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      • 칼빈과 한국장로교회의 학파별 신론 비교연구 -하나님의 속성과 사역을 중심으로-

        조봉근 ( Bong Geun Cho ) 광신대학교 출판부 2013 光神論壇 Vol.22 No.-

        Are the Korean Presbyterian churches actually continuing and developing Calvin s theology? Galvin s Theology is the Creed in which every protestant denomination normally accepts as well as being accepted by the Orthodox Conservative Presbyterian Church. These days, all heretics reject Christian Theology of John Calvin (the Attributes & Works of God),and also they do not believe the theory of Creation and Providence. So we cannot find out the real Truth behind their Doctrine of God (the theory of Creation and Providence). Unfortunately, they urges Pantheism, Deism, and Evolutionism rather than Orthodox Doctrine. According to Timothy George<sup>89</sup>, neither Reformer Luther nor Zwingli devoted much attention to the theory of Creation and Providence. Both accepted the Orthodox formulations of the oneness and threeness of God developed by the early church councils, but neither felt compelled to elaborate on this teaching. At the beginning of his career Calvin too followed this pattern. The first edition of the Institutes contained only a meager statement on the theory of Creation and Providence. Chai-Choon Kim of Radical Presbyterian Church of Korea was largely influenced by Karl Barth, Bultmann School and Jurgen Moltmann. Although Minjung Theology of Korea itself boast of originality, on dose inspection, Minjung Theology of Korea is almost identical to Liberation theology derived from South America & Moltmann. And most of liberal theologians who belongs to English Academic School denies the theory of Creation and Providence. Such trend like these prevents and challenges the Apostle's Orthodox Greed, and I am now trying to compare the writings on the theory of Creation and Providence between John Calvin and Korean theological Scholars. The theory of Creation and Providence were not to be understood as divisions. There was one God who knows Himself and who has revealed Himself as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Trinity was the foundation of salvation for only could one who was truly God redeem those who were utterly lost. In the liturgy of baptism and in the doxology faith in the Trinity was confessed not in order to fully define the being of God but only not to be silent before the mystery of His presence. Dr. Hyung-Neng Park of Conservative Presbyterian Church of Korea was greatly influenced ty Louis Berkhof. Berkhof was not known for being original or speculative but for being very good at organizing and explaining basic theological ideas following in the tradition of John Calvin, Abraham Kuyper and Herman Bavinck. Theologian Wayne Grudem has called Berkhof's Systematic Theology “a great treasure-house of information and analysis, probably the most useful one-volume systematic theology available from any theological perspective.” Berkhof's writings continue to serve as systematic presentations of Reformed theology. They are organized for use in seminaries and religious education as well as individual reference, though his systematics works are demanding reads. The first edition of the Institutes contained only a meager statement on the theory of Creation and Providence. So, Timothy George<sup>90</sup> says as follows. “Having derived from Scripture the Triune nature of God, Calvin next described the activity of God in relation to the world in creation and providence. These doctrines, fall under the general rubric of the “Knowledge of God the Creator” in contrast to the “Knowledge of God the Redeemer,” which Calvin discussed in Books II-IV of the Institutes.” Dr. Chai-Ghoon Kim of Korean Radical Presbyterian Church was largely influenced by Karl Barth, Bultmann School and Jurgen Moltmann. Although Minjung Theology of Korea boast of originality, on dose inspection, Minjung Theology of Korea is almost identical to Liberation theology derived from Moltmann. Also, Most of liberal theologians who belongs to English Academic School denies the theory of Creation and Providence. Such trend like these prevents and challenges the jostle s Orthodox Creed, and I am now trying to compare the writings on the theory of Creation and Providence between John Calvin and Korean theological Scholars. Professor Hyung-Nong Park, origin scholar of Hyung-Nong Park's school was hugely influenced by American scholar, Professor Gresham Machen. Of course, H. N. Park himself in the prefab of his book testified he was influenced by the following scholars; Charles Hedge<sup>91</sup>, A. A. Hedge<sup>92</sup>, B. B. Warfield, Dabney, Shedd, H. Smith, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, G. Vos, and A. H. Strong. However, when describing the attributes of God, H. N. Park in fact mostly employed the farm of the American scholar, Louis Berkhof.<sup>93</sup> Hence evidently we can identify Louis Berkhof was H. N. Park's biggest influence. In H. N. Fork's book, “Dogmatic theology Volume Two (Doctrine of God)”, the attributes of God is divided into two groups: ““uncommunicable attributes.” and communicable attributes”. Uncommunicable attributes is divided into four parts:“absoluteness(Self-existence),immutability, infinity and uniquenessfonenessy”<sup>94</sup> and communicable attributes of divided into five groups: “spiritual discussed in terms of the attributes, intellectual, moral attributes, the attribute of the sovereign, wealthy attribute.”<sup>95</sup> In inspect to the “Work of God”, within the ‘Eternal Works', the “Divine Decrees” and ‘Predestination' are described whereas the ‘Creation' and the ‘Predestination' are covered within the “Temporal Works”. Providence when dealing with the Work, “Universal or General(Ordinary) Providence,” as well as “Special Providence” and “Extraordinary Providence(Miracles)” (transitive) are closely covered. However, all of the above explanations that he used were originally taken from Herman Bavinck's Reformed Dogmatics rather than Louis Berkhof's Systematic Theology, As a former student of Hyung-Nong Park, Professor Bong-Geun Cho of Kwang Shin University has written four books : Reformed Theology, Core of Essential Theology, Biblical Dogmatic Theology and An Outline of Modern Reformed Dogmatics concerning Textbook of Theology. Almost all of which reconfirms Hyung-Nong Park's theology. On the other hand, Dr. Chul-Won Suh in his “Lecture Notes”, he dealt with the summary, the name of God, the nature of God, the attributes of God, the Trinity and the work of God (intend, scheduled, creation, providence). Especially in the “Doctrine of God”, he dealt with “absolute attribute” (Self-existence, simplicity, infinity, immutability) and analogic 1 attributes”(life, intellect, commitment, love, of, sovereignty). In the “Work of God” he discussed “dealing with intend (expected)” and “Election and Reprobation.” He then discussed the “Election before the downfall(supralapsarianism) and Election after the downfall(infralapsarianism) After that he followed the discussion with the 'theory of creation then refuted against “the opposite theory(dualism, theory of emanation, and evolutionism). He divided “spiritual world” from the “material world” and explained and compared the two. He pointed out the mistakes in “Deism and Pantheism” when dealing with ‘Providence.' “Special providence(Preservation, Concurrence, Government)” and '"Extraordinary Providence” were discussed with most of the credit going to Cornelius Van Til and reused general scheme from reformed theologians. Professor Moon―Ho Ha of Calvin University of Korea in Seoul, in his book, “Dogmatic Theology, Volume 2: Doctrine of God” he discussed “does God exist?” and “can God be known?”