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Flux estimator (FE) is critical for achieving high-performance sensorless drive of induction motors. A voltage model (VM) is an excellent candidate for a FE since it does not require speed information and has a simple structure. A VM using a closed-loop style has excellent sensorless drive capability over a wide speed range. However, it is limited by the uncertainties such as offset and parameter mismatch. This paper presents an improved a closed-loop style FE. To overcome the problems inherent in the conventional FE, a hybrid strategy for the changeover between control modes is applied. In the setting of the FE’s cutoff frequency (CF), the influences of the offset and parameter mismatch are analyzed. The phase distortion and acquisition of the back electromotive force are also analyzed. From this analysis, a vector compensation strategy for the flux linkage is applied. This strategy facilitates the CF setting, which improves the robustness against both the offset and parameter mismatch. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed FE in a sensorless driven induction motor is verified using simulations and experiments under various conditions.
The reform of state enterprise system has been the foremost part of the reform process in China since she had proclaimed often door policy together with economic system reform at December 1978. Even though it is generally being accepted that the system reform has been quite successful in China comparing with those of other former socialist countries in once-called eastern europe before, there is no clear evidence yet to have succeeded specially in the field of state enterprise reform. So China has been executing three major reform programs as a millenium project in the sectors of state enterprise system, financing market rood governmental organization that are quite closely interrelated one another in the viewpoint of governance structure of state enterprise system. Since 1992, the year when China has defined her economic system as socialistic market economy or market economy of socialism, she has been experimenting a thoroughly different system's reform from the conventional system of socialism in terms of social paradigm or ideology. The focal point of this reform process is introducing a market for property rights combined with a capital market. This paper tries to review all the reform process of Chinese state enterprise system from 1978 when starting her system's reform at the viewpoint of 'ser-M' approach developed by Cho & Lee(1995). In this approach, 's' denotes as a CEO(subject) of a firm, while 'e' as business environment and 'r' as resources of a firm respectively, where 'M' means for interaction mechanism among above three factors. This paper suggests that the process of reform for chinese enterprise system is on the verge of drastic chage in terms of governance structure from power delegation to limited corporation. The proclamation of market economy including capital & property one makes it possible for China to reform the state enterprise system into contemporary limited corporation system. The reform of labor market which not only external but also internal including CEO's, also plays a very important role as a pushing factor for the state enterprise reform. Finally, stepwise and try & error-based reform process makes it possible for China to minimize a transaction cost of purchasing(or selecting) a reform product for institutional change thru learning mechanism.
Korean traditional lyric song (kagog 歌曲) are sung in two modes- pyoungjo (平調, the other name-ujo 羽調) and kyemyounjo (界面調)-and in two styles, sung by male and female. The pyoungjo kagog by male are all 11 tunes and the kyemyounjo are 13. Almost of precedent studies on kagog are dependent upon ancient notes for keomungo(玄琴). Therefore the result of studies on kagog is by accompanied melody of keomungo only. This study is on the melody of all songs in kagog by male. It was founded that cadence is related with construction of poetry and melody. Properly division of chapter is determined by cadence. There are three lineage in pyoungjo kagog. - isudaeyop 貳數大葉 lineage ; isudaeyoup 貳數大葉·junggeo 中擧·pyounggeo 平擧·tugeo 頭擧·wooling 羽弄·panyoup 半葉 - lak 樂 lineage ; woorak 羽樂·ollak 言樂 - pyoun 編 lineage ; woopyoun 羽編·pyoullak 編樂 Also there are three lineage in kyemyounjo kagog. - isudaeyop 貳數大葉 lineage ; isudaeyoup 貳數大葉·junggeo 中擧·pyounggeo 平擧·tugeo 頭擧·taepyoungga 太平歌·panypoup 半葉 - nong 弄 lineage ollong 言弄·pyoungnong 平弄 - pyoun 編 lineage pyounsudaeyoup 編數大葉·ollpyoun 言編·pyoullak 編樂
Localization of management administration is an emerging issue for the FIEs in China especially after she has joined in WTO. In this paper, management styles, efforts for localization, management routines were surveyed at the view points of employees of korean FIEs in China together with their responses for those localization efforts. This paper is some kind of a pilot survey for the further study on localization of korean FIEs in China, so there is no rigorous theoretical reasoning attempts here. But according to the previous research, difference in size of HQ-namely large vs small-medium, business field in which FIEs are operating, and division where employees are assigned to, is proved to have some relationship with localization of management administration. Regional difference could be a important factor to explain the difference of localization style, because of the socio-cultural differences in China regionally. The 40.8% of responses think that korean FIEs in China are adopting korean management style while 48.6% think in between korean and chinese style. About the rate of satisfaction for the management style of their company, small-medium, Qindao city, operation division is higher respectively than any other categories.
