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Recent interaction research has shown that corrective feedback may benefit L2 learners to varying degrees, and that certain types of feedback may be more beneficial than others, engendering much discussion and research attempts to investigate the issue. Goo`s (2012) study is one of those empirical attempts conducted in this line of research paradigm. The present study, as a conceptual replication of Goo`s original study, explores this on-going area of feedback research, the relative efficacy of different forms of corrective feedback, and whether/how phonological short-term memory (PSTM) mediates the impact of different feedback moves on the acquisition of the English that-trace filter. Twenty-nine adult high-intermediate Korean EFL learners were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a recast, metalinguistic feedback, and comparison groups. The study employed a pretest-posttest design. One intensive treatment session was implemented. Two dependent variable measures were developed/administered to assess learner performance: a timed grammaticality judgment test and a timed oral production test. Overall results showed that metalinguistic feedback was more effective than recasts at facilitating the acquisition of the target construction. PSTM was not found to be correlated with the effectiveness of recasts and metalinguistic feedback. Different patterns of learner performance were also observed depending upon the mode of dependent variable measure.
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The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) includes vasopressor neurons, which transmit activation signals to the intermediolateral nucleus (IML) of the spinal cord, where the preganglionic sympathetic nucleus is located, to raise arterial blood pressure (BP). However, controversy exists as to the possible depressor area in the RVLM and the pathway involved. The present study persued evidence far the location of depressor neurons and the pathway by simultaneously observing changes in BP and the firing rate (FR) of cardiovascular neurons (CVNs) in the RVLM during the somatosympathetic reflex (SSR) elicited by peripheral nerve stimulation, since CVNs are known to contribute to the generation of the sympathetic nerve discharge. In 42 cats, anaesthetized with α-chloralose, single unit recording was performed, using carbon filament electrodes inserted into the RVLM, enabling estimation of the post R wave unit histogram (PR-UNlT) and the spike triggered average of sympathetic nerve discharge (STA-SND), allowing identification of CVNs. Antidromic stimulation of spinal T<sub>2</sub> segment was followed to determine whether the identified CVN projects axonal endings to the spinal cord (reticulospinal neuron). The sciatic nerve was electrically stimulated at AΔ-intensity (1 mA, 0.1 ms), 1 Hz and C-intensity (10 mA, 0.5 ms), 20 Hz to elicit the depressor, and pressor responses of the SSR, respectively. Simultaneous measurement of CVN firing rate was made. Experimental results are summarized as follows. 1) 20 out of 98 CVNs had axonal projections to the spinal cord and 17 out of 98 CVNs showed FR changes during SSR. 2) Response patterns of FR and BP during SSR were classified into 8 types. 3) These 8 different response patterns could be further classified into those from pressor and depressor neurons. These results demonstrate that some CVNs were identifiable as reticulospinal neurons responding to anti-dromic stimulation and that CVNs operating as depressor neurons as well as pressor neurons exist in the RVLM, both of which are involved with SSR mediation. Therefore, evidence was found that an independent depressor pathway might be involved in the mediation of SSR.