. In part 2 of “the existence of God” he dealt with the “attributes of God” as well as the :incommunicable attributes (self―existence, immutability, infinity, uniqueness)” and “communicable attribute (spirituality, intellectual attribute, and sovereign moral attributes, attributes, wealthy enemy attribute)” In part 3, within “the Work of God" he explained and discussed almost identically to the statement and works of Prof. Hyimg―Nong Park, Prof. Chul-Won Suh and Prof. Bong-Geun Cho. In particular, Moon-Ho Ha dealt with nature” (universality, confidentiality, Sovereignty, tolerance) similar to the three professors mentioned previously. The theory of Creation and Providence were not to be understood as divisions. There was one God who knows Himself and who has revealed Himself as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The Trinity was the foundation of salvation for only could one who was truly God redeem those who were utterly lost. In the liturgy of baptism and in the doxology faith in the Trinity was confessed not in order to fully define the being of God but only not to be silent before the mystery of His presence. Dr. Hyung- Nong Park of Korean Conservative Presbyterian Church was greatly influenced 1,Louis Berkhof. Theology of Hyung―Nong Park was influenced by Louis Berkhof, however on close inspection it was originally derived from Herman Bavinck. So, theology of Herman Bavinck's summary<sup>96</sup> is as follows: "The Knowledge of God is the central, Core Dogma, the exclusive content of theology. From the start of its labors dogmatic theology is shrouded in mystery ; it stands before God the incomprehensible One. This knowledge leads to adoration and worship; to know God is to live. Knowing God is possible for us because God is personal, exalted above the earth and yet in fellowship with human beings on earth.”<sup>97</sup> Profess or Hyung- Nong Park, origin scholar of Hyung-Nong Park's school was hugely influenced by American scholar Professor Gresham Machen. Of course, H. N. Park himself in the preface of his book testified he was influenced by the following scholars; Charles Hodge<sup>98</sup>, A. A. Hodge<sup>99</sup>, B. B. Warfield, Dabney, Shedd, Smith, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck and G. Vos, A. H. Strong. However, when describing the attributes of God, H. N. Park in fact mostly employed the form of the American scholar, Louis Berkhof.<sup>100</sup> Hence evidently we can identify Louis Berkhof was H. N. Park's biggest influence. In H. N. Park's book, “Dogmatic theology Volume Two(Doctrine of God)”, the attributes of God is divided into 2 aspects: “uncommunicable attribute.” & communicable attribute”. Uncommunicable attribute is divided into 4 parts, “absoluteness(Self―existence), immutability, infinity and uniqueness(oneness)” <sup>101</sup> and communicable attribute of divided into five parts “spiritual discussed in terms of the attributes, intellectual, moral attributes, the attribute of the sovereign, wealthy attribute.”<sup>102</sup> In respect to the ‘"Work of God”, within the 'Eternal Work',‘Decrees' and 'Predestination are described whereas the ‘Creation' and the ‘Providence' are covered within the “Temporal Work”. Providence when dealing with the Work, “General(Ordinary) Providence,” as well as “Special Providence” and “Extraordinary Providence( Miracles)” (transitive) are closely covered. However, all of the above explanations that he used were originally taken from Herman Bavinck's Reformed Dogma tics rather than Louis Berkhof's Systematic Theology. Here, Professor Bong-Geun Cho will looks at the view of Jong-Sung Rhee and kyun-Jin Kim's belonging to the Radical Denominations of Korean Presbyterian Church. First, Jong-Sung Rhee and his book, ‘"Doctrine of God” moves away from the long traditional view of the Orthodox Church and expresses new creationism as follows: “the creation of the world record at the beginning of the Bible, also teaches the beginning of all things, because many people think that scientific, historical textbooks to teach the world and the origin of the universe and everything in it, the creation of the world record, but it think is or is not the answer for the evolution Moses recorded Genesis objects objectively, scientifically, as modems think eventually climb to find its origins in theory, find that the God was the first cause because to weaken the human record of Genesis Moses himself inspired by the Holy Spirit of God, the revelation that the Genesis record does not he, as well as science did not know to understand or explain scientifically was not interested.”, he claims Genesis was written by human Moses himself, denying it was inspired by fee Holy Spirit. Surprisingly on the other hand, the thoughts of kyun-Jin Kim and Young-Suck Oh's are completely different. First, even though University of Yonsei's kyun-Jin Kim used Barth' s view mostly, he sided with the conservative Korean Church' s situation and influence to reinterpret positively about creationism. By saying, “evidence for the creation and recognition of God is the recognition of faith to get through an encounter with Jesus Christ, through His revelation in the God revealed in Jesus Christ, that He is not God, who alone in humans, human with the God who is.” He explained Christologically. However,former Professor Young- Suck Oh of Hanshin University explained creationism with New Sociology in Liberation Theology. ‘Creation' is nothing but God's secret will externally expressed. Originally, incident where God himself projected externally what he already possessed was creation only Himself. In other words, creation itself is an revelation event. If we were to put ‘In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth”. “(Genesis 1:1) in another words, he who is infinite and perfect allowed and is going to achieve the limited and imperfect world of time and space. He has entered this limited situation. We can illustrate this by “Eternal World (World of God Himself) →Work of Creation→ Temporal World(world of creatures).” If this is true, creation ministry serve as a bridge between eternal world and the time world. Meditating on previously mentioned, Divine Decrees and Predestination was a secret only God should have known but Will of His Decrees secret was slowly revealed through Work of Creation. According to Herman Bavinck, he saw is as “intends concept implications within the time of its realization”(Eph. 1:4). When the infinite and imperfect God intentionally expressed his plan and providence in the temporal world, the almighty God revealed his revelation by entering the world of finiteness. This was the only closest strategy he could use to close “a huge gap between infinite and finite.” This case is the incarnation. Therefore, the incarnation(John 1:14) is case of ‘Immanuel', belonging to the fundamental mysteries of Christianity. So, the New Testament, the creation ministry is the ministry of Jesus Christ(Colossians 1: 16). Logically it is totally impossible transfer from finite to infinite but the paradoxically Almighty God performs the impossible(Matthew 19:24-26). The narrow minded humans could only create the theory of evolution to distrust God s Omnipotence. This is because theory of evolution is a theory that rejects all the biblical evidence that “God created all kinds of creatures himself (Genesis 1:3―31). In fact, there is no literature which recorded stay of 'monkey evolving into a man.” This is merely a groundless imagination. Consequently, followers of* evolution theory greatly modified their weak theory and made New-Darwinism, then eventually changed it to “macro evolution”. The process theologians of modern liberalism also cleverly used the word ‘creation' along ‘process' in order to defend the evolution theory and corrected part of “mystery of creation” so as to explain God's creation ministry, comprehensive and rational to humans. However, the logic of the process theologians does not only unbiblical but completely deny the verb(bara =Gen.1:1,21,27) meaning creation of absoluteness, in the original Hebrew Holy Scripture with evil intent. If so, what does God created ‘existence' from nothing imply to us? Dr Hyung Nong Park was influenced by Professor Charles Hodge of Old Princeton theological Seminary, Hodge strongly refuted evolutionism as follows; "Hodge s critique of Darwinism is part of his Anthropology section in volume 2 of Systematic Theology, This section begins with an explanation of the “Scriptural Doctrine” regarding the origin of mankind. He points out two things from the scriptural account in Genesis; first that man s body was formed by the immediate intervention of God and secondly, that his soul was derived from God. It as one of the subsections under “Anti―Scriptural Theories” that Hodge considers Darwinism.<sup>103</sup> Hodge acknowledges Darwin s status as a prominent naturalist and for his knowledge and skill in observation and description, as well as his “frankness and fairness.” He states that his theory, however, suffers from the basic defect of attributing “all the infinite diversities and marvelous organisms of plants and animals are due to the operation of unintelligent physical causes.”