This study is designed to shed a light on the relationship between communication, job performance and job satisfaction on sport center employee 250 employees were chosen from sport center located in Seoul. Among 250 questionnaires distributed and collected, 23 were excluded from the study because they were not either thoughtfully or completely answered. As a result, only 227 questionnaires were adopted and analyzed. The reliability test by using Cronbach's alpha method has the following results: the reliability in upward communication is .9132., the reliability in downward communication is .8505, the reliability in horizontal communication is .8963, the reliability in job satisfaction is .8282, the reliability in pay, promotion is .8406, the reliability in work environment is .8007 and the reliability in association is .7988. This paper utilizes the statistical data analysis methods including correlation analysis and regression analysis. The findings acquired based on the aforementioned research methods and data analysis are as follows: First, job performance showed a significant difference about upward communication, and upward communication had 28.2%(R²=.282) of influence about job performance. Second, job performance showed a significant difference about downward communication, and downward communication had 23.6%(R²=.236) of influence about job performance. Third, job performance showed a significant difference about horizontal communication, and horizontal communication had 30.0%(R²=.300) of influence about job performance. Fourth job satisfaction showed a significant difference about upward communication, and upward communication had 28.3%(R²=.283) of influence about job satisfaction Fifth, job satisfaction showed a significant difference about downward communication, and downward communication had 26.1%(R²=.261) of influence about job satisfaction. sixth, job satisfaction showed a significant difference about horizontal communication, and horizontal communication had 18.4%(R²=.184) of influence about job satisfaction. seventh, job performance showed a significant difference about job satisfaction and job satisfaction had 43.6%(R²=.436) of influence about job performance.
Korean traditional lyric song (Kagog 歌曲) are sung in two modes- Pyoungio (平調, the other name-ujo 羽調) and Kyemyounjo (界面調)-and in two styles, sung by male and fermale. The Pyoungio Kagog by male are all 13 tunes. Almost of precedent studies on Kagog are dependent upon ancient notes for Keomungo (玄琴). Therefore the result of studies on kagog is by accompanied melody of Keomungo only. This study is on the melody pattern of 13 songs in Pyoungio by male. Through this reserch 14 melody patterns were founded. The song Isudayoub (貳數大葉) and Tugeo (頭擧) is consisted of these patterns all (100%) of melody. In case other songs as follow ; ◁표삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) It was founded that cadence is related with construction of poetry and melody. Properly division of chapter is determined by cadence. The form of song in kagog is A-B-B´ -C-B˝.
Recently the issue, of special feature of melody line in Korean traditional music, was proposed. As a new idea "mehrstimmigkeit" was proposed instead of "heterophony" of melody line in Korean traditional music. As a result on study of mehrstimmigkeit of Yeongsanhoesang 靈山會相, the representative instrumental music, there are three types of mehrstimmigkeit. The three types are two-tones, three-tones, four-tones type per one beat in five instrumental melody, Daegun 大琴·Piri??·Haegum奚琴·Gayaeum伽倻琴·Geomungo玄琴. The melodies of mehrstimmigkeit form 41% of all in Yeongsanhoesang. And two-tones type of mehrstimmigkeit form 31%. three-tones type 9.4%, four-tones type 0.6% of all. The most colorful tune among 9 tunes Yeongsanhoesan is Sanghyeondoduri. On the contrary the most monotonous tune is Garakdeori. The most numerous type of between each instrumental melody in two-tones type is "wind melody:string melody", for instance "Daegum·Piri·Haegum:Gayagum·Geomungo" The most numerous type of between each instrumental melody in three-tones type is "wind melody(Daegum·Piri·Haegum): string melody(Gayagum):string melody (Geomungo)". In four-tones type there are a few types but no peculiarity. The "mehrstimmigkeit", a special feature in Yeongsanhoesang melody line, explains Hwa-I-Bu-Dong和而不同(means harmony of dissimilary) in Korean traditional music.