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The reform of state enterprise system has been the foremost part of the reform process in China since she had proclaimed often door policy together with economic system reform at December 1978. Even though it is generally being accepted that the system reform has been quite successful in China comparing with those of other former socialist countries in once-called eastern europe before, there is no clear evidence yet to have succeeded specially in the field of state enterprise reform. So China has been executing three major reform programs as a millenium project in the sectors of state enterprise system, financing market rood governmental organization that are quite closely interrelated one another in the viewpoint of governance structure of state enterprise system. Since 1992, the year when China has defined her economic system as socialistic market economy or market economy of socialism, she has been experimenting a thoroughly different system's reform from the conventional system of socialism in terms of social paradigm or ideology. The focal point of this reform process is introducing a market for property rights combined with a capital market. This paper tries to review all the reform process of Chinese state enterprise system from 1978 when starting her system's reform at the viewpoint of 'ser-M' approach developed by Cho & Lee(1995). In this approach, 's' denotes as a CEO(subject) of a firm, while 'e' as business environment and 'r' as resources of a firm respectively, where 'M' means for interaction mechanism among above three factors. This paper suggests that the process of reform for chinese enterprise system is on the verge of drastic chage in terms of governance structure from power delegation to limited corporation. The proclamation of market economy including capital & property one makes it possible for China to reform the state enterprise system into contemporary limited corporation system. The reform of labor market which not only external but also internal including CEO's, also plays a very important role as a pushing factor for the state enterprise reform. Finally, stepwise and try & error-based reform process makes it possible for China to minimize a transaction cost of purchasing(or selecting) a reform product for institutional change thru learning mechanism.
The Korean traditional lyric songs(Kagog 歌曲) are precious musical properties. The plentiful properties are amounted to 664 male songs and 190 female songs in Kagowollyou 歌曲源流. But because of imperfective notation 連音標 these songs can not revive. This study is on the intonation 四聲, notation 連音標, pitch 音高 of the words in the male lyric songs 男唱歌曲. The relationship of this three essential elements is very important to revive the songs. The purpose of this is an effort for revival the lyric songs. As a result of this study the following facts become clear ; In Pyoungjo 平調 low tone mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲 and high sound word 去聲. The main pitch is bb 림. Middle tone mark( | ) is related with high sound word 去聲 and upper sound word 上聲. The main pitch is f 太. High tone mark( / ) is related with abrupt sound word 入聲, the main pitch is eb' 潢 and ab 仲. In Kyemyounjo 界面調 low tone mark( ( ) is related with low sound word 平聲, high sound word 去聲 and upper sound word 上聲 except abrupt sound word 入聲. The main pitch is bb 림 and eb 黃 Middle tone mark( | ) is related with high sound word 去聲 and upper sound word 上聲. The main pitch is ab 仲. High tone mark( / ) is related with abrput sound 入聲, the main pitch is eb 潢. In Korean native word the intonation is not clear. Therefore the rule in the relationship of this three essential elements, intonation 四聲, notation 連音標 and pitch 音高 of the word in the male lyric songs 男唱歌曲.
Korean traditional lyric song (kagog 歌曲) are sung in two modes- pyoungjo (平調, the other name-ujo 羽調) and kyemyounjo (界面調)-and in two styles, sung by male and female. The pyoungjo kagog by male are all 11 tunes and the kyemyounjo are 13. Almost of precedent studies on kagog are dependent upon ancient notes for keomungo(玄琴). Therefore the result of studies on kagog is by accompanied melody of keomungo only. This study is on the melody of all songs in kagog by male. It was founded that cadence is related with construction of poetry and melody. Properly division of chapter is determined by cadence. There are three lineage in pyoungjo kagog. - isudaeyop 貳數大葉 lineage ; isudaeyoup 貳數大葉·junggeo 中擧·pyounggeo 平擧·tugeo 頭擧·wooling 羽弄·panyoup 半葉 - lak 樂 lineage ; woorak 羽樂·ollak 言樂 - pyoun 編 lineage ; woopyoun 羽編·pyoullak 編樂 Also there are three lineage in kyemyounjo kagog. - isudaeyop 貳數大葉 lineage ; isudaeyoup 貳數大葉·junggeo 中擧·pyounggeo 平擧·tugeo 頭擧·taepyoungga 太平歌·panypoup 半葉 - nong 弄 lineage ollong 言弄·pyoungnong 平弄 - pyoun 編 lineage pyounsudaeyoup 編數大葉·ollpyoun 言編·pyoullak 編樂
24 sorts of Sigimsae(ornaments) were used in Yongsanhoesang. 19 sorts of these were used for Taegum, 14 sorts of these for Piri and 12 sorts of these for Haegum. Various ornaments appear the most affluently in Taegum melody. Second Piri melody has much ornaments more than Haegum. In slow tune (Sangyongsan, Chungyongsan) various ornaments appear frequently and affluently, in quick tune (Taryong, Kunak) they appear in conrast with slow tune. Ornament ∧ is used the most frequently among 24 ornaments, then comes ornament □□, ㅅ, 9, ㄷ, ㄱ and 6 in that order. Each of ornaments has a special function. Ornament ㅅ, □□ and h are used for horizontal tune, ornament ㄴ, □□, h, □□, 6, I and □□ are used for downward tune, ornament ∧, ㄱ, □□ , 9 and □□ are used for upward tune. Ornament □□, □□, and □□ are used for upward or downward tune. Ornament ㄷ is used for start of phrase and □□ is used for end.
