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The reform of state enterprise system has been the foremost part of the reform process in China since she had proclaimed often door policy together with economic system reform at December 1978. Even though it is generally being accepted that the system reform has been quite successful in China comparing with those of other former socialist countries in once-called eastern europe before, there is no clear evidence yet to have succeeded specially in the field of state enterprise reform. So China has been executing three major reform programs as a millenium project in the sectors of state enterprise system, financing market rood governmental organization that are quite closely interrelated one another in the viewpoint of governance structure of state enterprise system. Since 1992, the year when China has defined her economic system as socialistic market economy or market economy of socialism, she has been experimenting a thoroughly different system's reform from the conventional system of socialism in terms of social paradigm or ideology. The focal point of this reform process is introducing a market for property rights combined with a capital market. This paper tries to review all the reform process of Chinese state enterprise system from 1978 when starting her system's reform at the viewpoint of 'ser-M' approach developed by Cho & Lee(1995). In this approach, 's' denotes as a CEO(subject) of a firm, while 'e' as business environment and 'r' as resources of a firm respectively, where 'M' means for interaction mechanism among above three factors. This paper suggests that the process of reform for chinese enterprise system is on the verge of drastic chage in terms of governance structure from power delegation to limited corporation. The proclamation of market economy including capital & property one makes it possible for China to reform the state enterprise system into contemporary limited corporation system. The reform of labor market which not only external but also internal including CEO's, also plays a very important role as a pushing factor for the state enterprise reform. Finally, stepwise and try & error-based reform process makes it possible for China to minimize a transaction cost of purchasing(or selecting) a reform product for institutional change thru learning mechanism.
Recently the issue, of special feature of melody line in Korean traditional music, was proposed. As a new idea "mehrstimmigkeit" was proposed instead of "heterophony" of melody line in Korean traditional music. As a result on study of mehrstimmigkeit of Yeongsanhoesang 靈山會相, the representative instrumental music, there are three types of mehrstimmigkeit. The three types are two-tones, three-tones, four-tones type per one beat in five instrumental melody, Daegun 大琴·Piri??·Haegum奚琴·Gayaeum伽倻琴·Geomungo玄琴. The melodies of mehrstimmigkeit form 41% of all in Yeongsanhoesang. And two-tones type of mehrstimmigkeit form 31%. three-tones type 9.4%, four-tones type 0.6% of all. The most colorful tune among 9 tunes Yeongsanhoesan is Sanghyeondoduri. On the contrary the most monotonous tune is Garakdeori. The most numerous type of between each instrumental melody in two-tones type is "wind melody:string melody", for instance "Daegum·Piri·Haegum:Gayagum·Geomungo" The most numerous type of between each instrumental melody in three-tones type is "wind melody(Daegum·Piri·Haegum): string melody(Gayagum):string melody (Geomungo)". In four-tones type there are a few types but no peculiarity. The "mehrstimmigkeit", a special feature in Yeongsanhoesang melody line, explains Hwa-I-Bu-Dong和而不同(means harmony of dissimilary) in Korean traditional music.
銀 이온 選擇性 電極을 指市電極으로 使用하여 브롬산이온(BrO_3^-)과 요오드산이온 (IO_3^-)의 단독정량과 요오드산이온(IO_3^-), 요도드화이온(I^-)과 브롬화이온(Br^-)의 혼합물을 전위차 적정법으로 定量하였다. 사용한 銀 이온 選擇性 電極은 直接 製作한 Ag_2Se電極 이었다. 混合物 電位差 滴定을 할때는 理論的인 當量點과 變曲點의 誤差를 감소시키기 爲하여 뭉침제로서 에칠알콜, 질산나트륨, 덱스트린, 니트로벤젠 등을 사용하였다. 뭉침제를 사용함으로서 I^-과 IO_3, Br^-와 IO-3^-, 또한 Br^-, I^-, IO_3^-의 混合物 定量時 第一, 第二變曲點에서 誤差를 줄일 수 있었으며 비교적 좋은 結果를 얻었다. Potentiometric titration of iodide, bromide and iodate in mixtures, bromate, iodate with silver nitrate using silver ion-selective electrode, indicator electrode, has been studied. Silver ion-selective electrode was a sintered silver selenide electrode which had been prepared in this laboratory. In the titration of mixture solution, early alcohol, sodium nitrate, dextrin, and nitrobenzene as flocculant have been used to decrease the relative error of inflection point to theoretical equivalent point. The relative error of first and second inflection point in the titration of iodide and iodate, bromide and iodate, bromide, iodide, and iodate, respectively, was decreased, and attained the good results.
