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      • 韓國寺刹의 造景計劃에 關한 硏究 : Ⅰ. 華嚴道場의 造景計劃 Ⅰ. An Avatamska Buddhist Seminary Landscape

        楊水龍,사공영보 진주산업대학교 1984 論文集 Vol.22 No.-

        When the ancient temples of Korea were built, the arrangement of building, stylobate, etc. the Gidan of them had been emphasized in the good order hierachy, but the most of the recent built temples has been arranged the spaces without considering the good order of hierachy and buddhist doctrine. So this kind of study became necessity to purify and recover the orignal function for the trainning places of Buddhism. This study was carried out to suggest the way and the principles what construction of temples will be created the Buddha's mercy for the buddhist and the common people with the help of organizing the spaces. and buildings based on the Budhist comology of life especially adaptation of three types of world(the world of desires, the sexual world and the unsexual world) and the results were summarized as follows; 1. Selecting the location for building the temple The location for building the temples is selected in the center of hillock axis, where hillock is placed in the nice view from forest and river. When the places are sel ected, the comprehensive thought both Pungsuziri theory and supernatural thought which has been effected from ancient religion of Korea like the mountain god or shaman and buddhist culture which has been introduces from China are considered. 2. The function of temple The temple, the holy place of religious austerties, has the following functions; 1) Polemic function of buddhist 2) Function of religious ceremony 3) accomplishing function of meditation 4) Living function 5) Function of religious affairs 6) Entering function 7) Function of production(Vegetable garden and orchard) 8) Function of enviromental conservation 9) Function buddhist sermon and buddhist education etc. 3. The arrangement and the order of hierachy of building and the space organization; The temple is organized based on the system of one pagoda­three main temples­two halles in both side, the landuse and circulation system is planed according to the function. 1) After the main temple (Dae Woong Jeon) is constructed, the other buildings are done. the height of pallar and stylobate of the main temple is done with 424.2㎝ and 120㎝. The area of the main temple is 9 gan by 4 gen or 5 gen by 4gan. 2) The height of the other buildings' pallar is 10ja (303㎝) or 12ja (363.6㎝). The height of Myungbu jeon's stylobate is 2ja(60㎝) and the area of the other buildings is 5Gan by 3Gan. 3) The height of Gak's paller and stylobate is 6Ja (191.8㎝) and 2Ja (30㎝) and the area of Gak is 1 or 2Gan by 1Gan. 4) The height of two halls'; meditation hall and monk's living hall, is 9Ja (272.7㎝) and 8Ja(242.4㎝) and the height of stylobate is 2Ja (60㎝). The area of halls is decided with width of 2Gan into and with length according to the number of monks is accomodated. 5) The hight of training hall for both buddhists and monks and stylobate is 272.7㎝ and 60㎝. The area of this hall is decided with 7 or 9Gan into 3Gan. [The Space Organization] The space is balanced according to the hill axis using the number 3 and 6 some from 3 worlds and 6 Deva, based on the Dori Deva the space of Pagoda is distributed into Moo Saek world, the space from Cheon Wang Gate to Buligate is symbolized into Saek world, and the space of Gyeong Ip is symbolized into Yock world. This again divided into 6 each of 6 Yock Cheon is divided into same ratio (half of 18 Gan or 27 Gan which is symbolic of 18 Cheon Sack world). The length between Iℓjoo gate and San gate is 8 time of 18Gan or 27Gan which is symbolic of 8 Yeom, 8Gak, 8 Dae Ji Ock etc. The space is distributed into the space block and the space plot. 4. The system and patten of circulation; The circulation system is organized branch type, and the pattern is made into square ring type, T­grid type and U type. 5. The distribution and symbol of landscaping facilitiese ① The stairs in front of Dae Woong Jeon are devided into 3­middle stairs, the stairs out side of the middle stairs or the plain. The stairs of 5 enterence gate is made in the center of the building's but the stairs of other Jen Gak is made in the center and in the side Jen Gak. The other building's stairs is made also in the side of stereobate's facade, base on the formula of 2a th=60∼65㎝. ② The pagoda is made is the center of meditation space. The length of stylobate is 4Ja(1.2m) that symbolized the 4 Deva of Moo Saek world. Bong Bal pagoda is built in front of Yong wha temple. ③ The stone lantern is stalled in suitable place likein in the front of the center pagoda and beside of road. Pal­Hae­Gong Deak pond is made in front of square island and beside of stone bridge which is in front of Il Ju Moon and a bright future of paramita is created. ④ Gong Deak lotus pond and Bang Wha pond is built according to the supposed plan map's Ryong pond is built in Yeang San temple. When it's impole to build the Gong Deak lotus pond in front of Il­Ju gate, pond and rainbow bridge is built in the stream. In the cardinal points of Gong Deok lotus pond, 8 square stone bench is arranged in each place, and symbolized 32 Cheon, Beside the square stone bench. a censer type wastebasket is arranged. This stone benches and the wastebaskets are also placed around parking place and outside of domitory. ⑤ This paved road with stone and stepping stone is arranged on the road of main axis and sub axis according to the development of the economic situation. ⑥ Pal­JungDo stone is arranged in front of Zoabul statue of square island and in the center of the stair of Jung Roo gate. Dan Gan stone pillar is arranged on the right and left side Dae Woong Zen and Jung Roo gate. Chalgan stone pillar is arranged in front rainbow bridge of Gong Duk lotus pond. When the pond is not built, this is arranged in between Il Ju gate and the space of Buddo Bee Moon. Wean Pyo stone pillar is built with the purpose of advertizement board near and in front of Il Ju Gate. Steps stone, Cake stone, cistern etc. is arranged in necessary places. 6. Planting plan and selection of plants In planting plan in temple symmetry planting pair planting , row planting, solitary planting, Group planting is employed according to the plan map. The plants related with Buddha's idealogy and historic tradition are as follows; Those are Gink gobiliba, Abies holophylla, Zelkova serrata, Tilia sp, Juniperus Chinensis, Pinus Koraiensis, Pinus Pumila, Pinus Thunbergii, Camellia japonica, Lagerstroemia indic, Prunus Mume, Juglans mandshurica, Sophora japonica, Celtis sinensis, Pinus Bungeana, Betula Platypyhylla var, japnica, Quwecus sp, llex cornuta, Euonymus japonica, Magnolia denudata, bamboo, Castanea sp, Zyphus jujuba M. var. inermis, Vitis sp, Diospyros Koki, Shrubby Althaea, Taxus cuspidala, Taxus cuspidata var. nana, Paulownia, coreana, Buxus sp, Rhododendron schlippenbachoo, Campsic grandiflra, Paeonia suffruticoca, Paeonia albiflora, Chaenomeles lagenaria, Hosta plantaginea var. japonica, Chrysanthemum sp., Phlox paniculata, Belamcanda chinensis, Hollyhock, Nelumbo nucifera, lris ensata var. hortensis, Lycoris radiata, Lycoris squamigera, Lilium sp, Musa basjoo, Salvia splendens, Cymbidium virescens, etc. Finally the way and the principle of temple garden design is sujested that Deva San soo poong or Deva Jung do Lim chun poong are adaptated base on sacred place and immaculacy meditation created from Buddha's mercy.

