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Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the demand for more effective and safer therapeutic agents for the chemoprevention of human cancer has increased. As a white rot fungus, Inonotus obliquus is valued as an edible and medicinal resource. Chemical investigations have shown that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Importantly, their anticancer activities have become a hot recently, but with relatively little knowledge of their modes of action. Some compounds extracted from I. obliquus arrest cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase and then induce cell apoptosis or differentiation, whereas some examples directly participate in the cell apoptosis pathway. In other cases, polysaccharides from I. obliquus can indirectly be involved in anticancer processes mainly via stimulating the immune system. Furthermore, the antioxidative ability of I. obliquus extracts can prevent generation of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding mechanisms underlying the anticancer influence of I. obliquus, to provide a comprehensive landscape view of the actions of this mushroom in preventing cancer.
Favre-Racouchot syndrome(FRS) represents a condition with confluent small papules and cystic nodules with large black comedones, wrinkles and furrows. This usually occurs on the inferior periorbital and malar area. UV radiation, physical agents and smoking may play a significant role in development of this disease. However, unlike acne comedones, those of FRS do not become inflamed. Histopathologic findings include dilated pilosebaceous openings, large cyst like spaces, solar elastosis and atrophic sebaceous glands. A 92 year old man presented with a skin lesion developed 2 years ago. The lesion exhibited indurated plaque with comedones on Left cheek. It was generally asymptomatic except when rubbed, which led to an itching erythema with wheals. He had medical history of benign prostate hyperplasia and hypertension. Biopsy of the lesion showed histolopathological findings showed dilated pilosebaceous infundibulum filled with lamellar keratin, elastoid material, perifollicular inflammatory cell infiltration and atrophic sebaceous glands which was consistent with the features of FRS. Toluidine blue and S-100 stains revealed the presence of numerous mast cells of 8-fold higher than normal skin. Clinical and histopathologic findings put together, our patient was diagnosed FRS accompanying localized cutaneous mastocytosis. He was treated with topical corticosteroids and showed improvement.
Dynamic parameters of biochemistry including the POD (peroxidase) activity, contents of DNA and RNA, isozymes of POD and ES (esterase) in American send (Panax quinquefolium L.) seed are reported in the present paper. The dynamic changes of POD activity proved that the PAS (physiological afterripening stage) is a stage in which some substances are prepared for seed germination. The POD activity correlated with ER (embryo ratio) significantly DNA content changed little only within 0.0036∼0.013 mg/ml, which did not correlate with ER. RNA content changed from 0.1539 to 1.0313 mg/ml and correlated significantly with RE during all of the embryo afterripening. None of the POD isozyme band was obtained in ESGS (embryo slowly growth stage), but five bands in ERGS (embryo rapidly growth stage) and six bands in PAS. Four bands of ES isozymes were obtained in ESGS, but six bands in ERGS, particularly, the content of ES isozymes increased in PAS. All of these may provide some information for understanding the dormancy mechanisms of American song seed.
We describe a fast multi-level layout for visualizing social networks, which can visualize social networks high quality and rapidly. There are two innovations in our fast multi-level layout. Firstly, we proposed a new graph multi-layered compression method based on random walk. The multi-layered compression process groups vertices to form “planet” systems and then abstract these “planet” systems as new vertices to define a new graph and is repeated until the graph size falls below some threshold. And we also proposed a new single level force-directed layout based on sampling. The multi-level layout process can be accelerated based on these two innovations. Finally, we have evaluated our layout on several well-known data sets. The experimental results show that our layout outperforms the state-of-the-art method.