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Influence of Emotional Intelligence, Communication, and Organizational Commitment on Nursing Productivity among Korean Nurses

        ( Geun Hyo Geun ), ( Park Eunok ) 한국지역사회간호학회 2019 지역사회간호학회지 Vol.30 No.2

        Purpose: Improving productivity in nursing practice is an important issue. This study investigated factors affecting nursing productivity of Korean clinical nurses. Methods: A structured survey tool was used in a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 239 nurses working in university hospitals. Stepwise multiple regressions were done to identify influential factors. Results: The level of nursing productivity was at a moderate level (3.3 out of 5). Those nurses who were over 36, married, over master-graduated, regularly employed, on day duty, and with experiences as a charge or head nurse reported better achievements in nursing productivity than the other groups of nurses. All three independent variables, age, and employment status explained 55.4% of the variance in nursing productivity. Conclusion: The leaders and managers of nursing organizations should develop educational programs aimed at increasing nurses' competencies in relation to emotion controls and communication skills, which consequently should improve nursing productivity.

      • KCI등재후보

        A Comparative study of the Christologies of John Calvin(1509-1564) and the Korean Presbyterian denominations

        ( Bong Geun Cho ) 한국복음주의조직신학회 2011 조직신학연구 Vol.15 No.-

        Celebrating a quincentenary of Calvin`s birth, the question we want to consider is how does Protestantism(in particular The Presbyterian Church) fundamentally different from Roman Catholic Church and Judaism? The difference between Orthodox Christian Church and other religious sects lie here in the answer to the question above. So, until now, what has been the Christology of the Korean Church? I would like to concentrate particularly on the individual sect`s own Christology of The Korean Presbyterian Church which divided from 1951. In a comparative study on the Christology, viewed by professors of different theological seminary, I would like to compare views from selected scholars of Hapdong, Tonghap, Kichang. Kosin, ACTS and Theological Department College of Yonsei University. Former President Dr. Hyung-Nong Park came back to Korea after graduating from Princeton Theological Seminary, U.S.A. He taught his students the Christology of John Calvin. Consequently, his students went on to teach the members of their Churches. For example, two of his students were Chul-Won Suh of Chongshin University and Bong-Geun Cho of Kwang Shin University, who accepted Christology of John Calvin which was taught by him. Firstly, Dr. Chul-Won Suh dealt The Creation-Media torship of Jesus Christ in his dissertation, 1982. This actually concerned A Study in the Relation of the Incarnation and the Creation and also A Christology(2000) which was written by him urges Christology from above Abstiegschristologie von oben nach unten. Professor Byung-Ho Moon deals with wide variety of topics within Calvin`s Christology, which includes Christ as mediator of angels and the Church. He says "Calvin`s Christological understanding of the law features both Christ in the law and the law in Christ. The law represents Christ as its truth and substance and reveals his eternal presence as the Mediator at the same time." On the other hand, Professor Bong-Geun Cho of Kwangshin Universty deals with the atonement, resurrection, eternal life in his book, the core of essential theology. Secondly, he deals mainly with the theology of atonement, intercession. Thirdly, in his book, Calvin`s Dogmatics, John Calvin described The Person and The Work of Christ. In respect to another viewpoint, Professor Hae-Kyung Park of ACTS considered "the significance and benefits of the doctrine of the Ascension of Christ in Calvin`s Christology." 189) Professor Hae-Moo Yoo of Korea theological seminary was enjoying a picnic on a liberal hill over the reformed theological line. In 1954, an article, ``The Christology of Calvin`` was presented by Dr. Sang-Hee Moon of Yonsei University. In 1984, Dr. Jong-Sung Rhee of Chang Shin University wrote a big Christology(515P.), however, his writing became weak when he wrote a section concerning The Christology of John Calvin. He did also deal with A Christology of Emil Brunner and Karl Barth rather than John Calvin. Professor Chul-Ho Youn of Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary concentrates not only on the research concerning Theology of Barth`90, but he also solemnly criticizes on the Theology of Karl Barth, In the same school, Professor Myung-Yong Kim supports theory of Reconciliation of Karl Barth, while also enjoying the Barth`s Logic. Professor Kyuun-Jin Kim of Yonsei University deals widely with the Christologies of modern theologians as well as Karl Barth, but sadly, he failed to be concerned with The Christology of John Calvin. Finally, I want to remember Two books of Christology of Professor Moon-Ho Ha of Calvin University, Seoul and Dr. Seung-Yong Hwang of Honam Theological University and Seminary, Gwangju.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        특집 : 한국장로교회의 성령론 비교연구

