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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting refers to the means by which an organization communicates to its stakeholders about the social, environmental, and financial impacts that its business practices have on society (Gray, 2008). CSR reporting is founded in the belief that organizations have responsibilities toward society that go beyond their legal obligations and economic interests (Carroll, 1991), including responsibilities toward employees, customers, suppliers, government and non-government organizations (Fraser, 2005). Within the global textiles and apparel industry, CSR involves mindful consideration of how the design, development, production, distribution, marketing, and consumption of goods may impact multiple stakeholders and simultaneously generate profit for individual companies (Dickson & Eckman, 2006). As such, disclosures of CSR business practices within the textiles and apparel industry necessarily focus upon a broad range of issues, including the environment, labor, fair trade, consumer deception and safety, and the objectification and commodification of the human body (e.g., in the context of advertising). Companies that engage in CSR reporting may derive varied benefits, including the ability to hire and retain quality employees (Dawkins, 2004), build customer loyalty (Sen & Bhattacharya, 2001), build/manage brand image (Kavitha & Anita, 2011; Welford & Frost, 2006), minimize/manage risks throughout the supply chain (Welford & Frost, 2006), and increase long-term profitability (Vanhamme & Grobben, 2009). Companies disclose information about their CSR business practices through advertising and public relations to foster awareness of their socially responsible decisionmaking among stakeholders (Capriotti & Moreno, 2007; Farache & Perks, 2010). Research also suggests that stakeholders are interested in being informed about companies' CSR initiatives (Dawkins & Lewis, 2003) and are willing to support companies that embrace socially responsible practices and to rebuke companies that act irresponsibly (Consumers Worldwide 1999). Although annual reports are a primary channel for disclosing CSR practices (Kavitha & Anita, 2011), company websites also are used to communicate about CSR practices, especially among larger companies (Holder-Webb, Cohen, Nath, & Wood, 2009) because the internet provides a practical and inexpensive way by which to share a wealth of information with a variety of stakeholders (Kent, Taylor, & White, 2003). Further, websites offer an advantage over conventional mass media in that they provide a means by which to obtain direct feedback from stakeholders (Pollach, 2005). © 2014 Gaskill-Fox et al.; licensee springer. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Gaskill-Fox et al. Fashion and Textiles 2014, 1:11 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40691-014-0011-8 Prior studies have examined how companies use their websites to communicate about their CSR initiatives, including the types of information presented, the stakeholders to whom this information is targeted, and the factors that influence the type and amount of disclosures made (e.g., Basil & Erlandson, 2008; Capriotti & Moreno, 2007; Holder-Webb et al., 2009). No studies to date, however, have focused specifically upon CSR reporting among apparel companies via company-owned websites. This is somewhat surprising, given that the apparel industry poses a high risk for negative social and environmental impacts. In fact, over the past few decades, the apparel industry has received considerable criticism for numerous ethical “missteps”, thereby prompting the companies and their stakeholders to develop new CSR initiatives and to report their engagement in such initiatives. These initiat...
The purpose of this study was to examine the structure, reliability, and preliminary validity of a Portuguese translation of the Physical Self Perception Profile (PSPPp) in a non English speaking student population. The PSPP was originally developed with American participants (Fox & Corbin, 1989; Fox, 1990) and has since been the subject of validation studies in other English speaking countries. Additionally, Flemish, Turkish, Russian, Spanish, Italian, French, and Chinese versions have been reported in published papers and conference proceedings. The psychometric properties and validity of this version of the PSPP were evaluated with a sample of female and male Portuguese students (N=1052) similar in age to the samples with which the original version was developed. Three sub samples (A, B and C) were used. Cronbach alpha values ranged from .72 to .79 for females, and .68 to .78 for males. Zero order and partial correlation coefficients replicated the established hierarchical organisation of constructs with physical self worth (PSW) functioning as a mediator between PSPP sub scales and global self esteem (GSE) for all sub samples. However, principal components factor analysis using sub samples A and B indicated that the original factor structure was not fully supported for both gender. As with the Flemish version (Van der Vliet et al., 2001, 2002), the CONDITION and SPORT constructs appeared to suffer from some confusion. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) also showed a poor goodness of fit for the original model for both genders, with CFI, GFI and AGFI indices for the original four factor structure only reaching .88, .89 and .87 for females, and .78, .76 and .71 for males. Three factor models were tested, producing higher values for the goodness of fit indexes. The conceptual and cultural implications of modifications to the PSPP in non English speaking populations are discussed.
