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Obesity is an epidemic disease characterized by an increased inflammatory state and chronic oxidative stress with high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, obesity alters cholesterol metabolism with increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols and triglycerides and decreases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterols. It has been shown that mulberry leaf and fruit ameliorated hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic conditions in obese and diabetic subjects. We hypothesized that supplementation with mulberry leaf combined with mulberry fruit (MLFE) ameliorate cholesterol transfer proteins accompanied by reduction of oxidative stress in the high fat diet induced obesity. Mice were fed control diet (CON) or high fat diet (HF) for 9 weeks. After obesity was induced, the mice were administered either the HF or the HF with combination of equal amount of mulberry leaf and fruit extract (MLFE) at 500mg/kg/day by gavage for 12 weeks. MLFE treatment ameliorated HF induced oxidative stress demonstrated by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and modulated the expression of 2 key proteins involved in cholesterol transfer such as scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1) and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in the HF treated animals. This effect was mainly noted in liver tissue rather than in cutaneous tissue. Collectively, this study demonstrated that MLFE treatment has beneficial effects on the modulation of high fat diet-induced oxidative stress and on the regulation of cholesterol transporters. These results suggest that MLFE might be a beneficial substance for conventional therapies to treat obesity and its complications.
이 논문에서는 Ceri di Gubbio 의 축제가 어떻게 열리는지 볼 수 있습니다. 이태리에는 군주들의 축제가 많습니다. 이 축제는 이태리 군주들의 축제 중의 하나입니다. 그러나 특별한 형태의 축제입니다. Gubbio 의 수호성인이자 애국자인 Ubaldo 주교의 죽음을 기념하기 위하여 매년 5월 15일날 열립니다. 그날 사람들은 3개의 큰 Ceri를 가지고 Consoli 광장에서부터 Igino 산 위에 있는 Ubaldo 성인의 대성당까지 힘겨운 오르막을 뛰어갑니다. 그 때 이를 구경하러온 주위 도시 사람들과 많은 관광객들은 흥분하여 열광합니다. 이 축제는 언제부터 시작되었는지 역사적으로 잘 모르지만 아마도 Gubbio 시민들이 수호성인께 초를 바치기 위하여 시작된 것이라고 생각합니다.
This paper is focused on the characterization of the thermomechanical properties of semicrystalline poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEKK) and of carbon fiberreinforced thermoplastic based laminated composites (C/PEKK) below and above the glass transition temperature (T<sub>g</sub>). Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and tensile tests are carried out on both pure PEKK polymer and [(±45)<sub>2</sub>, +45]<sub>s</sub> C/PEKK composite samples, showing a significant similarity in behavior. The employment of a simple micromechanical model confirms that the mechanical and physical behavior of the polymer and that of the matrix in the composite are similar.
Visconti,,Giuseppe,Bianchi,,Alessandro,Hayashi,,Akitatsu,Cina,,Alessandro,Maccauro,,Giulio,Almadori,,Giovanni,Salgarello,,Marzia Korean Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surge 2020 Archives of Plastic Surgery Vol.47 No.4
The ability to directly harvest thin and superthin perforator flaps without jeopardizing their vascularity depends on knowledge of the microsurgical vascular anatomy of each perforator within the subcutaneous tissue up to the dermis. In this paper, we report our experience with ultrahigh-frequency ultrasound (UHF-US) in the preoperative planning of thin and superthin flaps. Between May 2017 and September 2018, perforators of seven patients were preoperatively evaluated by both ultrasound (using an 18-MHz linear probe) and UHF-US (using 48- and 70-MHz linear probes). Thin flaps (two cases) and superthin flaps (five cases) were elevated for the reconstruction of head and neck oncologic defects and lower limb traumatic defects. The mean flap size was 6.5×15 cm (range, 5×8 to 7.5×23 cm). No complications occurred, and all flaps survived completely. In all cases, we found 100% agreement between the preoperative UHF-US results and the intraoperative findings. The final reconstructive outcomes were considered satisfactory by both the surgeon and the patients. In conclusion, UHF-US was found to be very useful in the preoperative planning of thin and superthin free flaps, as it allows precise anticipation of very superficial microvascular anatomy. UHF-US may represent the next frontier in thin, superthin, and pure skin perforator flap design.