        조봉근 ( Bong Geun Cho ) 한국개혁신학회 2012 한국개혁신학 Vol.33 No.-

        한국장로교회의 각 교단들은 교단이 분열된 이후에, 각기 자유롭게 새로운 신학 사조를 선택하여 나름대로의 특색을 이루어 갔다. 물론, 초기에는 모두 칼빈신학에서 출발하였으나 지금은 서로 상당히 거리가 먼 길을 택하게 되었다. 이것은 비단 ``성령론`` 뿐만 아니라 ``삼위일체론``이나 ``기독론``에서도 존 칼빈보다는 오히려 칼 바르트나 루돌프 불트만과 폴 틸리히, 그리고 유르겐 몰트만를 비롯한 현대주의 신학자들의 신학 사조를 더 좋아하는 경향으로 나가게 되었다. 바로 포용적 통전주의 신학의 입장에 서 있는 장로회신학대학교의 학자들에게서도 진행되고 있다는 사실을 부인하지 못할 것이다. 특히, 기독교장로회의 ``민중신학``은 급기야전 이화여자대학교의 정현경과 같은 ``무당종교가``를 배출하여, 영계를 어지럽히게 되었고, 결국 한국교회가 종교다원주의로 나가게 되었다. 우리는 이와 같이 무속종교의 ``쓴 뿌리`` 사상이 나오게 된 것과 일본제국시대에 "우리가 일본 신사를 참배하자."고 총회적으로 가결한 죄를 하나님과 한국교회 앞에 철저하게 통회하고 회개해야 한다. 그리고 아직도 장로교회 안에서, "성령세례"를 "제2 축복"이라고 주장하는 신학사조가 있다는 사실을 깊이 반성해야 한다. 그러나 "영적은사론"에 있어서는 장로교회도 더 깊이 연구하고 개진해야 할 문제라고 생각된다. 이러한 측면에서, 소위 보수장로교회 안에도 아직 정립되지 못한 채, 혼란을 거듭하고 있는 은사에 대한 무지를 지적하고 싶다. 부디, 한국장로교회가 "성령으로 시작하였다가 마지막에 육체로 마치는 결과"(갈3:3)가 되지 않기를 소망하면서, 논문을 정리하려고 한다. So far we have seen that the Korean Presbyterian Church`s denominations have each selected new trends of theology and formed unique colors. They all started off with Calvinistic theology naturally, but now they have all drifted off quite a distance away. It cannot be denied that not merely ``Pneumatology`` but even in ``Trinitarianism`` or ``Christology`` many denominations have shown the tendency to prefer Karl Barth, Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich and Jurgen Moltmann than John Calvin. Here I cannot but identify that the freedom of knowledge and choice of theological trend according to one`s free will is inevitable but still feel slightly worried that following such different theology under the title Presbyterianism might be an act of deviation that breaks off from the essence. Especially, the ``Minjung Theology`` of Kichang denomination have ultimately given birth to the Shaman Religioner like Prof. Chung Hyun-Kyung of Ewha Woman`s University who have put the Spiritual world into disorder. Chung Hyun-Kyung, when called among Conservative theological circles by the names ``Witch Theologian`` and ``Shaman Theologian``, have impudently replied that ``the word Shaman to me is the greatest of compliments`` and added, ``I dream of a feminist liberation campaign that is as en- thusiastic as a Shaman.`` As we theologians of Korean Presbyterian Church celebrates the Quincentenary of Calvin`s birth, must bow our heads in penitence neglecting our duties as upright trumpeters of the Gospel, and repent in humble sincerity. I too, as a professor of theology, repent of not having enough ferver in teaching, and of the sins of the Korean Church in revealing it`s bitter roots in the Shaman religion, and the sins of our ancestors who approved through a general assembly of Shintoism Worship during the Japanese Empire. Tonghap Sect in the Korean Presbyterian Church (Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary) divided from the Koryu Presbyterian denomination (Kosin University) because of worship by most other denominations to Japanese Shintoism in 1959. Shintoism means the worship of the Japanese emperor. Tonghap has a number of theologians, two of whom Dr Rhee Jong-Sung and Dr Hyun Johan have written on the Holy Spirit, Pneumatology and many articles. The Holy Spirit in Christian Theology by George S Hendry of USA and The Doctrine of The Holy Spirit by Hendrikus Berkhof of the Netherlands were translated by Dr Hwang Seung-Yong, President of Ho-Nam Theological University in Kwang-Ju city. Although its theology belongs to Barth`s theology, this Tonghap denomination is officially Trinitarian. The Westminster Confession of Faith which it holds as its subordinate standard of faith has been revised in important ways. Kichang (Han Shin University) Sect (Presbyterian Church in ROK) divided from the Tonghap Sect in 1953, because it wanted to accept the documentary hypothesis concerning the Pentateuch suggested by Dr Kim Jae-Joon. Although Tonghap later accepted this documentary hypothesis, in 1953 it opposed the introduction of the theory by Kichang. This de- nomination also has many theologians who belongs to radical theology like Professor Suh Nam-Dong (1918-1984), Dr Suh Kwang-Sun, Dr Ahn Byung-Mu and Dr Chung Hyun-Kyung spoke about ``Hanpu- ri`` at the Assembly of the WCC (Canberra, Australia, 7th-20th February 1991). This, however, was not pneumatology but Shamanism. Professor Chung Hyun-Kyung founded Women`s Theology in Korea. There are many articles like those of Dr Joo Jae-Yong from Han Shin University which are a historical critique of the Revival Movement in the Korean Church. Many books on the history of the Korean Church referring to the Holy Spirit were also written by scholar of Kichang Sect. It is the Liberal Presbyterian Theological University in Ohsan. Hapdong (Chong Shin University) Sect has Dr Suh Chul-Won, Professor Chah Young-Bae and Dr Kwon Sung-Soo who wrote books and articles on the Holy Spirit. But this Sect divided from the Tonghap Sect in 1959 because Tonghap Sect joined WCC. Christian and Holy Spirit written by Dr Max M B Turner was translated by Dr Lee Han- Soo, while Perspectives on Pentecost written by Dr Richard B Gaffin was translated by Dr Kwon Sung-Soo in 1983. Furthermore Dr Lee Han-Soo has written lots of articles while Dr Kim Jung Woo wrote an article, ``New Creation, New Covenant and the Promise of the Holy Spirit in Ezechiel 36:22-32``. Koryu (Kosin University) Sect divided from the Hapdong Sect in 1963. Professor Ann Young-Bok wrote A Right Understanding of The Work of The Holy Spirit in 1987 and followed the position of Professor Chah Young-Bae. Professor N H Gootjes (Koh Je-Soo) from the Netherlands criticized the view of Professor Ann Young-Bok, and there was controversy concerning the uniqueness of the revival at Pentecost at Kosin university, Pusan. The debate still continues, In The Baptism from the Holy Spirit, (a book of 66 pages written in 1987), Professor N H Gootjes, now residing in Canada, debates against Professor Ann Young-Bok and followed the position of Professor Abraham Kuyper. Dr Chung Won-Tae wrote on the work of the Holy Spirit in his book, Fervent Calvinism, in 1984 and followed Martyn Lloyd-Jones as well as John Stott. He also translated "Joy Unspeakable" Written by Martyn Lloyd-Jones into Korean. Sadly, After his death in 1994, it published the title of The Baptism of the Holy Spirit, in 1986. At that time, two books written or translated by him were strongly criticized by Professor Suh Chul-won at Reformed Theological Seminary. But Professor Suh Chul-Won moved to Chong Shin University a few years later. And Professor Bong Geun Cho of Kwang Shin University also written three Books on the Holy Spirit (Calvinistic Pneumatology, 1985 and What are the Problems concerning the Holy Spirit?, 1991, Dogmatic Theology & Discussion concerning the Holy Spirit, 2010). Dr Bong Geun Cho Consider also the revival teaching of Martyn Lloyd-Johns with the doctrine of Richard Gaffin, but criticizes the Pentecostal/Charismatic Movement. There are four Presbyterian Theological University within this Sect including the Kwang Shin University. Hapdong Shin University have many Conservative Evangelical Scholars, eg. Professor Park Yun-Sun(1950- 1988), Kim Myung-Hyuk, Park Hyung-Yong, Kim Young-Jae and Yu Young-Ki who have written articles on the Holy Spirit which will be dealt with later. But they differ in a three-fold way on the Work of the Holy Spirit. Some scholars followed the position of Abraham Kuyper, but other scholars followed the teaching of Martyn Lloyd- Jones.

