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The purpose of this paper is to improve certain results proved in a recent paper of Soliman et al. . These results are the outcome of utilizing the idea of absorbing pairs due to Gopal et al.  as opposed to two conditions namely: weak compatibility and the peculiar condition initiated by Pant  to ascertain the common fixed points of Lipschitzian mappings. Some illustrative examples are also furnished to highlight the realized improvements.
Use of nanostructured materials in powder form for various applications might show excellent performances, however they create serious problem due to separation difficulty, loss and photocorrosion during use, and their reusability in the case of large scale processes. This review presents the research that has been focused on the fabrication of composite NFs in which nanostructured materials are encapsulated in polymeric matrix by means of simple, effective, low cost, high yield technique; electrospinning in order to overcome the afore mentioned problems. Polymer NFs not only act as supporter but also prevent the aggregation and leaching of nanostructures improving their performances.
The TIFY family is composed of a plant-specific group of genes with diversity of functions. This family represents four subfamily of proteins viz. ZML, TIFY, PPD and JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins. TIFY proteins especially, JAZ proteins have been reported to perform different biological processes, such as developmental and stresses and hormone responses in Arabidopsis and rice. However, there is no information about this family genes in Brassicaceae. This study identifies 36 TIFY genes in Brassica rapa, an economically important crop species from this family. An extensive in silico analysis through phylogenetic grouping, protein motif organization and intron-exon distribution also confirmed 4 subfamilies of BrTIFY proteins. Out of 35 BrTIFY genes, we identified 21 under JAZ subfamily besides 7 TIFY, 6 ZML and 2 PPD. An extensive expression profiling of 21 BrTIFY JAZs both in tissues and organs of B. rapa revealed differential expression patterns. Almost all the BrTIFY JAZs predominantly expressed in leaves and flower buds. Besides, in a flower stage specific expression analysis we observed 14 BrTIFY JAZs with constitutive expression patterns. This indicates BrTIFY proteins have a strong involvement in the development of B. rapa flowers. Our protein interaction study also reveals the strong association of these proteins with the fertility and defense processes of B. rapa. To elucidate the stress responsiveness of BrTIFY genes, we analyzed the low temperature-treated whole-genome microarray data set and found almost all the BrTIFY JAZs were having variable transcript abundance in two contrasting inbred lines of B. rapa. Subsequently, all 21 BrTIFY JAZs were validated in response to cold stress in the same two lines via qPCR, where 9 genes were found to show up- regulation. And, a high and differential qPCR expression pattern of all the BrTIFY JAZs was also recorded against JA. Additionally, BrTIFY JAZs were tested against salt, drought, Fusarium, ABA and SA treatments and a considerable number of genes were found to be induced. The extensive annotation and transcriptome profiling reported in this study will be useful for understanding the involvement of TIFY genes in stress resistance and different developmental functions, which ultimately provides the basis for functional characterization and exploitation of the candidate genes for genetic engineering of B. rapa.
Three different races of lepidopteron silk moth Bombyx mori were used in reciprocal and inter se crosses to determine heterosis effects at F₁and recombination loss at the F₂generation for three fitness traits (fecundity, larval duration, survival rate) and four productivity traits (larval weight, cocoon weight, shell weight, filament length). Eleven mating types were represented in the present study, including three pure breeds and a variety of F₁and F₂populations arising from regular and reciprocal crosses, respectively. Equations were derived to evaluate heterosis, maternal and overdominance effects for the above traits. Estimates of heterosis and overdominance effects revealed significant heterosis effects for all the traits, but overdominance was only seen for larval duration (favorable effect) and survival rate (unfavorable effect). Maternal effects were significant for the majority of the traits under study. The results revealed significant reduction for all the quantitative traits from F₁to F₂, except for larval duration. The most obvious explanation for the reduction of fitness parameters and productive traits is the reduction in heterozygosity from F₁to F₂(it is expected that one half of the heterozygosity of F₁is lost in F₂). For larval duration this explanation seems insufficient and breakdown of epistatic gene effects (i.e. recombination loss) has been suggested.