국민학교 1학년 담임 선생이나 유치원 선생이 맨 처음 아동들에겐 글읽기를 가르치는 것은 아니며, 그 아동들은 이미 인쇄된 활자의 세계에서 생활하다 학교에 입학하게 된다. 그들의 가정에 책이 많든 적든 간에 그들은 얼마든지 글자를 보게 되는 것이다. 구석진 약방이나 지하도나 뻐스에서, 아니면 식료품 시장에서, T.V에서, 또는 네온싸인 불빛에서, 길거리에서, 어디에서나 글자를 보게 된다. 집에서만 하더라도 우편함이나 문틈에서 광고나 유인물이 날라 들어온 것을 볼 수 있으며 이들은 피할 수 없는 현상이다.
To summarize, mastitis infections attract white blood cells to move into the mammary gland. Their trafficking to the milk will cause a path of secretory cell destruction in their wake. This results in a leaky milk secretory system where components of the blood leak into the milk, reducing milk quality. Control of both contagious and noncontagious pathogens is warranted. There is a need to monitor the mastitis situation as closely as possible, and to root out the problem when it occurs by looking for the fundamental break-down in control. Mycoplasma mastitis seems to be increasing in prevalence. The best method to keep a hand on the pulse of the mycoplasma mastitis situation in a herd is to perform routine bulk tank milk cultures. The appearance of Mycoplasm sp. in the culture indicates that cows have mycoplasma mastitis. However, bulk tank milk cultures may yield false negative results. At times cows with mycoplasma mastitis may be shedding this pathogen at very low levels, not detectable in bulk tank milk. But with routine, perhaps weekly, bulk tank cultures, a dairy manager should feel confident that mycoplasma mastitis problems will be revealed. Once revealed, it is important that managers search and isolate infected cows, since mycoplasma mastitis is contagious. Yet the source of mycoplasma mastitis may not be exclusively the mammary gland. If future research definitively identifies different sources of this pathogen, such as colonization at other body sites, then new strategies need to be developed to control, and prevent, mycoplasma mastitis. The goal of mastitis control is illustrated in Table 1.
This essay locates Lawrence`s infamous novel about sex between the “Lady” of the title and her husband`s gamekeeper in the debates about censorship and aesthetics. Over fifty years have passed since the novel and Penguin publishers were acquitted of the charges of obscenity. In terms of aesthetics, the novel attempts to flaunt traditional concerns argued by the Earl of Shaftebury about “disinterested” enjoyment of art by aristocrats and to draw on topics considered the realm of pornography in order to stimulate readers into healthy consciousness. Plato`s emphasis on morality and Aristotle`s theory of catharsis both come under consideration, as do contemporary theories of obscenity that give further reasons to see Lawrence`s work as salutary and still relevant.
The goal of the study was to fabricate laminated WC-Co cutting tools with residual thermoelastic stress states tailored to counteract the thermal and mechanical stresses imposed by machining. Cutting tools were fabricated using tape casting and bulk powder compaction of submicrometre and nanograin WC-Co powders. The weight fraction of cobalt in the tool was graded to produce residual compressive stresses in the tool surface. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to fully densify the laminates while suppressing cobalt redistribution via sub-eutectic (solid state) sintering. Microstructural analysis showed that the cobalt binder was not well distributed around the WC grains after sintering. Contiguity of the WC grains was high, and segregation of cobalt was apparent. These factors are expected to hinder machining performance. However, the laminated tools performed similarly to commercially-available, monolithic tools in turning Ti-6Al-4V alloy. This demonstrates that the incorporation of residual stresses into the surface of the tool is beneficial for wear resistance. Refinement of powder processing methods to produce laminated WC-Co tools with a better distribution of cobalt should yield a further increase in machining performance.
Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a copper protein with important functions in iron homeostasis and in inflammation. Cp mRNA expression is induced by interferon (IFN)-γ in U937 monocytic cells, but synthesis of Cp protein is halted after about 12 h by transcript-specific translational silencing. The silencing mechanism requires binding of a 4-component cytosolic inhibitor complex, IFN-gamma-activated inhibitor of translation (GAIT), to a defined structural element (GAIT element) in the Cp 3′-UTR. Translational silencing of Cp mRNA requires the essential proteins of mRNA circularization, suggesting that the translational inhibition requires end-to-end mRNA closure. These studies describe a new mechanism of translational control, and may shed light on the role that macrophagederived Cp plays at the intersection of iron homeostasis and inflammation
역사가들은 종종 지배자 숭배가 “동방”에서 그리스 세계로 “수입”되었다고 설명한다. 이설명의 진위를 따지기에 앞서 그리스 세계의 영웅 숭배의 역사를 개관해 볼 필요가 있다. 고고학적 증거에 비추어 보면, 호메로스 시대(기원전 8세기)에 이미 사자 숭배의 관행이 있었다. 당시 사람들이 숭배한 대상은 헤라클레스나 그 외의 지역적 영웅들이었을 것으로 보인다. 이들은 반쯤 “신적” 존재로서, 숭배자에게는 호의를 베풀고, 적에게는 재앙을 가져온다. 사람들은 그들의 무덤에 예배를 바침으로써 좋은 영향을 받고자 했던 것이다. 하지만 정작 호메로스의 작품이나 동시대에 쓰인 다른 작품들 속에는 이러한 사자 숭배가 나타나지 않는데, 이는 일인의 지배가 사라진 귀족정의 정치 현실에 조응하는 것으로 보인다. 대다수가 문맹이던 고대 그리스인은 신들을 초인적인 귀족과 같은 존재로 상상하였고, 또 혜택 혹은 재앙을 주거나, 위대한 일을 한 인간, 혹은 크고 아름다운 점에서 두드러진 인간의 경우에도 그들을 신과 같다고 느꼈다. 그런 탁월한 존재의 사후에 숭배를 바치는 것 역시 자연스러운 일이었다. 한편 살아 있는 사람이 신으로 숭배받기 시작한 것은 언제부터일까? 많은 역사가들은 그것이 알렉산더 대왕 때 시작되었고, 혹자는 그가 그것을 신민들에게 강요하였으며, 혹자는 그것이 “동방”의 영향을 받은 것이라 주장한다. 그러나 다음과 같은 점에서 이 주장들은 옳지 못하다. 우선 알렉산드로스는 생전에 숭배를 받은 최초의 그리스인이 아니었다. 이미 기원전 404년에 스파르타 왕 리산드로스가 생전에 숭배를 받았는데, 이유는 그가 친구들에게 호의와 도움을 베풀었기 때문이다. 또한 알렉산드로스의 아버지 필리포스 2세도 생전에 숭배되었다. 이는 요구된 것이 아니라, 숭배자들이 호의를 구하는 아부, 혹은 감탄, 혹은 감사의 표시로 자발적으로 행한 것이었다. 알렉산더의 경우도 마찬가지였다. 그에 대한 숭배는 “자발적으로” 이루어졌는데, 이는 테오폼포스나 아테나이인 히페레이데스의 글에서 확인된다. “동방”의 영향을 받을 이유는 없으며, 감탄이나 희망 섞인 아부의 표현이었다는 점에서 그리스의 전통의 연장으로 보인다. 알렉산드로스의 계승자들조차 처음에는 이와 같이 지역적 숭배의 대상이었으나, 한 세대 후에는 새로운 왕가에 대한 조직적인 숭배가 만들어졌다. 이는 그리스 여러 지역 출신의 궁정 대신들을 결속하는데 도움이 되었다. 이러한 전통은 로마 지배 하의 그리스 도시들의 황제 숭배로 이어졌다.