      • 칼빈과 한국장로교회의 학파별 구원론 비교연구 -칭의와 성화를 중심으로-

        조봉근 ( Bong Geun Cho ) 광신대학교 출판부 2012 光神論壇 Vol.21 No.-

        The Doctrine of Salvation (Soteriology) is very important doctrine amongst all doctrines in Christian Theology. The doctrine of salvation of the Presbyterian Church which come from John Calvin's thought system is a model doctrine of salvation. This article will analyze and appraise Soteriologies of every sect in the Korean Presbyterian Church by comparing with the standard Calvin's Soteriology. In particular, logics of justification & sanctification of each School through comparing their books and articles will be considered. Finally, this article will evaluate views on the doctrine of Justification & Sanctification of School of Hyung-Nong Park, School of Yune Sun Park, School of Jong- Sung Rhee, and School of Chai-Choon Kim. In John Calvin s view on 'the relationship between Justification and Regeneration', John Calvin talks of the relationship between Justification and Regeneration (Sanctification) in Book III of his Institutes of the Christian Religion. Though he does not claim that the two are the same, but also claims that they cannot be separated. Thus, since Calvin saw Justification and Regeneration to be the same but inseparable, we must criticize Osiander who saw Justification and Regeneration as identical. At the time, Osiander said “they that use together the gift of Regeneration and the free forgiveness are one and the same”. Yet, Calvin tells us that Justification and Regeneration cannot be separated but must be distinguished. Calvin telle us ''though the favor or Justification is inseparable with Regeneration but they can be distinguished. Since the fact of the traces of sin within the Righteous are well known through experience, the Justification of the Righteous must be completely distinguished from a reformation into a new life (Romans 6:4). God starts from within his elect this latter point and within them progresses gradually or slowly through a whole lifetime which leaves them in a position to be condemned in trial.” Calvin claimed that Justification was not the ‘Gift of Righteousness' but an ‘Imputation of Righteousness',and that we only receive the priceless righteousness only through faith(grace) by God's mercy',and also that Justification is “God's proclaiming us as righteous in his grace”. In other words, Calvin tells us that “the actual holiness of life is not to be separated from priceless imputation of righteousness” and that “Christ became for us righteousness, wisdom, holiness and redemption (1Cor 1:30),and at the same time does not sanctify(regenerate) ex calls anyone righteous. These privileges are eternal and are bound by an inseparable band. So he saves those that are enlightened by the wisdom of the Holy Spirit, and those he makes righteous, and also sanctifies.” He also says, “just as Christ cannot be divided into parts, the two things which we experience in him, that is righteousness and sanctification(regeneration) are bound and cannot be separated.” Calvin calls 'the relationship between Justification and Regeneration in one words “we cannot be called righteous without our deeds, but also cannot be called righteous by them. This is bemuse in our participation of Christ which makes us righteous, sanctification is inclusive just as righteousness is.” Furthermore,Galvin in his claim of the union of the Saints to Christ, “therefore the union of the head to the parts of the body, ‘Christ's living within us has the most important meaning to us. Thus Christ becomes our Lord, He makes us participants of Him within the gifts which he bestows on us. We are not contemplating Him far outside of us so as to allow for the imputation of his righteousness. It is because we are clothed with him and are attached to him. On Soteriology of John Calvin's Institutes : Sanctification is the Will and Work of God the Holy Spirit. Calvin s Doctrine of Sanctification is centered upon sovereignty of God the Holy Spirit and man cannot pursue virtue without control of God the Holy Spirit and His guidance. The people of God is transfigured by God the Holy Spirit and they have to devote themselves entirely to God in order to be sanctified. Calvinistic thought is that sanctification requires a continual reliance on God to purge man's depraved heart from sin. Sanctification may be achieved by following the Word and Work of God the Holy Spirit. It is very imp extant for Christians to understand how we be sanctified through God the Holy Spirit. The method used to be include worship and praise, studying the Holy Scripture and the practice of love. It is God's will that any person may pursue sanctification via the church since through worship and praise Christians are cleansed of sins. The man of God is influenced by the Holy Spirit through studying the Holy Scripture. Because the Holy Scriptures are able to make man wise for salvation through faith in Jesus Christ. The practice of love through our sincere prayer is also very important to rid ourselves of unholy desires. Through sincere prayer, Christians are able to preserve their chastity and overcome the dirty desires in order to devote themselves completely to God. The man who has consistently received the control & guidance of the Holy Spirit in Christ, climax of sanctification can finally be reached. There are many controversial points concerning stagnancy of growth of the church which are affected by external and internal influences. External factor of decreasing population is a rapid growth of mundane culture and prosperous economy, but internal factor is the depredation on Christian quality of faith. God permits many different methods to expand the Kingdom of God on earth, however He would like to sanctify them rather than a quantity of His people. Korean Christian has to do the best to realize the life of Gospel in order to reform the depressed Korean Church. It should be also essential to guide the man correctly. If we all the time submit ourselves in accordance with the volition of the Holy Spirit, spiritual change of us will be ultimately realized Sanctification as well as Justification. Anthony A. Hoekema is an American Reformed theologian from Dutch who would not tolerate the easy way to explain Justification & Sanctification and keeps to what is God-centered. In explaining soteriology, Anthony Hoekema is a better theologian than other theologians. According to him, Justification and Sanctification are both in Mystical union with Christ. So, What is meaning Union with Christ of Anthony Hoekema? Interesting, firstly Anthony Hoekema starts the Order of Salvation from Union with Christ in Christ. he defines Union with Christ has its basis in Christ's redemptive Work.<sup>125</sup> On Soteriology of Hyung Nong Park's School : In Dr Hyung Nong Park's Dogmatic Theology Volume V (Soteriology),he describes the order of Salvation in following terms; “Calling, Regeneration, Conversion, Faith, Justification, Adoption, Sanctification, Perseverance of Saints, Glorification”. In comparison his former student Dr. Chul Won Suh urged the Work of the Holy Spirit as the dimension of redemption only in the historical sense. However, Dr. Bong Geun Cho accepted not only Dr. Ghul Won Suh's theory, but also agreed with Dr. Hyung Nong Park's explanations. Dr. Bong Geun Cho does not think it is a matter associated to the order of time, but as the order of Logic. Dr. Cho argues it is not an absolute order(a sequence) but a comparative order for the explanation. He thinks it is quite possible for every reformed scholar to have different logic or different explanations to one another. In his own work, Order of Salvation, it includes the followings, “Union With Christ →"Calling has two things as Internal Calling and External Calling ― then Internal Galling(Effectual Galling) which is similar with Regeneration→and Regeneration is unconscious work of the Holy Spirit in human being, Conversion is conscious work of the Holy Spirit in human being. Conversion has two sides, Faith and repentance. And Justification by faith. What then is faith? Calvin defined it as “a firm and certain knowledge of God's benevolence toward us, founded upon the truth of the freely given promise in Christ, both revealed to our minds and sealed upon our hearts through the Holy spirit”<sup>126</sup>. Indeed, faith is “the principal work of the Holy Spirit,' a supernatural gift that those who would otherwise