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The reform of state enterprise system has been the foremost part of the reform process in China since she had proclaimed often door policy together with economic system reform at December 1978. Even though it is generally being accepted that the system reform has been quite successful in China comparing with those of other former socialist countries in once-called eastern europe before, there is no clear evidence yet to have succeeded specially in the field of state enterprise reform. So China has been executing three major reform programs as a millenium project in the sectors of state enterprise system, financing market rood governmental organization that are quite closely interrelated one another in the viewpoint of governance structure of state enterprise system. Since 1992, the year when China has defined her economic system as socialistic market economy or market economy of socialism, she has been experimenting a thoroughly different system's reform from the conventional system of socialism in terms of social paradigm or ideology. The focal point of this reform process is introducing a market for property rights combined with a capital market. This paper tries to review all the reform process of Chinese state enterprise system from 1978 when starting her system's reform at the viewpoint of 'ser-M' approach developed by Cho & Lee(1995). In this approach, 's' denotes as a CEO(subject) of a firm, while 'e' as business environment and 'r' as resources of a firm respectively, where 'M' means for interaction mechanism among above three factors. This paper suggests that the process of reform for chinese enterprise system is on the verge of drastic chage in terms of governance structure from power delegation to limited corporation. The proclamation of market economy including capital & property one makes it possible for China to reform the state enterprise system into contemporary limited corporation system. The reform of labor market which not only external but also internal including CEO's, also plays a very important role as a pushing factor for the state enterprise reform. Finally, stepwise and try & error-based reform process makes it possible for China to minimize a transaction cost of purchasing(or selecting) a reform product for institutional change thru learning mechanism.
Korean traditional lyric song (kagog 歌曲) are sung in two modes- pyoungjo (平調, the other name-ujo 羽調) and kyemyounjo (界面調)-and in two styles, sung by male and female. The pyoungjo kagog by male are all 11 tunes and the kyemyounjo are 13. Almost of precedent studies on kagog are dependent upon ancient notes for keomungo(玄琴). Therefore the result of studies on kagog is by accompanied melody of keomungo only. This study is on the melody of all songs in kagog by male. It was founded that cadence is related with construction of poetry and melody. Properly division of chapter is determined by cadence. There are three lineage in pyoungjo kagog. - isudaeyop 貳數大葉 lineage ; isudaeyoup 貳數大葉·junggeo 中擧·pyounggeo 平擧·tugeo 頭擧·wooling 羽弄·panyoup 半葉 - lak 樂 lineage ; woorak 羽樂·ollak 言樂 - pyoun 編 lineage ; woopyoun 羽編·pyoullak 編樂 Also there are three lineage in kyemyounjo kagog. - isudaeyop 貳數大葉 lineage ; isudaeyoup 貳數大葉·junggeo 中擧·pyounggeo 平擧·tugeo 頭擧·taepyoungga 太平歌·panypoup 半葉 - nong 弄 lineage ollong 言弄·pyoungnong 平弄 - pyoun 編 lineage pyounsudaeyoup 編數大葉·ollpyoun 言編·pyoullak 編樂
Proteus vulgaris 를 ammonia와 carbon dioxide gas-sensor에 고정시켜 감응도와 재현성이 우수한 요소에 대한 박테리아 전극을 직접 제조하여 pH, 온도, 완충용액, 박테리아의 양, 여러 가지 아미노산 및 무기염류에 대한 영향과 전극의 수명 등에 관하여 조사하였다. 먼저 ammonia-박테리아 전극은 25℃에서 pH 7.4인 0.05M phosphate 완충용액을 사용하였을 때가 최적이었으며, 7.0 ×10 exp (-4) -3.0 ×10 exp (-2)M 내에서 직선을 나타내었고, 이때 감응도는 116.7mV/decade였다. 한편, carbon dioxide-박테리아 전극은 30℃, pH7.0, 0.1M phosphate 완충용액에서 가장 우수한 감응을 보였다. 이 경우는 7.0 ×10 exp (-4) - 5.0 ×10 exp (-2)M 내에서 45.4 - 45.7mV/decade를 나타내었다. 이들 두 전극중에서 carbon deoxide-박테리아 전극을 이용하여 요소를 정량한다면 방해물질들의 방해가 최소화되었다. 