We present an update on our proposal that during the `quasar era' (1:5 < z < 3), powerful radiogalaxies could have played a major role in the enhanced global star-formation, and in the widespreadmagnetization and metal pollution of the universe. A key ingredient of this proposal is our estimatethat the true cosmological evolution of the radio galaxy population is likely to be even steeper thanwhat has been inferred from ux-limited samples of radio sources with redshift data, when an allowanceis made for the inverse Compton losses on the cosmic microwave background which were much greaterat higher redshifts. We thus estimate that a large fraction of the clumps of proto-galactic materialwithin the cosmic web of laments was probably impacted by the expanding lobes of radio galaxiesduring the quasar era. Some recently published observational evidence and simulations which providesupport for this picture are pointed out. We also show that the inverse Compton x-ray emission fromthe population of radio galaxies during the quasar era, which we inferred to be largely missing from thederived radio luminosity function, is still only a small fraction of the observed soft x-ray background(XRB) and hence the limit imposed on this scenario by the XRB is not violated.
In our recent report on gene expression in gastric cancer we identified the endo-sulfatase Sulf-1 gene to be up-regulated in gastric tumors relative to apparently normal (AN), and paired normal (PN) gastric tissue samples. In the present report we investigate the protein expression levels of Sulf-1 gene in gastric tumors, AN and PN samples using tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry. Expression data was collected from two sets of TMA's containing replicate sections of tissue samples. Scoring data from TMA set-1 revealed a significant difference in Sulf-1 immunoreactivity between tumors and "normals" (PN and AN) (p-value = 0.001928). Also, Sulf-1 expression in tumors was also significantly different from either PN (p-value = 0.019) or AN (p-value = 0.006) samples. Similar results were obtained from analysis of scoring data from the second set of arrays. Comparison of mRNA expression and protein expression in gastric tumor tissues revealed that in 6/20 (30%) tumor samples showed up-regulated protein expression concordant with over-expression of mRNA. However, a discord with mRNA being over-expressed relative to down regulated protein expression was observed in majority 14/20 (70%) of tumor samples. Our study indicates down regulation of Sulf-1 protein expression in gastric tumors relative to PN and AN samples which is discordant with mRNA over-expression seen in tumors.
In surveillance systems, the storage requirements for video archival are a major concern because of recording of videos continuously for long periods of time, resulting in large amounts of data. Therefore, it is essential to apply efficient compression techniques for compressing surveillance video. The techniques used for the general video compression may not be the efficient technique for the compression of surveillance video because of the use of static camera as compared to moving camera in general purpose videos. Generally surveillance video consist of multiple objects, smaller in size as compared to the background and they have frequents occlusion with each other. In this paper a new object based motion estimation and compensation technique for surveillance video compression is proposed. Background differencing and summing technique (BDST) is used for the segmentation of the moving objects. This technique not only identifies moving object but also the maximum distance moved by the object in given group of frames. A bonding box is created based on the movement of the object in order to segment the moving objects. For exploiting the temporal redundancy, the motion estimation and compensation is carried out for the bonding box region only. The multiresolution property of discrete wavelet transform is used for the motion estimation and compensation. Experimental results show that the approach achieves high compression ratios compared to MPEG-2 compression.
MADS-box transcription factor (TF), primarily involved in the floral organ specification with other several aspects of plant growth and development. Whole genome survey of B. rapa revealed 167 MADS-box genes and categorized into MIKCc, MIKC*, Mα, Mβ and Mγ groups based on phylogeny, protein motif structure and exon-intron organizations. MIKCc group belongs 89 genes, which is the highest in number than in any other crops till date. The MIKCc group has further classified into 13 sub-families. In case of chromosomal localization, remarkably 57 MIKCc type MADS-box genes were found in the duplicated segments of B. rapa genome, whereas only 4 M-type genes have resulted from tandem duplications. Besides floral and vegetative tissue expression we also identified MADS-box genes with their male and female gametophyte specific expression in different stages of flower bud development. Furthermore, from a low temperature treated whole genome microarray data set 19 BrMADS genes were found to show variable transcript abundance in two contrasting double haploid lines of B. rapa. Subsequently, the responsive genes were investigated under three abiotic stresses where they showed differential and corresponsive expression patterns. An extensive annotation and transcriptome profiling undertaken in this study might be useful for understanding the involvement of MADS-box genes in stress resistance besides their growth and developmental functions, which ultimately will provide the basis for functional characterization and exploitation of the candidate genes in the genetic engineering study of B. rapa