remain in unbelief receive by grace<sup>127</sup>. Again and again, Calvin reiterated that faith is the unique gift of the Holy Spirit. Relationship with Regeneration and Conversion, both is the same work of the Holy Spirit, Regeneration is unconscious work of the Holy spirit in human being, but Conversion is conscious work of the Holy Spirit in human being. However, within conversion there are two sides; positive side being faith and negative side being repentance. Also “just as it is written: The righteous will live by faith.” : Justification will soon take place by faith. The operation of the Holy Spirit in faith that follows has ‘Justification' as the first step and adoption as the second step and their relationship is again same as the two side of Coin. If that is the case, we need the following question. How can we explain the developing 'Sanctification, Perseverance, Glorification' next? Sanctification is specifically the work of this indwelling and directing Holy Spirit. Those three things are the supernatural gifts and steps by the Holy Spirit. They grows up consistently more and more in the ‘baptism with the Holy Spirit'. However Sanctification starts from Regeneration. After Regeneration, Sanctification is gradually going on step by step. And Climax of Sanctification finishes in physical death of Christian who born again. And Sanctification does not only stop, but also does not drop from salvation, this is Perseverance of Saints. Perseverance means the engagement of our persons in the most intense and concentrated devotion to those means which God has ordained for the achievement of his saving purpose. And Physical Resurrection of the Saints is Glorification. Body of Christians is Gbrified in the second coming of Jesus Christ. Glorification is associated and bound up with the coming of Christ in glory. On Soteriology of Jong Sung Rhee's School: The first ever scholar of Jong Sung Rhee s School was Dr. Jong Sung Rhee him self. Unfortunately, although he wrote a book on Pneumatology, he did not write any books about Soteriology. The reason for this is because he holds two theological positions. He accepted not only the Barthian position but also the Calvinistic position. Even though he stands on both positions he has tendencies to lean towards the Barthian side. This was the cause that prevented him from writing a sound doctrine on Soteriology. However, his former student Dr Seung Yong Hwang of Honam Theological University overcame this problem and wrote about Soteriology in his Systematic Theology (Soteriology) Volume Two. He quoted theological logic from Saved by Grace, a book on by Anthony A. Hoekema as well as Systematic Theology by Louis Berkhof. Professor Hwang described his Soteriological Logic as follows; Order of Salvation (Union with Christ, Calling, Regeneration and Effectual Calling, Conversion, Faith, Justification, Sanctification, Perseverance of the Saints) by Louis Berkhof. Order of Salvation by Dr. Seung Young Hwang s were as follows; ‘Union with Christ, Calling, Regeneration, Repentance, Faith, Justification, Sanctification, Perseverance of the Saints' In Soteriology, faculties of Systematic Theology in fact held different views of theological positions from each other,but incredibly they were able to graciously accept their different views in order to bring their work together. For example, Myung Yong Kim, Chul Ho Youn, and Johan Hyun including Yoon Bae Choi, who are professors of Systematic Theology in Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary, permitted and a lowed other faculties' with different views as well as had understanding for colleagues with different thoughts. However,only Professor. Yoon Bae Choi who had studied Systematic Theology at tradition of Reformed Church in Netherland, wrote an article on Calvinistic Soteriology. He described in detail his Order of Salvation as follows; “Faith,Justification, Sanctification(Repentance, regeneration),Election or Calling, Resurrection and Glorification”. Professor. Choi defined faith as the supernatural grace given to us by the Holy Spirit and it is very important operation by the Holy Spirit. And he also defined Justification as the gracious forgiveness by God to sinners and forgiveness of sin. He said ‘Sanctification is to repent throughout one's entire life and a Christian must live a holy(sanctified) life in Christ' . Unfortunately, Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary does not have a necessary (compulsory) subject on Soteriology in Master Divinity Course. Faculty Group of Presbyterian College and Theological Seminary, which belongs to Tong-hap Denomination, supports World Council of Churches. On Soteriology of Yune Sun Park' School: Among theologians of the Park Yune Sun's School<sup>129</sup>, a theologian to have excelled in dealing with the doctrines of Justification and Sanctification is Dr Park Young-Don of Korea Theological Seminary, Cheonan. Park Young-Don says, “occasionally it has been said that the Reformation having attached too much weight on Justification has in comparison overlooked Sanctification. Andrew Murray said that the Reformation rediscovered the doctrine of Justification but sincs it did not develop upon Sanctification it was a half a Reformation. However, such criticism comes from a lack of understanding of Calvinistic theology. Calvin had great interest in Sanctification and has dealt with in depth about the topic, enough to be called “theologian of sanctification”. For Calvin, though the Reformation has Justification as its principle and core doctrine, Justification is not the goal of a Christian Me but is the ground and starting point. Calvin s realistic interest was a godly life towards God. A constant striving for godliness penetrates through his teaching and his life. The main character of Calvin s doctrine of Sanctification was formed in situations of debate with the Roman Cathdic Church. Calvin strictly differentiates Justification and Sanctification and allows for the unstable doctrine of Justification to depend on Sanctification. This was appropriate answer to the error done by the Roman Catholic Church which seriously damaged the conviction of salvation. At the same time he emphasized that these two doctrines were very closely united, which effectively swept off the criticism of the Roman Catholics, that the Reformed Church's doctrine of Justification weakened the importance of Sanctification and in turn promoted ethical dissoluteness and incidence. Together with this, Calvin blocked at the source the dangers of the doctrine of Justification being abused as a doctrine that incurs non-legalistic confusion. In this way, Calvin differentiated Justification and Sanctification against legalism, and against non-legalism he emphasized their connection, and as a result effectively overcame both extremes, and such strategic arguments farm the recent works an Calvin s Soteriology. Galvin starts his study of Sanctification from a strict Christological viewpoint. According to Galvin, the whole process of Sanctification has its roots in unity with Christ. The pattern of Sanctification is in the imitation of Christ's death and resurrection by dying to sin and resurrection by righteousness. The driving force of the Sanctification flows from Christ5 s death and resurrection. The ultimate goal of Sanctification is also to have the likeness of Christ's image. Ultimately, Jesus Christ who died and resurrected for us is the origin and the pattern of Sanctification, the Christ who lives in us is the driving force of our Sanctification, and the Christ who is in glory is the goal of our sanctification. That is to say that the beginning and the end, the Alpha and the Omega of sanctification is Jesus Christ. According to Calvin, Sanctification is made up of two sides. That is, Sanctification is gradually proceeded by the daily process of the death of the old-self (mortificatio) and revival into the new- person. The two sides of Sanctification is less in stages but occurs simultaneously, and is intimately connected like the two sides of a coin. ‘Self denial and ‘Taking up ones cross' is the two sides of death (mortificatio). Calvin emphasized self denial as the core of a Christian life. Without self-denial, we cannot expect revival into a new person, viz. progress in Sanctification. God only rules where there is self-denial, but where there is no self-denial all kinds of sin rule. Self-denial is in gear with the