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Recent interaction research has shown that corrective feedback may benefit L2 learners to varying degrees, and that certain types of feedback may be more beneficial than others, engendering much discussion and research attempts to investigate the issue. Goo`s (2012) study is one of those empirical attempts conducted in this line of research paradigm. The present study, as a conceptual replication of Goo`s original study, explores this on-going area of feedback research, the relative efficacy of different forms of corrective feedback, and whether/how phonological short-term memory (PSTM) mediates the impact of different feedback moves on the acquisition of the English that-trace filter. Twenty-nine adult high-intermediate Korean EFL learners were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a recast, metalinguistic feedback, and comparison groups. The study employed a pretest-posttest design. One intensive treatment session was implemented. Two dependent variable measures were developed/administered to assess learner performance: a timed grammaticality judgment test and a timed oral production test. Overall results showed that metalinguistic feedback was more effective than recasts at facilitating the acquisition of the target construction. PSTM was not found to be correlated with the effectiveness of recasts and metalinguistic feedback. Different patterns of learner performance were also observed depending upon the mode of dependent variable measure.
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The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) includes vasopressor neurons, which transmit activation signals to the intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of the spinal cord, where the preganglionic sympathetic nucleus is located, to raise arterial blood pressure (BP). However, controversy exists as to the possible depressor area in the RVLM and the pathway involved. The present study persued evidence far the location of depressor neurons and the pathway by simultaneously observing changes in BP and the firing rate (FR) of cardiovascular neurons (CVNs) in the RVLM during the somatosympathetic reflex (SSR) elicited by peripheral nerve stimulation, since CVNs are known to contribute to the generation of the sympathetic nerve discharge. In 42 cats, anaesthetized with α-chloralose, single unit recording was performed, using carbon filament electrodes inserted into the RVLM, enabling estimation of the post R wave unit histogram (PR-UNlT) and the spike triggered average of sympathetic nerve discharge (STA-SND), allowing identification of CVNs. Antidromic stimulation of spinal T<sub>2</sub> segment was followed to determine whether the identified CVN projects axonal endings to the spinal cord (reticulospinal neuron). The sciatic nerve was electrically stimulated at AΔ-intensity (1 mA, 0.1 ms), 1 Hz and C-intensity (10 mA, 0.5 ms), 20 Hz to elicit the depressor, and pressor responses of the SSR, respectively. Simultaneous measurement of CVN firing rate was made. Experimental results are summarized as follows. 1) 20 out of 98 CVNs had axonal projections to the spinal cord and 17 out of 98 CVNs showed FR changes during SSR. 2) Response patterns of FR and BP during SSR were classified into 8 types. 3) These 8 different response patterns could be further classified into those from pressor and depressor neurons. These results demonstrate that some CVNs were identifiable as reticulospinal neurons responding to anti-dromic stimulation and that CVNs operating as depressor neurons as well as pressor neurons exist in the RVLM, both of which are involved with SSR mediation. Therefore, evidence was found that an independent depressor pathway might be involved in the mediation of SSR.
Poster Presentation : 3,4-di(OH)-hydrocinnamate Inhibit Atherogenesis by the Inhibition of Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase in Cholesterol Fed Rabbit and Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Knock-out Mice
To replace hazardous methyl bromide (MB) post-fumigation on imported fruits, due to insufficient ventilation process in industrial practice, alternative fumigation with liquid ethyl formate (EF) with N2 application, which is multi benefits to safe to workplace and environment, has been developed by APQA. Although EF was found to be shown proven efficacy to invasive external feeders such as mealybugs and scales on export and imported fruits and vegetables, there was still some conflicts to accept one of the phytosanitary disinfestation method somewhere because of on reliable and confirmative studies on between MB and EF in terms of efficacy to mealybugs on perishable commodities. In here, we evaluated comparative efficacy of EF and MB to target citrus mealybug, which was seems to be hard control pest, based on the current disinfestation guideline of them in Korea. The potential benefits of using liquid ethyl formate (EF) for future quarantine use could provide for safer workplace involved on and post-fumigation such as cold and packing storages, cost-effectiveness as well as meet the environmental friendly solution.
본 논문에서는 방송에 사용되는 주파수 이용 현황을 조사, 분석하였다. 주파수 이용 기본 정비 방안과 세부추진 방안을 분석하여 바람직한 활용방안을 제시하였다. 주파수 할당을 위한 경매 제도를 분석하여 DTV 스펙트럼의 재활용 방안으로서의 적합성을 검토하였다. DTV의 리턴채널 가능성도 분석하였다. 분석한 결과를 토대로 3가지 활용방안을 제시하고 각 방안의 장단점도 언급하였다.
Plant were regenerated from the callus of A. altissimg cultured in vitro. In ourwork we have used explants that were obtained from shoot of wild tree. Callus were induced on MS medium supplemented with various concentration of growth regulators. The optimal concentration of growth regulators for callus induction was 0.1㎎/ℓ BA and 1.0㎎/ℓ 2, 4-D. For regeneration induced callus subcultured on MS medium supplemented with various combinaions of 2, 4-D and BA. when transferred to on medium containing 0.5㎎/ℓ BA arnI 0.1㎎/ℓ 2, 4-D. These shoots were rooted by transferring them to half strength MS medicum with non-phytohormones.
The way in which the forces are transmitted in the rolling contact between wheels and rails of rolling stocksis complex and highly nonlinear, and understanding of braking mechanism has a crucial role for the safety and efficiency of railroad vehicle operations. This paper proposes a real-time simulation unit, that is, a HILS system, which is able to analyze braking performance of railroad vehicles. It presents a dynamic model of a railroad vehicle including bogies, brake system, carbody and wheelsets, and a creep force relationship, and presents also the system configuration including an anti-skid control unit (ASCU) and dSPACE board. The validity of the proposed real-time simulation model is verified through simulation study for the tilting train, Hanvit-200 (TTX).