oxidant process (0.35). The results showed that mineralization of the LAB industrial wastewater in neutral pH is more favored than in acidic and basic pH. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was applied to show the fate of organic compounds. In conclusion, the photooxidation process (UV/H2O2/O3, H2O2/O3, UV/O3 and UV/H2O2) could be an appropriate pretreatment method prior to a biological treatment process.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

        H.C.,Liu,J.F.,Huang,S.R.,Lee,H.L.,Liu,C.H.,Hsieh,C.W.,Huang,M.C.,Huang,C.,Tai,J.P.,Poivey,R.,Rouvier,Y.S.,Cheng 아세아·태평양축산학회 2015 Animal Bioscience Vol.28 No.5

        A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h2 = 0.07±0.03) and M (h2 = 0.07±0.01), moderately low for Dm (h2 = 0.13±0.02), of medium values for H (h2 = 0.20±0.03) and F (h2 = 0.23±0.03). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93), between F and H (rg = 0.97) and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The average predicted genetic response for F was 40% of genetic standard deviation per generation of selection. The mule ducklings' feather colour also was improved. It was concluded that this study provided results for a better understanding of the genetics of the duration of fertility traits in the common female duck bred for mule and that the selection of a synthetic strain was effective method of improvement.

      • KCI등재

        돼지 H-FABP 유전자의 다형성 및 경제 형질과의 연관성 구명

        최봉환,김태헌,이지웅,조용민,이혜영,조병욱,정일정 한국동물자원과학회 2003 한국축산학회지 Vol.45 No.5

        The purpose of this study was to detect association between genetic variation and economic trait in the porcine heart type fatty acid-binding protein gene as a candidate gene for the traits related with growth and meat quality in pigs. The H-FABP is a 15-kDa protein expressed in several tissues with high demand for fat metabolism such as cardiac and skeletal muscle and lactating mammary gland. H-FABP is small intracellular protein involved in fatty acid transport from the plasma membrane to the site of β-oxidation and/or triacylglycerol or phospholipid synthesis. In this study, H-FABP PCR-RFLP was performed in F_(2) population composed of 214 individuals form an intercross between Korean Native Boars and Landrace sows. PCR products form tow primer sets within H-FABP gene were amplified in 850bp and 700bp. Digestion of PCR products with the restriction digestion enzymes HaeⅢ and Hinf Ⅰ, revealed fragment length polymorphisms(RFL. Ps). The genotype frequencies from H-FABP/HaeⅢ was .29 for genotype DD, .53 for genotype Dd, and .15 for genotype dd, respectively. The genotype frequencies of HH, Hh, and hh from H-FABP(hinf Ⅰ was .38, .41, and .20, respectively, in the population.Relationships between their genotypes and economic traits were estimated. In H-FABP/HaeⅢ locus, there were specific genotypes(Dd and dd) associated with economic traits such as body weight. In H-FABP/Hinf Ⅰ Iocus, Genotypes of HH and Hh associated with growth traits such as body weights at 5, 12, and 30 week of age (p<.05 or p<.001) and back fat thickness, body fat including abdominal and trimmed fat (p<.001) and intramuscular fat(p<.05). The 'H'allele was positivecly associated with gaining of body weight and fatness deposition. In conclusion, a significant association of the H-FABP gene from its genetic variation was found on body weight, intramuscular fat and backfat thickness.

      • KCI등재

        전기방전하에서 D2/H2O 반응계의 수소 동위원소 교환반응

        김현정,박영동,이웅무 한국수소에너지학회 1998 한국수소 및 신에너지학회논문집 Vol.9 No.2

        H₂O/D₂, D₂O/H₂O, D₂O/H₂ 등의 반응계의 수소동위원소 교환반응은 전기방전을 이용하여 용이하게 일으킬 수 있다. 예를 들어, DC 코로나 방전을 위의 반응혼합물을 통하여 일으키면 여기된 상태의 반응물이 존재하는 플라즈마를 형성하게 된다. 이러한 플라즈마 내에서 반응물들은 양자에너지 준위의 여기, 이온화 그리고 라디칼 형성등을 통하여 매우 큰 반응성을 갖게되므로 실온에서도 용이하게 수소동위원소 교환반응을 일으킨다. 본 연구에서는 H₂/D₂O계의 기상에서의 교환반응에 대한 연구를 실시하였다. 위 반응계는 전기방전하에서 수소(H)와 중수소(D)간의 교환반응에 의하여 HDO와 HD를 생성하게 된다. 이러한 반응생성물을 FTIR 분광법을 이용하여 시간의 함수로 측정을 하였다. 그리고 위 반응계의 수소동위원소 교환반응에 대한 온도의 효과 및 플라즈마 방법과 촉매법과의 비교를 통하여 그 효율성을 비교하였다. Hydrogen isotope exchange in mixtures of H₂O/D₂, H₂O/D₂O, or D₂O/H₂ can be facilitated under electrical discharge. For example, a simple DC corona discharge through the mixture creates a plasma in which the reactants are excited energetically. The reactants in such plasma, due to increase in population of excited quantum levels or due to production of radicals or ions, undergo very rapid chemical reactions even at ambient temperature. The isotope exchange reaction of hydrogen(H) and deuterium(D) produces the third kind of heavy water(HDO) and isotopic hydrogen gas(HD), as shown in D₂ + H₂O → HDO + HD K=11.257(at 25℃) The reaction products can be detected with temporal resolution using the Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. Since H₂O, D₂O and HDO are all infrared active with different absorption peaks, FTIR proves to be a useful tool for monitoring the reaction. Experimental results show that the electrical method is indeed a useful means to promote the reaction, showing a better efficiency than traditional catalytic methods.