Two aspects of the design of a small-scale smart wing are addressed in this work, related to the ability of the wing to modify its cross section assuming the shape of two different airfoils and to the possibility of deflecting the profiles near the trailing edge in order to obtain hingeless control surfaces. The actuation is provided by one-way shape memory alloy wires eventually coupled to springs, Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) being among the most promising materials for this kind of applications. The points to be actuated along the profiles and the displacements to be imposed are selecetd so that they satisfactorily approximate the change from an airfoil to the other and to result in an adequate deflection of the control surface; the actuators and their performances are designed so that an adequate wing stiffness is guaranteed, in order to prevent excessive deformations and undesired airfoil shape variations due to aerodynamic loads. The effect of the pressure distributions, calculated by way of the XFOIL software, and of the actuators loads, is estimated by FE analyses of the loaded wing. Two prototypes are then realised incorporating the variable airfoil and the hingeless aileron features respectively, and the verification of their shapes in both the actuated and non-actuated states, supported by image analysis techniques, confirms that interesting results are achievable with the proposed lay out and design considerations.
Mario Pomilio is a contemporary Italian writer born in Orsegna <Chieti> on Junuary 14, 1921 and died in Naples on April 3, 1990. He is professor in the University of Naples and is a member of the European parliament. Some of his works are: “L'uccello nella Cupola,”(1954) “It Testimone”, “Il Nuovo Corso,” “La Compromissione,” that was awarded the Premio Campiello, “It Cimitero Cinese,” “Il Quinto Evangelio,” that made him famous abroad. “Il Cane sull'Etna,” and “Il Natale del 1833,” that won that Premio strega. Pomilio defines himse리 as “confessor of souls” These words give him the attribute of being a Catholic but his catholicity lies in his disposition of putting himself in the shoes of the characters who confess to him or who he confesses. All his characters are intellectuals who live facing life with its clashes with problems, ideas, and ideals. The well known of them all is Alessandro Manzoni. Pomilio was socialist when he was young and was converted to Christianity when he was an adult. He was an independent writer who tried always to dialogue with every man despite color or ideology and he succeeded.
This paper deals with frequency analysis of Euler-Bernoulli beams carrying an arbitrary number of Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic dampers, subjected to harmonic loads. Multiple external/internal dampers occurring at the same position along the beam axis, modeling external damping devices and internal damping due to damage or imperfect connections, are considered. The challenge is to handle simultaneous discontinuities of the response, in particular bending-moment/rotation discontinuities at the location of external/internal rotational dampers, shear-force/deflection discontinuities at the location of external/internal translational dampers. Following a generalized function approach, the paper will show that exact closed-form expressions of the frequency response under point/polynomial loads can readily be derived, for any number of dampers. Also, the exact dynamic stiffness matrix and load vector of the beam will be built in a closed analytical form, to be used in a standard assemblage procedure for exact frequency response analysis of frames.
Adaptive wings are capable of properly modifying their shape depending on the current aerodynamic conditions, in order to improve the overall performance of a flying vehicle. In this paper is presented the concept design of a small-scale compliant wing rib whose outline may be distorted in order to switch from an aerodynamic profile to another. The distortion loads are induced by shape memory alloy actuators placed within the frame of a wing section whose elastic response is predicted by the matrix method with beam formulation. Genetic optimization is used to find a wing rib structure (corresponding to the first airfoil) able to properly deforms itself when loaded by the SMA-induced forces, becoming as close as possible to the desired target shape (second airfoil). An experimental validation of the design procedure is also carried out with reference to a simplified structure layout.