<P>This study extends the view that formal contracts and relational governance function as complements rather than as substitutes. We investigate how specific characteristics of service level agreements (SLAs) impact relational governance in information technology outsourcing relationships. Eleven contractual elements (categorized into three SLA characteristics: foundation, change, and governance characteristics) are hypothesized to act as complements of three relational governance attributes: relational norms, harmonious conflict resolution, and mutual dependence. Data for the study were collected through a survey of South Korean IT executives. Results of the study support the fundamental proposition of complementarity between formal contracts and relational governance, and indicate that well-structured SLAs have significant positive influence on the various aspects of relational governance in IT outsourcing relationships. However, the study also reveals that change characteristics of SLAs may act as a substitute for relational governance as these characteristics were found to dampen the level of trust and commitment through moderation effects. Overall, the findings support the proposition that well-developed SLAs not only provide a way to measure the service provider's performance, but also enable effective management of outsourcing engagements through the development of partnership-style relationships with high levels of trust and commitment.</P>
이 글은 1920년대 초반 식민지 조선에서 사회주의가 유행처럼 번져나갈 수 있었던 근본적 이유를 새로운 내면의 탄생이라는 흐름에서 살펴보았다. 3ㆍ1운동의 실패와 계속되는 서구열강들의 조선에 대한 정치적 무관심은 식민지 지식인들로 하여금 자기의 행복이라는 문제로 관심을 돌리게 만들었다. 그리하여 1920년대 초반 행복 담론이 급증하게 되는데, 이것은 개인의 위치가 재조정되는 과정이기도 했다. 당대의 지식인들은 개인의 행복을 위해 다양한 이론과 개념들을 차용했다. 그중에서 이 글은 노동개념이 부르주아 담론과 사회주의적 담론에서 공유되면서도 어떻게 차이를 보이는지를 살펴보았다. 이 과정에서 부르주아의 행복 담론이 사회와 민족의 발전을 위해 “도덕주의”에 입각하여 개인의 내면을 통제하고자 했으며, 사회주의적 행복 담론은 “윤리”를 강조하며 자기반성의 지식으로서 “사회주의”를 수용했음을 확인할 수 있었다. 사회주의를 이념사의 차원이 아니라 정신사의 영역에서 살펴보는 작업은 사회주의의 이념적 성격을 부정하는 것이 아니라, 그것이 당대의 민중들에게 강력한 영향력을 미치는 계기들을 살펴보는 작업이다. 이러한 점에서 1920년대 초반 국한된 논의이기는 하지만 사회주의와 윤리적 내면의 탄생이라는 현상은 본격적인 논의를 기다리고 있다. 이 글은 이를 위한 첫걸음에 불과할 뿐이다. The purpose of this article is to examine the fundamental reason that socialism could be flourishing like a fashion in the early 1920 of the Joseon Dynasty period, from the viewpoint of the advent of the inside. The failure of the Samil Undong and the continuous political negligence of Western powers about Joseon caused the intellectual of the colony to make them pay attention to their own happiness. In the early 1920s, happiness discourses were rapidly increasing, which was a restructuring course of individual position. The intellectual borrowed various theses and concepts for personal happiness. Of those, this article was to investigate how the concept of labor could share with discussion of bourgeois and social discussion and what difference it made between the two ideologies. In this context, it was ascertained that bourgeois' discussion of happiness tried to control individual's inside based on 'moralism' for development of the society and the nation, and discussion of social happiness underlined 'ethics' and accepted 'socialism' as knowledge of self?reflection. A process to find out socialism not from the ideological standpoint but from the spiritual viewpoint does not deny ideological characteristics of socialism but examines opportunities having a great influence on the people. At this point of view, although it is discussion limited to the early 1920s, the advent of socialism and the ethnical inside awaits the active discussion. This article is only the first step for that.
본 논문에서는 3차원 특이점분포법, 파의 상호간섭이론 및 유한요소법을 결합한 Goo등이 개발한 초대형 해양구조물의 동적응답 해석법과 스펙트럴 해석법을 이용하여 다수의 임의형상 지지부체간의 유체역학적 상호간섭을 고려한 다방향 불규칙파중의 초대형 해양구조물의 운동응답 및 구조응답의 유의치를 동시에 계산할 수 있는 동적응답 해석법을 개발하였으며, 반잠수식 Ring 형상의 초대형 해양구조물을 수치계산 모델로 하여 구조물의 동적응답에 미치는 상호간섭과 다방향파의 영향을 평가하였다. A numerical procedure is described for predicting the motion and structural responses of the very large floating offshore structures supported by multiple 3-D floating bodies of arbitrary shape in multi-directional irregular waves. The developed numerical approach taking into account of the hydrodynamic interactions among the multiple floating bodies is based on a combination of the 3-D source distribution method, the wave interaction theory, the finite element method and the spectral analysis method to get the significant values of the dynamic responses in the multi-directional irregular waves. The effects of wave interactions and directionality on the dynamic responses of a very large offshore structure, which is semisubmersible ring type, are numerically examined.