Korean traditional lyric song (Kagog 歌曲) are sung in two modes- Pyoungio (平調, the other name-ujo 羽調) and Kyemyounjo (界面調)-and in two styles, sung by male and fermale. The Pyoungio Kagog by male are all 13 tunes. Almost of precedent studies on Kagog are dependent upon ancient notes for Keomungo (玄琴). Therefore the result of studies on kagog is by accompanied melody of Keomungo only. This study is on the melody pattern of 13 songs in Pyoungio by male. Through this reserch 14 melody patterns were founded. The song Isudayoub (貳數大葉) and Tugeo (頭擧) is consisted of these patterns all (100%) of melody. In case other songs as follow ; ◁표삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) It was founded that cadence is related with construction of poetry and melody. Properly division of chapter is determined by cadence. The form of song in kagog is A-B-B´ -C-B˝.
Localization of management administration is an emerging issue for the FIEs in China especially after she has joined in WTO. In this paper, management styles, efforts for localization, management routines were surveyed at the view points of employees of korean FIEs in China together with their responses for those localization efforts. This paper is some kind of a pilot survey for the further study on localization of korean FIEs in China, so there is no rigorous theoretical reasoning attempts here. But according to the previous research, difference in size of HQ-namely large vs small-medium, business field in which FIEs are operating, and division where employees are assigned to, is proved to have some relationship with localization of management administration. Regional difference could be a important factor to explain the difference of localization style, because of the socio-cultural differences in China regionally. The 40.8% of responses think that korean FIEs in China are adopting korean management style while 48.6% think in between korean and chinese style. About the rate of satisfaction for the management style of their company, small-medium, Qindao city, operation division is higher respectively than any other categories.
움직임벡터를 이용하는 워터마킹에서 기존의 방법은 움직임 벡터의 수정으로 인한 화질의 저하를 초래한다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 움직임 벡터의 변경을 최소화하는 워터마킹 삽입방법을 제안한다. 제안한 방법은 비디오 비트스트림의 변화가 없기 때문에 기존의 동영상 압축 표준과의 호환성을 유지할 수 있다. 실험결과 화질적인 측면에서 기존의 방법보다 약 0.5~1.0 dB가 향상됨을 알 수 있었다. Conventional methods of watermarking using motion vectors bring about deterioration of video quality, because modification of motion vectors. Thus, in this paper I propose the watermarking insertion method that minimize to change of motion vectors. Proposed method is compatible with current video compression standards because without a change of bitstream. Consequently, proposed method has improved about 0.5~1.0 dB in video quality.
본 논문에서는 웨이브릿 변환 영역에서 SPIHT를 이용한 비디오 부호화 과정의 워터마크 삽입 방법을 제안한다. 제안한 방법은 I-1 프레임의 움직임벡터를 이용하여 I 프레임의 워터마크 삽입영역을 선택하고, 선택된 영역에서 지각적 중요 계수에 따라 워터마크를 삽입하였다. 실험결과 제안한 방법은 처리시간이 빠르고, 비가시성이 우수함을 알 수 있었다. In this paper, I propose watermark insertion method of video coding process that using SPIRT on wavelet transformation domain. It select watermark insertion region using moving vector of I-1 frame, and insert watermark according to perceptual significant coefficient on selected region. Consequently, the proposed method have fast processing time, and excellent invisibility.