      • SCOPUS

        An Optimized Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Clustering

        An,Gong,Yun,Gao,Xingmin,Ma,Wenjuan,Gong,Huayu,Li,Zhen,Gao 보안공학연구지원센터 2016 International Journal of Control and Automation Vol.9 No.4

        K-means algorithm is sensitive to initial cluster centers and its solutions are apt to be trapped in local optimums. In order to solve these problems, we propose an optimized ar-tificial bee colony algorithm for clustering. The proposed method first obtains optimized sources by improving the selection of the initial clustering centers; then, uses a novel dy-namic local optimization strategy utilizing roulette wheel selection algorithm for further enhancing local optimization. To prove its effectiveness, we validate the proposed algo-rithm on four datasets from UCI and compared the results with K-means, K-means++ and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. Experiment results show that the proposed algo-rithm performs better than other clustering algorithms.

      • KCI등재

        Insight Into the Crystallinity of Chinese Ancient Silk by Synchrotron Radiation-Based and Conventional X-ray Diffraction Methods

        Gong,,Decai,Zhang,,Xiaoning,Gong,,Yuxuan The Korean Society Of Conservation Science For Cul 2020 보존과학회지 Vol.36 No.1

        This study investigates the crystallinity distribution of ancient silk. Owing to the inherent multi-hierarchical structure of silk protein and the complicated structural changes that occur due to various burial environments, it is challenging but worthwhile to study ancient silk ageing behavior, which is based on the fact that ageing begins with a single fiber and then spreads to a whole fabric. Crystallinity was one of the most effective indicators found to reveal the ageing status of silk. Therefore, a synchrotron radiation-based X-ray diffraction(SR-XRD) method was employed to study the crystallinity distribution of single fibers of ancient silk unearthed from seven archaeological sites in China from historical periods including the warring states, Han dynasty, Song dynasty, and Ming dynasty. In comparison, the conventional X-ray diffraction method, which uses large amounts of samples, was also performed to determine the integral crystallinity of ancient silk. Thermal stability experiments by thermogravimetry(TG) as well as morphology observations by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and optical microscopy(OM) all confirmed the deterioration of ancient silk. Moreover, the ageing mechanism of ancient silk was proposed with the assistance of an artificial ageing study. The results confirmed the effectiveness of SR-XRD as an ageing indicator, revealing the crystallinity distribution. This research could provide motivation to determine the deterioration status of ancient silk, and would also aid in explaining the fragility of ancient silk due to ageing.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Accelerating the Sweep3D for a Graphic Processor Unit

        Gong,,Chunye,Liu,,Jie,Chen,,Haitao,Xie,,Jing,Gong,,Zhenghu Korea Information Processing Society 2011 Journal of information processing systems Vol.7 No.1

        As a powerful and flexible processor, the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) can offer a great faculty in solving many high-performance computing applications. Sweep3D, which simulates a single group time-independent discrete ordinates (Sn) neutron transport deterministically on 3D Cartesian geometry space, represents the key part of a real ASCI application. The wavefront process for parallel computation in Sweep3D limits the concurrent threads on the GPU. In this paper, we present multi-dimensional optimization methods for Sweep3D, which can be efficiently implemented on the finegrained parallel architecture of the GPU. Our results show that the overall performance of Sweep3D on the CPU-GPU hybrid platform can be improved up to 4.38 times as compared to the CPU-based implementation.