Inspite of immunization, TETANUS remains a disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Tetanus has been still occurred more frequently in developing countries where immunization programs are inadequate. In Korea, there is a routine immunuzation schedule with diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus(DPT) vaccines at 2,4,6 month after birth at 18 month. But further prophylactic programs are not exist. Moreover, we have usually used only passive immunization, tetanus antitoxin, as a prophylactic regimen for injured patients instead of guidelines of Center for Disease Control. The purpose of this study was to assess the baseline tetanus immunity state and to suggest the proper immunization schedule and adequate prophylactic guideline for injured patients in Korea. One hundred thirty one trauma patients from emergency department of Severance hospital from September to November of 1993 were included. Antietanus antibody titers of the patients were analyzed by ELISA assay. The mean antitetanus antibody titer was 0.728 ±0.236IU/mL. The titers were diminished rapidly with age. In pediatric group(age under 15), the mean titer was 3.251 ±0.426 IU/mL and in geriatric group(age over 64), the mean titer was 0.007 ±0.002 IU/mL which was below the minimal protective antibody titer(0.01 IU/mL). While all of the pediatric patients have protective antibody titer, only 69.2% of young adults(15-39, n=65), 56.7% of adults(40-64, n=30), and 57.2% of geriatrics(>65, n=14) have protective antibody titer. Our results suggest that tetanus prophylaxis is unnecessary in the age under 14. In other age groups, however, our data strongly support the need of prophyulaxis.
Article 176 of the Japanese Civil Law enacted in Korea until December 31, 1959 prescribes the intentionism on transfer of a real right. However, the Korean Civil Law, which was legislated on February 22, 1958 and enacted from January 1, 1960, changed its principle to formalism. According to this principle of transfer of a real right in the Civil Law, if a person concludes a contract to buy another person's property and pays all of the proceeds of the sale, and if the property is not fulfilled a registration of ownership transfer, a purchaser can not acquire ownership of the property. And According to the principle of joint application for registration in the Registration of Real Estate Act, the ownership transfer registration must be filed jointly by the seller and the buyer. Therefore, if the real estate seller has not filed a valid application for registration, the ownership transfer registration to the buyer is invalid, and the buyer can’t acquire the ownership. However, the Supreme Court has established and maintains a case law stating that it is valid registration if it is coincide with the substantive relation, even if the registration is made by the forged application form for registration. And many theories support it. In this paper, I introduced many precedents of the Supreme Court on this issue, and examined the major three precedents of the Supreme Court and the original judgement. And I proved that the case law can just conceded before enacting the Civil Law, which was legislated on February 22, 1958 and enacted from 1960, but not under the principles in the current Civil Law and the Registration of Real Estate Act. 1959. 12. 31.까지 우리나라에 시행된 일본 「민법」 제176조는 부동산 물권변동에 관해 의사주의 원칙을 규정하고 있지만, 1958. 2. 22. 제정되어 1960. 1. 1.부터 시행되고 있는 우리 「민법」은 그 원칙을 형식주의로 변경했다. 이러한 우리 「민법」의 물권변동 원칙에 의하면 어떤 자가 타인의 부동산을 매수하는 계약을 체결한 다음 매매대금을 모두 지급했다고 하더라도 「부동산등기법」에 따른 소유권이전등기를 경료하지 않으면 그 매수인은 그 부동산에 관한 소유권을 취득할 수 없고, 「부동산등기법」에 규정되어 있는 공동신청주의 원칙에 의하면 그 소유권이전등기는 매도인(등기의무자)과 매수인(등기권리자)이 공동으로 신청해야 한다. 따라서 부동산 매도인이 적법･유효한 등기신청을 하지 않았는데도 매수인 앞으로 소유권이전등기가 경료되었다면 그 등기는 무효고, 매수인은 그 등기가 공시하는 소유권을 취득할 수 없다고 해야 한다. 그런데도 대법원은 ‘위조된 등기신청서에 의해 경료된 소유권이전등기라고 하더라도 그것이 실체관계에 부합하면 유효하다’고 하는 판례 법리를 형성･유지하고 있고, 다수의 학설도 이를 지지･동조하고 있다. 이에 필자는 판례 법리를 형성하고 있는 대법원 판결들의 요지를 소개하고, 그 판결들 중 학설에 의해 가장 많이 원용되고 있는 주요판결 3개와 그 원심판결들을 분석･검토한 다음 위와 같은 판례 법리는 일본 「민법」이 시행될 당시에 부동산 소유권을 취득한 자가 1965. 12. 31. 이전에 소유권이전등기를 단독으로 경료한 사안에 대해 인정할 수 있는 여지가 있을 뿐 우리 「민법」과 「부동산등기법」의 법원칙 아래에서는 인정할 여지가 없다는 점을 논증했다.