Healing Effects of Rebamipide and Omeprazole in <i>Helicobacter pylori-</i>Positive Gastric Ulcer Patients after Eradication Therapy: A Randomized Double-Blind, Multinational, Multi-Institutional Comparative Study
<P>Abstract</P><P><I>Background and Aims:</I> A recent placebo-controlled trial showed that rebamipide, which is a mucosal-protective antiulcer agent, promoted gastric ulcer healing without affecting the <I>Helicobacter pylori</I> status. We conducted a randomized, double-blind trial to compare the healing effects of rebamipide and the proton-pump inhibitor omeprazole in <I>H. pylori</I>-positive gastric ulcers after <I>H. pylori</I> eradication therapy. <I>Methods:</I> After completion of 1 week of eradication therapy, 132 patients with <I>H. pylori</I>-positive gastric ulcer were enrolled in 5 Chinese and 4 Korean institutions. Patients were randomly assigned to take either 20 mg of omeprazole (n = 63) or 300 mg of rebamipide (n = 65) daily for 7 weeks. Healing was defined as complete recovery and S1 and S2 stage ulcer according to the Sakita-Miwa classification. <I>Results:</I> Healing rates at 12 weeks were 81.5% (53/65) and 82.5% (52/63) in the rebamipide and omeprazole groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in treatment efficacy, as evidenced by gastric ulcer healing rates (absolute difference –1.0%; 95% confidence interval –10.7 to 8.7; p = 0.88). The <I>H. pylori</I> eradication rate and ulcer healing rate did not differ between the groups, the latter regardless of eradication outcome. <I>Conclusions:</I> Rebamipide is as effective as omeprazole in treating of <I>H. pylori</I>-positive gastric ulcer after eradication therapy.</P><P>Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel</P>
Anti-TNF-α agents are effective treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). But sometimes it induce psoriasis paradoxically. Recently Guerra et al reported 1.62% of cumulative incidence of induced psoriasis in IBD treated by anti-TNF-α. The half of cases was induced by infliximab and 5% of the cases presented as inverse type of psoriasis. A 15 year old girl was evaluated for her newly developed skin lesion after the eighth infusion of infliximab for treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD). The lesion exhibited its first onset of mildly itching scaly erythematous patches and plaques on both axilla, antecubital fossa, inguinal area and weeping patch on perianal skin. Axillary skin biopsy showed histopathological findings compatible with psoriasis and intraepidermal acantholysis compatible with Hailey-Hailey disease(HHD) in another section. Patient history revealed that her father and some of her relatives had history of having similar symptoms on their axilla. Based on the histopathologic findings and family history along with clinical presentation, paradoxical concomitant induction of inverse psoriasis and Hailey-Hailey disease by infliximab were suspected. The patient’s skin lesions were resolved by withdrawal of infliximab and topical steroid treatment without any further flare-up. Her CD is being well controlled with azathioprine. We hereby report a unique case of concurrent inverse psoriasis and HHD provoked byinfliximab therapy.
For convex bodies, chord power integrals were introduced and studied in several papers (see , , , , etc.). The aim of this article is to study them further, that is, we establish the Brunn- Minkowski-type inequalities and get the upper bound for chord power integrals of convex bodies. Finally, we get the famous Zhang projection inequality as a corollary. Here, it is deserved to mention that we make use of a completely distinct method, that is using the theory of inclusion measure, to establish the inequality. For convex bodies, chord power integrals were introduced and studied in several papers (see , , , , etc.). The aim of this article is to study them further, that is, we establish the Brunn- Minkowski-type inequalities and get the upper bound for chord power integrals of convex bodies. Finally, we get the famous Zhang projection inequality as a corollary. Here, it is deserved to mention that we make use of a completely distinct method, that is using the theory of inclusion measure, to establish the inequality.
A 1 month old female was referred to our clinic for her newly developed skin lesion, with mother currently being treated for autoimmune hepatitis. The lesion exhibited erythematous annular patches on whole body. FANA titer was 1:640 in infant and Anti-SSA, SSB antibodies were positive in both mother and infant. Punch biopsy showed interface dermatitis with linear deposition of immune complex deposition of IgM along the dermo-epidermal junction. Based on the findings the patient was diagnosed as neonatal lupus erythematosus. Echocardiogarphy showed only patent foramen ovale, EKG and other laboratory evaluations did not show any abnormalities. She received topical steroid treatment and skin lesions faded gradually during following 7 months. Neonatal lupus erythematosus is a rare acquired autoimmune disease occurring in an infant whose mother has autoimmune disorder. The disease is caused by trans-placental passage of maternal IgG antibodies against SSA, SSB, and/or U1RNP. Cutaneous and cardiac complications are most common presentations. Hepatic, hematological, neurological, and pulmonary system may also be involved. Diagnosis of NLE is made by clinical features with serological findings. Most symptoms are transient, but cardiac problems can persist and is associated with mortality. Therefore careful diagnosis and evaluation needed. Herein we report a case of NLE with reviewing literatures.