great thesis of Calvinistic theology, ‘Soli Deo Gloria' . Without the death of the self which is thirsty on vain glory, shouting the slogan ‘Soli Deo Gloria is just empty words. Without self-denial, even the holy slogan 'Soli Deo Gloria can only be misused to skilfully disguise the corrupt desires of the self. Therefore, complete death of the self, it's destruction is the only solution. The life of the believer in this world is closer to participation of Christ's passion than the participation of his glory. The whole process of sanctification can be seen as a kind of path of endless death wherein we follow the same path of the way of the Cross which our Lord walked. All the life of this world is a continuous battle against death where there are trials and tribulations, it is a life of the Gross. Even if we proceed in our sanctification, we cannot mature above the cross. When we forget this fact we fall into all kinds of pride and fancies of perfectionism. Therefore, there is in the life of a believer moans and groans and cries that come from not being completely free still from the tribulations of sin. Such cries deepens our longing and hope for a eschatological salvation from within a believer. Calvin s doctrine of sanctification which has highlighted the still in sanctification works for an appropriate restraint and correction to the modern church which has inclined towards excessive triumphalism in attaching too much weight to the 'already' element. This is a time, more than ever, for us to listen mere carefully to Calvin's voice that emphasizes the point that we should be denying ourselves and take up our cross to follow our Lord. It is a teaching that is most abhorred and unpopular to this age of self-love in which we live. In our Reformed Church, the thing that is missing the most is denying oneself and following the Lord in taking up one's Cross. No matter how well we follow Calvin s theology theoretically, if we have no self- denial we cannot be said to truly follow Calvin. When there is no self-denial, even Calvin' s theology can only be used as a tool to secretly further one's own glory. Where there is no self-denial, a terrible idolistic sin called self-worship can rampage. Without the death of the self which is thirsty for if s own honor and glory, even the godly slogan 'Soli Deo Gloria is used for the corrupt desires of the self. Therefore, the only way of sanctification is death. Calvin s doctrine of sanctification does not make any compromises in emphasizing this fact. Only the dead can live. Only he who has completely emptied himself can be full of the Holy Spirit. Only such people can save the Church and give to God all the glory.” Furthermore, Dr. ‘Upright Rock' Park Yane-Sun's Soteriology (Justification and Sanctification) is summarized in 『Refotmed Dogmatics』 which is a book that has condensed his bible commentaries. According to Dr Park “Justification is a legal term where a criminal is called innocent through a legal proclamation by a court”, and in such a case “the criminal called innocent does not have to have any righteousness for the claim to be valid, and when one believes Jesus Christ, God legally proclaims him one who participates in Christ's righteousness' Park also explains that “Since Christ's righteousness is the fruit born from Christ's death and resurrection, therefore it is the righteousness of God.” Park also writes in his commentary that true statement “the proclamation of Justification which is bestowed upon believers is given only through faith, and is irrelevant to the persons moral qualifications” is clearly seen in the words of Romans 4:4 “New when a man works, his wages are not credited to him as a gift, but as an obligation. However, to the man who does not work but trusts God who justifies the wicked, his faith is credited as righteousness.” Park continues to say “God does not do this to the believer because he foresees righteous deeds he will do by his own efforts. It is done by God's sovereignty, God does it because he has decided that he will personally make the believer righteous in Christ.” On Soteriology of Chai Choon Kim's School : The Soteriological viewpoint of Chai-Choon Kim's School differs basically from that of the Hyung Nong Park's School. The School of Chai-Choon Kim neither claims Salvation as being exclusively by Jesus Christ nor the inerrancy of the Holy Scripture, because they do not believe that the Holy Scripture is the Word of God. Originally, The School of Chai Choon Kim did neither accept Soteriology of John Galvin nor the inerrancy of the Holy Scripture, because they started from methodology of Karl Barth's theology. Therefore, they have enjoyed hermeneutic methodology of Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich, Jurgen Moltmann, and such theologians. Theologies of Modern Liberal Theologians are very broad. Most Faculty Members of Hanshin University have not only think of the Holy Scripture as a book of religious experience, but they also believe that higher criticism on the Holy Scripture to be right. Dr Bong Rang Park, Chang Shik Lee, and Jae Yong Joo tends to Pluralism of religion and postmodernism. It follows that their Soteriology differs from their Biblical Soteriology. They had already given up Christian Soteriology since 1948. Consequently, they all came to accept salvational doctrines of the World religions. Their doctrines are not original Christian doctrines but are Synthetic doctrines. These doctrines sympathizes with and leads Christianity to World Religions, which will eventually mean no more need for Salvation by Jesus Christ. Actually, Chai-Choon Kim's view on Doctrine of Justification and Sanctification can be said to be near non-existent. Dr. Chai-Choon Kim was the first to take on Barth's theology in the history of Korean Presbyterian Church and in his study of the bible, he established Barth's outlook on revelation and effective criticizing method among his students. This led to his students taking on the position of secular level of studying which unfortunately meant they turned their back on the pure gospel of Christianity to take on the side of polytheisme instead. Therefore, not only the importance of Soteriology but also the doctrine of sanctification research declined to be the most weakest religious body. Thus/so-called systematic theology Dr. Bong-Rang Park, non-religious scholar Dr. Kyung-Jae Kim and systematic theology Dr. Young―Suk Oh do not insist on the faith of only Jesus where “Only through believing in Jesus Christ one can be saved”. Therefore, pure Gospel of Christianity can rarely be found from Dr. Ghai-Choon Kim and associates from his school. The originator of his founding school, Dr. Ghai-Choon Kim, did not leave any thesis or written works of any kind relating to soteriology, nor did his students. For example, Dr. Bong-Rang Park, who graduated and taught systematic theology at Han-Shin University for many years, did not leave any clear and distinctive work on Soteriology. Also, Han-Shin University s Korean Theology Research Center lead by Dr. Byung-Moo Ahn was only too busy striving to embrace and translate the following (Karl Barth, J rgen Moltmann, Rudolf Bultmann, Paul Tillich Modern Radical Theologians and higher criticism of the Holy Scripture of Religions- geschichtliche Schule or universalism), but they did not learn Soteriology properly. Even today, most theologians of Ghai-Choon Kim's School and his associates stand on the relativistic side of non-religious scholars. Especially, not only Dr. Kyung-Jae Kim who is developing the theory of Religious Universalism, but also Dr. Young-Suk Oh and Dr. Kyuun-Jin Kim are in the case of those who are enjoying the comfort of the Minjung Theology Category. However, peculiarly Dr. Kyuun-Jin Kim, who has taught systematic theology at Theological College of Yonsei University far a long time, has written in chapter 9 of his book ‘Christian Systematic Theology' in relative detail of “Faith, Justification, Sanctification and the Grace of God” over a surprising 230 pages. Also, there is an epoch making fact in that Dr. Kyuun-Jin Kim deals with “the relationship between Justification and Sanctification” just like traditional Reformed Theologians, Nevertheless, Dr, Kyuun Jin Kim is approaching the thoughts of Barth than Calvin. On the other hand, Kyuun Jin Kim's soteriological understanding is almost identical to Dr. Ho―ik Hur's “Holistic Understanding of Soteriology”.