실제 임상적 응용에서 분광 광도법과 비교한 결과 실험과정이 간단하고 편리하여 신속하게 많은 양의 시료분석이 가능하다. Bio-electrodes for urea have been constructed by immobilizing the Proteus vulgaris on ammonia and carbon dioxide gas-sensors. The bacteria containing urease convert each molecule of urea into two molecules of ammonia and one molecule of carbon dioxide gas. Ammonia-bacterial electrode based on ammonia gas-sensor has linearity in the range of 7.0 ×10 exp (-4) - 3.0 ×10 exp (-2)M urea in pH 7.4, 0.05M phosphate buffer solution at 25℃. While carbon dioxide-bacterial electrode based on carbon dioxide gas-sensor has linearity in the range of 7.0 ×10 exp (-4) - 5,0 ×10 exp (-2)M urea in pH 7.0, 0.1M phosphate buffer solution at 30℃. These electrodes were investigated for the effects of pH, temperature, buffer solutions, bacterial amounts and interferences, and life time. As the clinical applications, urea in urine was determined by these devices and was compared with spectrophotometric method. As the results, those methods were by far more simple and rapid than these method.
Through all classical music (Chongak) for Haegum(two stringed fiddle) 17 kinds of Sigimsae(ornaments) were used, 12 sorts of these were used in Yongsanhoesang. All ornaments can be classified three groups according to style. The first group is fore-ornament, the second group is back-ornament, and the third group is peculiar one. Each of ornament appears individually in every 9 tune of Yongsanhoesang(sangyongsan, chungyongsan, seryongsan, karakdori, sanghyonhwanip, hahyonhwanip, yombulhwanip, taryong, kunak) In slow tune various ornaments appear affluently, in quick tune they appear in contrast with slow one. Each of ornament has a special function. For example, ornament ㅅ is used for continuance of same tone and ornament ㄷ is used for start of phrase. The function of ornament 9 same with string instrument and ornament □□ is similar to other wind instrument. The remarkable fingering of all ornament is same as follow. In case of fore-ornament, the fingering of index finger-ring finger-middle finger and index finger-ring finger-index finger were applied. In case of back-ornament, the fingering of middle finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger and index finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger were applied.
This study is designed to shed a light on the relationship between communication, job performance and job satisfaction on sport center employee 250 employees were chosen from sport center located in Seoul. Among 250 questionnaires distributed and collected, 23 were excluded from the study because they were not either thoughtfully or completely answered. As a result, only 227 questionnaires were adopted and analyzed. The reliability test by using Cronbach's alpha method has the following results: the reliability in upward communication is .9132., the reliability in downward communication is .8505, the reliability in horizontal communication is .8963, the reliability in job satisfaction is .8282, the reliability in pay, promotion is .8406, the reliability in work environment is .8007 and the reliability in association is .7988. This paper utilizes the statistical data analysis methods including correlation analysis and regression analysis. The findings acquired based on the aforementioned research methods and data analysis are as follows: First, job performance showed a significant difference about upward communication, and upward communication had 28.2%(R²=.282) of influence about job performance. Second, job performance showed a significant difference about downward communication, and downward communication had 23.6%(R²=.236) of influence about job performance. Third, job performance showed a significant difference about horizontal communication, and horizontal communication had 30.0%(R²=.300) of influence about job performance. Fourth job satisfaction showed a significant difference about upward communication, and upward communication had 28.3%(R²=.283) of influence about job satisfaction Fifth, job satisfaction showed a significant difference about downward communication, and downward communication had 26.1%(R²=.261) of influence about job satisfaction. sixth, job satisfaction showed a significant difference about horizontal communication, and horizontal communication had 18.4%(R²=.184) of influence about job satisfaction. seventh, job performance showed a significant difference about job satisfaction and job satisfaction had 43.6%(R²=.436) of influence about job performance.