      • KCI등재SCIESCOPUS

        Effect of Long-Term Thermal Exposures on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified CM247LC Alloy

        H.,W.,Jeong,S.,M.,Seo,B.,G.,Choi,Y.,S.,Choi.,Y.,K.,Ahn,이재현 대한금속·재료학회 2013 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.19 No.5

        A directionally solidified CM247LC alloy was exposed at 871 °C and 982 °C for 1000 h, 5000 h, and 10000h under free stress in order to study the effect of microstructural degradation on the creep properties. None of the specimens exposed at temperatures up to 10000 h produced any kind of topologically close-packed phases because of the excellent phase stability of CM247LC alloy. The plate-like M6C carbide was formed only at exposure of 982 °C for 10000 h through a decomposition reaction between γ and MC. Moreover, an M23C6 carbide layer was observed between the M6C and the matrix. The exposure at 982°C for 5000 h and 10000 h had a spontaneous rafting of γ′ under free stress, while the exposure at 871 °C for 1000 h, 5000 h,and 10000 h had a non-rafted structure. The spontaneous rafted structure resulted in a drastic decrease in creep life. A 3-dimensional morphology of γ′ in the as-crept specimens, which were pre-exposed at 982 °C for 5000 h and 10000 h, had a non-rafted structure. This microstructural feature proves that the significant decrease in creep life of the specimen resulted from a loss of coherency between γ and γ′.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effects of Taurine on Sperm Characteristics during In vitro Storage of Boar Semen

        H.Y.,Jang,H.S.,Kong,박춘근,J.D.,Oh,S.G.,Lee,정희태,김종택,이성진,양부근,이학교 아세아·태평양축산학회 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.11

        The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effects of taurine on sperm characteristics for in vitro storage of boar semen. Semen was randomly divided into 10 groups in conical tubes and treated with different concentrations of taurine (25-100 mM) with or without 250 ???H2O2. The percentage of motile spermatozoa in taurine groups after 6 and 9 h were significantly higher at >94% and 87%, respectively, compared to the control group (85.1??.5 and 72.4??.3, p<0.05). The sperm motility in taurine with H2O2 after 6 h incubation was slightly decreased compared to the taurine alone treatment, but after 9 and 12 h incubation % sperm motility dropped sharply in taurine with H2O2 (75.3??.3 and 69.6??.9, p<0.05). For 3, 9 and 12 h incubation, sperm viability in the control was lower than in taurine groups, irrespective of taurine concentration. In eosin Y and nigrosin staining (ENS), the sperm survival rates (%) for 6 h incubation were significantly higher in 25 mM (76.0??.6) and 50 mM taurine groups (78.0??.7), respectively. Sperm survival rates for 9 and 12 h incubation were higher in taurine groups (??8% in 9 h and ??2% in 12 h) compared to controls (43.0??.1 and 31.0??.6, respectively). In the hyoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm membrane integrity was similar to the results of sperm survival. These experiments indicate that supplementation of taurine to the semen extender can increase the sperm characteristics (motility, viability, survival and membrane integrity).

      • KCI등재SCIESCOPUS

        1H NMR Measurements of the Phase Transition of (NH₄)₃H(SO₄)₂ Single Crystals

        S.,H.,Choi,Moohee,Lee,Ae,Ran,Lim,K.,S.,Han,S.,K.,Kwon,S.,K.,Nam 한국물리학회 2008 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.52 No.2