      • 지역발전 차원에서의 박근혜정부의 국민행복 증진의 정책적 방향

        김대근 ( Dae Geun Kim ) 영남대학교 한국균형발전연구소(구 영남대학교 영남지역발전연구소) 2013 한국균형발전연구 Vol.4 No.2

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        1인당 국민소득이 2만 달러가 넘었음에도 국내외 연구조사에서 우리나라 국민들의 행복감이 낮다는 보고서가 계속 발표되고 있다. 국민들이 행복하지 못한 원인은 다양하게 있겠지만 소득격차가 큰 역할을 하고 있다. 경제적 빈곤, 그로 인한 정신적인 피로감의 미 해소가 큰 원인으로 작용한 것이라 할 수 있다. 따라서 행복을 위해서는 소득을 중심으로 한 경제적 차원의 생활여건의 향상이 반드시 필요한 것이다. 한편으로는 행복은 경제적 조건들로만 완성되지 않기 때문에 비경제적인, 정신적인 만족감을 얻을 수 있는 요인들도 함께 고려되어야 할 것이다. 최근의 웰빙, 슬로우 시티, 올레길 등을 추구하는 움직임은 이 같은 사회현실을 반영하고 있는 것이다. 이를 위해서 중앙정부, 지방자치단체에서도 경제적 측면의 생활여건 개선뿐만 아니라, 주민들의 정신적 만족을 위한 다양한 정책을 지속적 추진하고 있다. 행복하지 못하다고 느끼는 국민이 많을 뿐만 아니라, 각종 조사에서 행복지수가 낮게 나타나고 있다. 또한 박근혜 정부는 국민행복을 국정의 주요지표로 삼고 있다. 행복을 국정지표로 삼을 만큼 사회적으로 행복하지 못한 요소, 개선해야할 사안들이 많이 있다는 것을 의미한다. 이러한 배경 하에 국민행복을 위한 중앙정부의 대응과 지방정부의 역할 그리고 해외사례 분석을 통해 지역발전차원에서 박근혜 정부의 국민행복 증진을 위한 정책적 방향을 모색하고자 하였다. 연구결과 지역발전차원에서 행복증진 정책은 균형화된 틀을 구축하는 것이 무엇보다 시급하다. 즉 지역 간 균형발전 틀을 구축함으로서 개인 간, 집단 간, 지역 간 권형화된 발전과 복지수혜의 형평성 확보가 가능해질 수 있는 것이다. 이를 위해 개인적 측면에서 일자리 창출과 지역적 집단적 차원에서 정주여건 개선을 추진 할 필요가 있을 것이다. Even though national income per capita exceeded $ 20,000, the researches at home and abroad have published continuously that happiness of the people is low. There are the variety of reasons why people are not happy but the income gap has a major role. It can be assumed that the economic poverty and mental fatigue due to it acted as a major cause. For this reason, it`s necessary to improve the living environment of economics with a focus on earnings for happiness. On the other hand, since the happiness is not completed only by economic conditions, the non-economic and mental satisfaction should be considered. Social movements such as recent well-being, slow city, olle roads reflect the phenomenon of such a society. For this purpose, the central government and local government are promoting various policies consistently for the spiritual satisfaction of residents as well as improving the living environment of the economic aspects. Government of Park Geun-hye considers people`s happiness as a national key indicators. Government is promoting various policies for that, especially a major policy for the development of the region has been established. Happy policies at the development level of the region has to be done by constructing a balanced framework first. In other words, building up a framework of balanced development and providing an equal opportunity of an individual are important. For this reason, job creation in terms of a personal aspect and improvement of settlement condition in terms of regional. collective aspect are to be pursued preferentially

      • KCI등재

        다중흐름모형에서 정책기업가의 역할 시론적 연구 : 공무원 범죄에 관한 몰수 특례법(전두환 추징금 사례 1997~2013)의 개정 논의를 중심으로

        Dong,Kyu,Lee,Dong,Geun,Yum,Jun,Ho,Lee,Kyoung,Rok,Kim 위기관리 이론과 실천 2014 Crisisonomy Vol.10 No.11

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study examines the preceding researches on the policy entrepreneurs at home and abroad and after discussing the policy entrepreneurs, analyzes the flow of the revision process of the partial revised bill(hereinafter referred to as Chun Doo-hwan Collection Law) of the confiscation special law about public official crime by administration using the multiple streams framework model, and this researcher attempts to analyze the activities of how the policy entrepreneur among diverse policy actors who plays an important role in opening policy window influenced the revision process in the process of enacting the partial revised bill of the confiscation special law about public official crime. And how the policy window of the partial revised bill of the confiscation special law about public official crime that was not opened in the previous administrations came to be opened in the Park Geun-hye administration is analyzed. The results of this study confirmed that in the previous administrations the policy entrepreneur to open the policy window did not appear but in the Park Geun-hye administration President Park Geun-hye played the role of the policy entrepreneur, producing Chun Doo-hwan 본 연구는 정책기업가 대한 국내외 선행연구를 검토하고, 정책 기업가에 대한 심도있는 논의를 하고자 하였다. 또한 공무원 범죄에 관한 몰수 특례법 일부 개정안(이하 전두환 추징법)의 정책과정을 다중흐름모형을 이용하여 각 정권별로 흐름을 분석하였다. 공무원 범죄에 관한 몰수 특례법 일부 개정안의 정책결정 과정에서, 정책기업가 (policy entrepreneur)가 어떻게 중요한 영향을 미칠 수 있는 활동을 할 수 있었는지에 대한 분석을 시도하고자 한다. 그리고 이전 정권에서는 열리지 않던 ‘공무원 범죄에 관한 몰수 특례법' 일부 개정안에 대한 정책의 창이 현재 박근혜 정부에 와서는 어떻게 열리게 되었는지에 대한 분석을 한다. 연구결과, 이전의 정권들에서는 정책의 창을 여는 정책기업가가 나타나지 않았고, 박근혜 정부에서는 박근혜 대통령이 정책기업가의 역할을 하여 전두환 추징법이 산출되었다는 것을 확인하였다.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재
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