The Korean traditional lyric songs(kagog 歌曲) are precious musical properties. The plentiful properties are amounted to 664 male song and 190 female songs in kagogwollyou 歌曲源流. But because of imperfective notation 連音標 these songs can not revive. This study is on the intonation 四聲, notation 連音標, pitch 音高 of the words in the female lyric songs 女唱歌曲. The relationship of this three essential elements is very important to revive the songs. The purpose of this is an effort for revival the lyric songs. As a result of this study the following facts become clear ; In pyoungjo 平調 low sound mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲, the main pitch is b^(b)林. Middle sound mark(│) is related with high sound word 去聲, the main pitch is c 南, f' 汰. High sound mark (/) is related with abrupt sound word 入聲, the main pitch is ab 중, c' 湳, e^(b') 황 . In kyemyounjo 界面調 low sound mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲, the main pitch is b^(b) 林. Middle sound mark (│) is related with upper sound word 上聲, the main pitch is e^(b') 潢, a^(b') 중. High sound mark(/) is related with abrupt sound word 入聲, the main pitch is b^(b') 淋, e^(b) 황".
The Korean traditional lyric songs(Kagog 歌曲) are precious musical properties. The plentiful properties are amounted to 664 male songs and 190 female songs in Kagowollyou 歌曲源流. But because of imperfective notation 連音標 these songs can not revive. This study is on the intonation 四聲, notation 連音標, pitch 音高 of the words in the male lyric songs 男唱歌曲. The relationship of this three essential elements is very important to revive the songs. The purpose of this is an effort for revival the lyric songs. As a result of this study the following facts become clear ; In Pyoungjo 平調 low tone mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲 and high sound word 去聲. The main pitch is bb 림. Middle tone mark( | ) is related with high sound word 去聲 and upper sound word 上聲. The main pitch is f 太. High tone mark( / ) is related with abrupt sound word 入聲, the main pitch is eb' 潢 and ab 仲. In Kyemyounjo 界面調 low tone mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲, high sound word 去聲 and upper sound word 上聲 except abrupt sound word 入聲. The main pitch is bb 림 and eb 黃 Middle tone mark( | ) is related with high sound word 去聲 and upper sound word 上聲. The main pitch is ab 仲. High tone mark( / ) is related with abrput sound 入聲, the main pitch is eb 潢. In Korean native word the intonation is not clear. Therefore the rule in the relationship of this three essential elements, intonation 四聲, notation 連音標 and pitch 音高 of the word in the male lyric songs 男唱歌曲.
본 논문에서는 웨이브릿 변환 영역에서 SPIHT를 이용한 비디오 부호화 과정의 워터마크 삽입 방법을 제안한다. 제안한 방법은 I-1 프레임의 움직임벡터를 이용하여 I 프레임의 워터마크 삽입영역을 선택하고, 선택된 영역에서 지각적 중요 계수에 따라 워터마크를 삽입하였다. 실험결과 제안한 방법은 처리시간이 빠르고, 비가시성이 우수함을 알 수 있었다. In this paper, I propose watermark insertion method of video coding process that using SPIRT on wavelet transformation domain. It select watermark insertion region using moving vector of I-1 frame, and insert watermark according to perceptual significant coefficient on selected region. Consequently, the proposed method have fast processing time, and excellent invisibility.
움직임벡터를 이용하는 워터마킹에서 기존의 방법은 움직임 벡터의 수정으로 인한 화질의 저하를 초래한다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 움직임 벡터의 변경을 최소화하는 워터마킹 삽입방법을 제안한다. 제안한 방법은 비디오 비트스트림의 변화가 없기 때문에 기존의 동영상 압축 표준과의 호환성을 유지할 수 있다. 실험결과 화질적인 측면에서 기존의 방법보다 약 0.5~1.0 dB가 향상됨을 알 수 있었다. Conventional methods of watermarking using motion vectors bring about deterioration of video quality, because modification of motion vectors. Thus, in this paper I propose the watermarking insertion method that minimize to change of motion vectors. Proposed method is compatible with current video compression standards because without a change of bitstream. Consequently, proposed method has improved about 0.5~1.0 dB in video quality.