        $^1$H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments have been performed in the temperature range of 30 -- 300 K at 7 T to investigate the phase-dependent nature of the dynamic network of hydrogen bonds in a ((NH₄)₃H(SO₄)₂ single crystal. The crystal has six phases, which are ferroelectric, antiferroelectric, incommensurate, antiferroelectric, ferroelastic, and superionic with the respective transition temperatures of 63, 133, 139, 256 and 413 K. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T₁, of ¹H NMR is similar for the ammonium protons and the hydrogen-bond protons over the entire range of experimental temperatures. The T₁, of ¹H NMR gradually decreases down to 120 K and starts to steeply increase below 100 K. Then, the T₁ shows an abrupt decrease below 68 K with a sharp minimum at 63 K, where the ferroelectric transition occurs. The ¹H NMR spectrum shifts to the high-frequency side at temperatures below 63 K due to the ferroelectric phase transition. This behavior of the T₁ and the spectrum confirms a dramatic change in the dynamics of hydrogen bonds associated with the ferroelectric phase transition at 63 K. $^1$H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments have been performed in the temperature range of 30 -- 300 K at 7 T to investigate the phase-dependent nature of the dynamic network of hydrogen bonds in a ((NH₄)₃H(SO₄)₂ single crystal. The crystal has six phases, which are ferroelectric, antiferroelectric, incommensurate, antiferroelectric, ferroelastic, and superionic with the respective transition temperatures of 63, 133, 139, 256 and 413 K. The spin-lattice relaxation time, T₁, of ¹H NMR is similar for the ammonium protons and the hydrogen-bond protons over the entire range of experimental temperatures. The T₁, of ¹H NMR gradually decreases down to 120 K and starts to steeply increase below 100 K. Then, the T₁ shows an abrupt decrease below 68 K with a sharp minimum at 63 K, where the ferroelectric transition occurs. The ¹H NMR spectrum shifts to the high-frequency side at temperatures below 63 K due to the ferroelectric phase transition. This behavior of the T₁ and the spectrum confirms a dramatic change in the dynamics of hydrogen bonds associated with the ferroelectric phase transition at 63 K.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Taurine on Sperm Characteristics during In vitro Storage of Boar Semen

        Jang,,H.Y.,Kong,,H.S.,Park,,C.K.,Oh,,J.D.,Lee,,S.G.,Cheong,,H.T.,Kim,,J.T.,Lee,,S.J.,Yang,,B.K.,Lee,,H.K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.11

        The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effects of taurine on sperm characteristics for in vitro storage of boar semen. Semen was randomly divided into 10 groups in conical tubes and treated with different concentrations of taurine (25-100 mM) with or without $250{\mu}M$ $H_2O_2$. The percentage of motile spermatozoa in taurine groups after 6 and 9 h were significantly higher at >94% and 87%, respectively, compared to the control group ($85.1{\pm}0.5$ and $72.4{\pm}0.3$, p<0.05). The sperm motility in taurine with $H_2O_2$ after 6 h incubation was slightly decreased compared to the taurine alone treatment, but after 9 and 12 h incubation % sperm motility dropped sharply in taurine with $H_2O_2$ ($75.3{\pm}0.3$ and $69.6{\pm}2.9$, p<0.05). For 3, 9 and 12 h incubation, sperm viability in the control was lower than in taurine groups, irrespective of taurine concentration. In eosin Y and nigrosin staining (ENS), the sperm survival rates (%) for 6 h incubation were significantly higher in 25 mM ($76.0{\pm}0.6$) and 50 mM taurine groups ($78.0{\pm}0.7$), respectively. Sperm survival rates for 9 and 12 h incubation were higher in taurine groups (${\geq}48%$ in 9 h and ${\geq}42%$ in 12 h) compared to controls ($43.0{\pm}2.1$ and $31.0{\pm}0.6$, respectively). In the hyoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm membrane integrity was similar to the results of sperm survival. These experiments indicate that supplementation of taurine to the semen extender can increase the sperm characteristics(motility, viability, survival and membrane integrity).

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

        Liu,,H.C.,Huang,,J.F.,Lee,,S.R.,Liu,,H.L.,Hsieh,,C.H.,Huang,,C.W.,Huang,,M.C.,Tai,,C.,Poivey,,J.P.,Rouvier,,R.,Cheng,,Y.S. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2015 Animal Bioscience Vol.28 No.5

        A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie ($h^2=0.07{\pm}0.03$) and M ($h^2=0.07{\pm}0.01$), moderately low for Dm ($h^2=0.13{\pm}0.02$), of medium values for H ($h^2=0.20{\pm}0.03$) and F ($h^2=0.23{\pm}0.03$). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm ($r_g=0.93$), between F and H ($r_g=0.97$) and between Dm and H ($r_g=0.90$). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The average predicted genetic response for F was 40% of genetic standard deviation per generation of selection. The mule ducklings' feather colour also was improved. It was concluded that this study provided results for a better understanding of the genetics of the duration of fertility traits in the common female duck bred for mule and that the selection of a synthetic strain was effective method of improvement.

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