For the consumer use VCR, the quantizer is selected based on CLASS and QNO. CLASS is determined for each DCT block according to the characteristics of the block, for example, the maximum value of AC coefficients. Six DCT blocks comprise a macroblock for which a QNO is determined. All of the quantizers defined in the specifications are numvbered from 0 to 15 by QNO. Different quantizers can be referenced by the same QNO and are discriminated by CLASS. In this paper, we propose a new method to determine these parameters, QNO and CLASS, for the selection of a quantizer per each DCT block. We first determine QNO for a macroblock and then fine-tune the quantizers by adjusting CLASS of each DCT block. For this we propose a modified quantizer map with a reduced set of quantizers, which preserves the compatibility with the conventional one. The results of our experiment show that our method outperforms the conventional method.
Epatein's(l992) Economy approach explains a peculiar restriction on the occurrence of WH-phrases in multiple questions in languages like English, the-fact that a wh-phrase normally may not undergo any kind of S-structure movement if it is to undergo LF-movement to a [+WH] position m a second step. However, we have seen that there are certain contexts where a WH-phrase can in fact optionally undergo S-structure movement, and subsequently move to its [+WH] scope position at LF, contrary to what is predicted by Economy. Such a situation occurs with partial WH-movement, WH-movement, WH-imperatives, WH-pied piping, WH-scrambling, and WH-reconstruction in languages as &verse as German, Korean, etc. Accordingly, we have suggested dispensing with the hypothesis that Economy restricts movement, and have advanced an approach in terms of the Principle of Unambiguous Binding(PUB). We have shown that the PUB accounts for all the data covered by the Economy approach - it rules out the pertinent constructions as improper movement configurations. At the same time, The PUB evades the objections raised against Economy. Furthermore, it sheds some new light on the classic issue of whether LF movement of WH-phrases may or may not apply successive-cyclically : WH-movement at LF can be successive-cyclic only if positions of the same type are involved, but not if movement mixes Spec-CP substitution positions and Spec-CP adjoined positions.
In this paper, we have defined the concept of MPEG-2 transcoder and analyzed its requirements. The concept of MPEG-2 transcoding is related to the changing or scaling the amount of data in a previously encoded MPEG bitstream. We proposed a desirable transcoding structure and a rate control algorithm after analyzing the previous works. Our development consists of three parts which are the coding structure, the rate control and the quantizer model. Since the proposed transcoder is mainly used in a broadcasting system, coding structure should meet the requirement of picture quality. In the rate control, we have enhanced the TM5 and several other previous results. Also MPEG-2 scalable profile is considered for its usefulness in bitrate scaling. We have concluded that the scalable profile is not useful for the linear bit rate changing.