본 논문에서는 웨이브릿 변환 영역에서 SPIHT를 이용한 비디오 부호화 과정의 워터마크 삽입 방법을 제안한다. 제안한 방법은 I-1 프레임의 움직임벡터를 이용하여 I 프레임의 워터마크 삽입영역을 선택하고, 선택된 영역에서 지각적 중요 계수에 따라 워터마크를 삽입하였다. 실험결과 제안한 방법은 처리시간이 빠르고, 비가시성이 우수함을 알 수 있었다. In this paper, I propose watermark insertion method of video coding process that using SPIRT on wavelet transformation domain. It select watermark insertion region using moving vector of I-1 frame, and insert watermark according to perceptual significant coefficient on selected region. Consequently, the proposed method have fast processing time, and excellent invisibility.
銀 이온 選擇性 電極을 指市電極으로 使用하여 브롬산이온(BrO_3^-)과 요오드산이온 (IO_3^-)의 단독정량과 요오드산이온(IO_3^-), 요도드화이온(I^-)과 브롬화이온(Br^-)의 혼합물을 전위차 적정법으로 定量하였다. 사용한 銀 이온 選擇性 電極은 直接 製作한 Ag_2Se電極 이었다. 混合物 電位差 滴定을 할때는 理論的인 當量點과 變曲點의 誤差를 감소시키기 爲하여 뭉침제로서 에칠알콜, 질산나트륨, 덱스트린, 니트로벤젠 등을 사용하였다. 뭉침제를 사용함으로서 I^-과 IO_3, Br^-와 IO-3^-, 또한 Br^-, I^-, IO_3^-의 混合物 定量時 第一, 第二變曲點에서 誤差를 줄일 수 있었으며 비교적 좋은 結果를 얻었다. Potentiometric titration of iodide, bromide and iodate in mixtures, bromate, iodate with silver nitrate using silver ion-selective electrode, indicator electrode, has been studied. Silver ion-selective electrode was a sintered silver selenide electrode which had been prepared in this laboratory. In the titration of mixture solution, early alcohol, sodium nitrate, dextrin, and nitrobenzene as flocculant have been used to decrease the relative error of inflection point to theoretical equivalent point. The relative error of first and second inflection point in the titration of iodide and iodate, bromide and iodate, bromide, iodide, and iodate, respectively, was decreased, and attained the good results.
Korean traditional lyric song (Kagog 歌曲) are sung in two modes- Pyoungio (平調, the other name-ujo 羽調) and Kyemyounjo (界面調)-and in two styles, sung by male and fermale. The Pyoungio Kagog by male are all 13 tunes. Almost of precedent studies on Kagog are dependent upon ancient notes for Keomungo (玄琴). Therefore the result of studies on kagog is by accompanied melody of Keomungo only. This study is on the melody pattern of 13 songs in Pyoungio by male. Through this reserch 14 melody patterns were founded. The song Isudayoub (貳數大葉) and Tugeo (頭擧) is consisted of these patterns all (100%) of melody. In case other songs as follow ; ◁표삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) It was founded that cadence is related with construction of poetry and melody. Properly division of chapter is determined by cadence. The form of song in kagog is A-B-B´ -C-B˝.
<Abstract>There is some different characteristics on Chinese business negotiation style comparing with that of Western one. Someone says that it is hard to understand the Chinese negotiation style while another saying not so difficult if one could understand the key factors of the Chinese negotiation style in terms of mechanism and process. This article is mainly focusing on studying which factors affect Chinese business negotiation style of various countries, cultural differences must be the foremost one to explain these. In order to study Chinese business negotiation style, this article is starting from suggesting a conceptual model which is hypothetical yet. This model defines three factors which would engender the influence to Chinese business negotiation style. These are the traditional culture of the China, heritage of munificent martial strategic references, and socialist ideology. These all could be included in the cultural factor in terms of the expanded definition. For analysing this model this article also uses the 7 factors concept - alternative. interest, relationship, communication, legitimacy, option and commitments, which suggested by Harvard Negotiation Program, together with the process model suggested by Solomon. As a result, we can conclude that Chinese business negotiation style has quite different characteristics from Western one, but not so difficult to understand. But we need careful consideration and a lot of preparation if we encounter a business occasion to negotiate with a Chinese counterpart. And much more endeavor be needed to implement a negotiation strategy.
Through all classical music (Chongak) for Haegum(two stringed fiddle) 17 kinds of Sigimsae(ornaments) were used, 12 sorts of these were used in Yongsanhoesang. All ornaments can be classified three groups according to style. The first group is fore-ornament, the second group is back-ornament, and the third group is peculiar one. Each of ornament appears individually in every 9 tune of Yongsanhoesang(sangyongsan, chungyongsan, seryongsan, karakdori, sanghyonhwanip, hahyonhwanip, yombulhwanip, taryong, kunak) In slow tune various ornaments appear affluently, in quick tune they appear in contrast with slow one. Each of ornament has a special function. For example, ornament ㅅ is used for continuance of same tone and ornament ㄷ is used for start of phrase. The function of ornament 9 same with string instrument and ornament □□ is similar to other wind instrument. The remarkable fingering of all ornament is same as follow. In case of fore-ornament, the fingering of index finger-ring finger-middle finger and index finger-ring finger-index finger were applied. In case of back-ornament, the fingering of middle finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger and index finger-ring finger-middle finger-index finger were applied.