      • KCI등재

        Insight Into the Crystallinity of Chinese Ancient Silk by Synchrotron Radiation-Based and Conventional X-ray Diffraction Methods

        Decai,Gong,Xiaoning,Zhang,Yuxuan,Gong 한국문화재보존과학회 2020 보존과학회지 Vol.36 No.1

        This study investigates the crystallinity distribution of ancient silk. Owing to the inherent multi-hierarchical structure of silk protein and the complicated structural changes that occur due to various burial environments, it is challenging but worthwhile to study ancient silk ageing behavior, which is based on the fact that ageing begins with a single fiber and then spreads to a whole fabric. Crystallinity was one of the most effective indicators found to reveal the ageing status of silk. Therefore, a synchrotron radiation-based X-ray diffraction(SR-XRD) method was employed to study the crystallinity distribution of single fibers of ancient silk unearthed from seven archaeological sites in China from historical periods including the warring states, Han dynasty, Song dynasty, and Ming dynasty. In comparison, the conventional X-ray diffraction method, which uses large amounts of samples, was also performed to determine the integral crystallinity of ancient silk. Thermal stability experiments by thermogravimetry(TG) as well as morphology observations by scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and optical microscopy(OM) all confirmed the deterioration of ancient silk. Moreover, the ageing mechanism of ancient silk was proposed with the assistance of an artificial ageing study. The results confirmed the effectiveness of SR-XRD as an ageing indicator, revealing the crystallinity distribution. This research could provide motivation to determine the deterioration status of ancient silk, and would also aid in explaining the fragility of ancient silk due to ageing.

      • KCI등재후보
      • KCI등재

        논문 : 열처리공학회지,제27권 제1호(2014) : GZO/ZnO 적층박막의 두께변화에 따른 구조적, 전기적, 광학적 물성 변화

        김승홍 ( Seung Hong Gong ), 김선경 ( Dong Kyung Kim ), 김소영 ( So Young Kim ), 전재현 ( Jae Hyun Jeon ), 공태경 ( Tae Kyung Gong ), 최동혁 ( Dong Hyuk Choi ), 손동일 ( Dong Ll Son ), 김대일 ( Daeil Kim ) 한국열처리공학회 2014 熱處理工學會誌 Vol.27 No.1

        Ga doped ZnO (GZO) single layer and GZO/ZnO bi-Iayered films were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering and then the influence of film thickness on the structural, electrical. and optical properties of the films was considered, Thicknesses of the GZO/ZnO films was varied as GZO 100 nm, GZO 85 nm/ZnO 15 nm and GZO 70 nm/ZnO 30 nm, respectively The observed result means that optical transmittance and electrical resistivity of the films were influenced with film thickness and GZO 85 nm/ZnO 15 nm bilayered films show the higher figure of merit than that of the films prepared other films in this study,

      • 철도노반의 BTB옹벽 하중지지 매커니즘

        공민석(Min-Seok Gong), 박용걸(Yong-Geol Park), 사공명(Gong-Myung Sa) 한국철도학회 2013 한국철도학회 학술발표대회논문집 Vol.2013 No.11

        본 연구의 목적은 철도노반의 BTB형식의 보강토 옹벽 적용에 있어서 구조적 안정확보를 위한 보다 명확한 보강재 포설조건을 파악하는 데 있다. 이를 위해 본 연구에서는 기존의 연구 사례 및 이론을 파악 분석 하였으며 추가적으로 옹벽의 폭과 이에 따른 보강재 포설길이를 매개변수로 하여 유한요소해석을 수행하였으며, 매개변수에 따른 보강재의 하중지지 특성 및 옹벽 배면의 파괴 경향을 분석 하였다. 그 결과 옹벽의 폭에 따라 보강재 포설길이에 따른 하중지지 특성에 차이가 발생 하였으며 및 하중지지 특성에 따라 배면의 파괴 경향 역시 상이한 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of this study is that reinforced retaining wall of the BTB railway roadbed in the application form to ensure structural stability for the more specific construction conditions. Therefore the study analyses a failure mechanism and load carry characteristics by theoretical understanding and performing of FEM In the results it determines that construction conditions following width of BTB wall and reinforcements length is crucial parameters in failure mechanism and load carry characteristics

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