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      • KCI등재

        Removal of turbidity from drinking water using natural coagulants

        G. Muthuraman,S. Sasikala 한국공업화학회 2014 Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Vol.20 No.4

        The ability of three plant materials, seeds such as Moringa oleifera, Strychnos potatorum and Phaseolus vulgaris, to act as natural coagulants was tested using synthetic turbid water formulated to resemble the drinking water. An improved and alternative method for the extraction of the active coagulant agent M. oleifera, S. potatorum, P. vulgaris seeds was developed and compared with the conventional water extraction method. In the new method the seeds were extracted using different solvents of NaCl and NaOH to extract the active coagulant agent from natural coagulants. In addition, ultrasound was investigated as a potential method to assist the extraction process. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the extracted coagulant achieved through various schemes. The optimum turbidity removal at different values of initial synthetic wastewater turbidity from 100 to 500 NTU was investigated. Sodium chloride at 0.5 M was found to provide a high turbidity removal of >99% compared to NaOH and distilled water extract. Among these three coagulant M. oleifera seed extracts is the highest performance in turbidity removal. The optimum coagulant dosage showed the coagulation with blended coagulant M. oleifera, S. potatorum and P. vulgaris. The study was carried out for initial turbidity of the sample such as 100 NTU (low), 250 NTU (medium) and 500 NTU (high). For the natural coagulant dosage was found to be 250–1000 mg/L respectively. It was found that the percentage of removal is highest in M. oleifera.

      • KCI등재

        Creep Properties of Intercritical Heat Treated Boron Added Modified 9Cr–1Mo Steel

        T. Sakthivel,C. R. Das,K. Laha,G. Sasikala 대한금속·재료학회 2021 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.27 No.2

        Creep properties of intercritically heat-treated (ICHT) boron free modified 9Cr–1Mo steel (P91-IC) and boron containingmodified 9Cr–1Mo (P91B-IC) steel have been studied at 923 K over a stress range of 50–120 MPa. Minimum creep rate ofthe P91B-IC steel was significantly lower than the P91-IC steel. Stress exponent and threshold stress values in P91-IC andP91B-IC steels were found to be 6.5 and 28 MPa, and 8.7 and 38 MPa respectively. P91B-IC steel has exhibited higher creeprupture life than the P91-IC steel. Higher creep rupture strength in the P91B-IC steel as compared to P91-IC steel has beenattributed to the presence of stable M23C6precipitates at the lath boundaries and other high angle boundaries. The creeprupture strengths of both the ICHT steels were lower than the respective base metal.

      • KCI등재

        Tensile and impact toughness properties of various regions of dissimilar joints of nuclear grade steels

        K. Karthick,S. Malarvizhi,V. Balasubramanian,S.A. Krishnan,G. Sasikala,Shaju K. Albert 한국원자력학회 2018 Nuclear Engineering and Technology Vol.50 No.1

        Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel is a preferred material for steam generators in nuclear power plants fortheir creep strength and good corrosion resistance. Austenitic stainless steels, such as type 316LN, areused in the high temperature segments such as reactor pressure vessels and primary piping systems. So,the dissimilar joints between these materials are inevitable. In this investigation, dissimilar joints werefabricated by the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process with Inconel 82/182 filler metals. Thenotch tensile properties and Charpy V-notch impact toughness properties of various regions of dissimilarmetal weld joints (DMWJs) were evaluated as per the standards. The microhardness distribution acrossthe DMWJs was recorded. Microstructural features of different regions were characterized by optical andscanning electron microscopy. Inhomogeneous notch tensile properties were observed across theDMWJs. Impact toughness values of various regions of the DMWJs were slightly higher than the prescribedvalue. Formation of a carbon-enriched hard zone at the interface between the ferritic steel andthe buttering material enhanced the notch tensile properties of the heat-affected-zone (HAZ) of P91. Thecomplex microstructure developed at the interfaces of the DMWJs was the reason for inhomogeneousmechanical properties

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Tensile and impact toughness properties of various regions of dissimilar joints of nuclear grade steels

        Karthick, K.,Malarvizhi, S.,Balasubramanian, V.,Krishnan, S.A.,Sasikala, G.,Albert, Shaju K. Korean Nuclear Society 2018 Nuclear Engineering and Technology Vol.50 No.1

        Modified 9Cr-1Mo ferritic steel is a preferred material for steam generators in nuclear power plants for their creep strength and good corrosion resistance. Austenitic stainless steels, such as type 316LN, are used in the high temperature segments such as reactor pressure vessels and primary piping systems. So, the dissimilar joints between these materials are inevitable. In this investigation, dissimilar joints were fabricated by the Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) process with Inconel 82/182 filler metals. The notch tensile properties and Charpy V-notch impact toughness properties of various regions of dissimilar metal weld joints (DMWJs) were evaluated as per the standards. The microhardness distribution across the DMWJs was recorded. Microstructural features of different regions were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Inhomogeneous notch tensile properties were observed across the DMWJs. Impact toughness values of various regions of the DMWJs were slightly higher than the prescribed value. Formation of a carbon-enriched hard zone at the interface between the ferritic steel and the buttering material enhanced the notch tensile properties of the heat-affected-zone (HAZ) of P91. The complex microstructure developed at the interfaces of the DMWJs was the reason for inhomogeneous mechanical properties.

      • KCI등재

        Dynamic Fracture Toughness (JId) Behavior of Armor-Grade Q&T Steel Weldments: Effect of Weld Metal Composition and Microstructure

        Govindaraj Magudeeswaran,Visvalingam Balasubramanian,S.Sathyanarayanan,A. Moitra,S. Venugopal,Gankidi Madhusudhan Reddy,G. Sasikala 대한금속·재료학회 2009 METALS AND MATERIALS International Vol.15 No.6

        Austenitic stainless steel, low hydrogen ferritic steel and high nickel steel consumables are used for the welding of armor-grade quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels. The use of such consumables in the welding of armorgrade Q&T steel leads to the formation of distinct microstructures in the respective welds and has a major influence on the dynamic fracture toughness. Hence, this paper examines how shielded metal arc welding consumables affect the dynamic fracture toughness (J1d) of armor-grade Q&T steel joints. The J1d values of joints fabricated with high nickel steel joints are superior than all other joints. Austenitic stainless steel, low hydrogen ferritic steel and high nickel steel consumables are used for the welding of armor-grade quenched and tempered (Q&T) steels. The use of such consumables in the welding of armorgrade Q&T steel leads to the formation of distinct microstructures in the respective welds and has a major influence on the dynamic fracture toughness. Hence, this paper examines how shielded metal arc welding consumables affect the dynamic fracture toughness (J1d) of armor-grade Q&T steel joints. The J1d values of joints fabricated with high nickel steel joints are superior than all other joints.

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