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Flux estimator (FE) is critical for achieving high-performance sensorless drive of induction motors. A voltage model (VM) is an excellent candidate for a FE since it does not require speed information and has a simple structure. A VM using a closed-loop style has excellent sensorless drive capability over a wide speed range. However, it is limited by the uncertainties such as offset and parameter mismatch. This paper presents an improved a closed-loop style FE. To overcome the problems inherent in the conventional FE, a hybrid strategy for the changeover between control modes is applied. In the setting of the FE’s cutoff frequency (CF), the influences of the offset and parameter mismatch are analyzed. The phase distortion and acquisition of the back electromotive force are also analyzed. From this analysis, a vector compensation strategy for the flux linkage is applied. This strategy facilitates the CF setting, which improves the robustness against both the offset and parameter mismatch. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed FE in a sensorless driven induction motor is verified using simulations and experiments under various conditions.
The reform of state enterprise system has been the foremost part of the reform process in China since she had proclaimed often door policy together with economic system reform at December 1978. Even though it is generally being accepted that the system reform has been quite successful in China comparing with those of other former socialist countries in once-called eastern europe before, there is no clear evidence yet to have succeeded specially in the field of state enterprise reform. So China has been executing three major reform programs as a millenium project in the sectors of state enterprise system, financing market rood governmental organization that are quite closely interrelated one another in the viewpoint of governance structure of state enterprise system. Since 1992, the year when China has defined her economic system as socialistic market economy or market economy of socialism, she has been experimenting a thoroughly different system's reform from the conventional system of socialism in terms of social paradigm or ideology. The focal point of this reform process is introducing a market for property rights combined with a capital market. This paper tries to review all the reform process of Chinese state enterprise system from 1978 when starting her system's reform at the viewpoint of 'ser-M' approach developed by Cho & Lee(1995). In this approach, 's' denotes as a CEO(subject) of a firm, while 'e' as business environment and 'r' as resources of a firm respectively, where 'M' means for interaction mechanism among above three factors. This paper suggests that the process of reform for chinese enterprise system is on the verge of drastic chage in terms of governance structure from power delegation to limited corporation. The proclamation of market economy including capital & property one makes it possible for China to reform the state enterprise system into contemporary limited corporation system. The reform of labor market which not only external but also internal including CEO's, also plays a very important role as a pushing factor for the state enterprise reform. Finally, stepwise and try & error-based reform process makes it possible for China to minimize a transaction cost of purchasing(or selecting) a reform product for institutional change thru learning mechanism.
銀 이온 選擇性 電極을 指市電極으로 使用하여 브롬산이온(BrO_3^-)과 요오드산이온 (IO_3^-)의 단독정량과 요오드산이온(IO_3^-), 요도드화이온(I^-)과 브롬화이온(Br^-)의 혼합물을 전위차 적정법으로 定量하였다. 사용한 銀 이온 選擇性 電極은 直接 製作한 Ag_2Se電極 이었다. 混合物 電位差 滴定을 할때는 理論的인 當量點과 變曲點의 誤差를 감소시키기 爲하여 뭉침제로서 에칠알콜, 질산나트륨, 덱스트린, 니트로벤젠 등을 사용하였다. 뭉침제를 사용함으로서 I^-과 IO_3, Br^-와 IO-3^-, 또한 Br^-, I^-, IO_3^-의 混合物 定量時 第一, 第二變曲點에서 誤差를 줄일 수 있었으며 비교적 좋은 結果를 얻었다. Potentiometric titration of iodide, bromide and iodate in mixtures, bromate, iodate with silver nitrate using silver ion-selective electrode, indicator electrode, has been studied. Silver ion-selective electrode was a sintered silver selenide electrode which had been prepared in this laboratory. In the titration of mixture solution, early alcohol, sodium nitrate, dextrin, and nitrobenzene as flocculant have been used to decrease the relative error of inflection point to theoretical equivalent point. The relative error of first and second inflection point in the titration of iodide and iodate, bromide and iodate, bromide, iodide, and iodate, respectively, was decreased, and attained the good results.
Recently the issue, of special feature of melody line in Korean traditional music, was proposed. As a new idea "mehrstimmigkeit" was proposed instead of "heterophony" of melody line in Korean traditional music. As a result on study of mehrstimmigkeit of Yeongsanhoesang 靈山會相, the representative instrumental music, there are three types of mehrstimmigkeit. The three types are two-tones, three-tones, four-tones type per one beat in five instrumental melody, Daegun 大琴·Piri??·Haegum奚琴·Gayaeum伽倻琴·Geomungo玄琴. The melodies of mehrstimmigkeit form 41% of all in Yeongsanhoesang. And two-tones type of mehrstimmigkeit form 31%. three-tones type 9.4%, four-tones type 0.6% of all. The most colorful tune among 9 tunes Yeongsanhoesan is Sanghyeondoduri. On the contrary the most monotonous tune is Garakdeori. The most numerous type of between each instrumental melody in two-tones type is "wind melody:string melody", for instance "Daegum·Piri·Haegum:Gayagum·Geomungo" The most numerous type of between each instrumental melody in three-tones type is "wind melody(Daegum·Piri·Haegum): string melody(Gayagum):string melody (Geomungo)". In four-tones type there are a few types but no peculiarity. The "mehrstimmigkeit", a special feature in Yeongsanhoesang melody line, explains Hwa-I-Bu-Dong和而不同(means harmony of dissimilary) in Korean traditional music.
Through all classical music (Chongak) for Haegum(two stringed fiddle) 17 kinds of Sigimsae(ornaments) were used, 12 sorts of these were used in Yongsanhoesang. All ornaments can be classified three groups according to style. The first group is fore-ornament, the second group is back-ornament, and the third group is peculiar one. Each of ornament appears individually in every 9 tune of Yongsanhoesang(sangyongsan, chungyongsan, seryongsan, karakdori, sanghyonhwanip, hahyonhwanip, yombulhwanip, taryong, kunak) In slow tune various ornaments appear affluently, in quick tune they appear in contrast with slow one. Each of ornament has a special function. For example, ornament ㅅ is used for continuance of same tone and ornament ㄷ is used for start of phrase. The function of ornament 9 same with string instrument and ornament □□ is similar to other wind instrument. The remarkable fingering of all ornament is same as follow. In case of fore-ornament, the fingering of index finger-ring finger-middle finger and index finger-ring finger-index finger were applied. In case of back-ornament, the fingering of middle finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger and index finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger were applied.