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      • SCIEKCI등재

        Fusarium Species from Sorghum in Thailand

        Mohamed,Nor,,Nik,M.I.,Salleh,,Baharuddin,Leslie,,John,F. The Korean Society of Plant Pathology 2019 Plant Pathology Journal Vol.35 No.4

        Sorghum is the fifth most important cereal worldwide, spreading from Africa throughout the world. It is particularly important in the semi-arid tropics due to its drought tolerance, and when cultivated in Southeast Asia commonly occurs as a second crop during the dry season. We recovered Fusarium from sorghum in Thailand and found F. proliferatum, F. thapsinum and F. verticillioides most frequently, and intermittent isolates of F. sacchari and F. beomiforme. The relatively high frequencies of F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, suggest mycotoxin contamination, particularly fumonisins and moniliformin, should be evaluated. Genetic variation within the three commonly recovered species was characterized with vegetative compatibility, mating type, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs), and female fertility. Effective population number ($N_e$) was highest for F. verticillioides and lowest for F. thapsinum with values based on mating type allele frequencies higher than those based on female fertility. Based on AFLP genetic variation, the F. thapsinum populations were the most closely related, the F. verticillioides populations were the most distantly related, and the F. proliferatum populations were in an intermediate position. The genetic variation observed could result if F. thapsinum is introduced primarily with seed, while F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides could arrive with seed or be carried over from previous crops, e.g., rice or maize, which sorghum is following. Confirmation of species transmission patterns is needed to understand the agricultural systems in which sorghum is grown in Southeast Asia, which are quite different from the systems found in Africa, Australia, India and the Americas.

      • KCI등재

        Fusarium Species from Sorghum in Thailand

        Nik,M.,I.,Mohamed,Nor,Baharuddin,Salleh,John,F.,Leslie 한국식물병리학회 2019 Plant Pathology Journal Vol.35 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Sorghum is the fifth most important cereal worldwide, spreading from Africa throughout the world. It is particularly important in the semi-arid tropics due to its drought tolerance, and when cultivated in Southeast Asia commonly occurs as a second crop during the dry season. We recovered Fusarium from sorghum in Thailand and found F. proliferatum, F. thapsinum and F. verticillioides most frequently, and intermittent isolates of F. sacchari and F. beomiforme. The relatively high frequencies of F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides, suggest mycotoxin contamination, particularly fumonisins and moniliformin, should be evaluated. Genetic variation within the three commonly recovered species was characterized with vegetative compatibility, mating type, Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs), and female fertility. Effective population number (Ne) was highest for F. verticillioides and lowest for F. thapsinum with values based on mating type allele frequencies higher than those based on female fertility. Based on AFLP genetic variation, the F. thapsinum populations were the most closely related, the F. verticillioides populations were the most distantly related, and the F. proliferatum populations were in an intermediate position. The genetic variation observed could result if F. thapsinum is introduced primarily with seed, while F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides could arrive with seed or be carried over from previous crops, e.g., rice or maize, which sorghum is following. Confirmation of species transmission patterns is needed to understand the agricultural systems in which sorghum is grown in Southeast Asia, which are quite different from the systems found in Africa, Australia, India and the Americas.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios

        M.A.,Lopez-Soto,C.R.,Rivera-Mendez,J.A.,Aguilar-Hernandez,A.,Barreras,J.F.,Calderon-Cortes,A.,Plascencia,H.,Davila-Ramos,A.,Estrada-Angulo,Y.S.,Valdes-Garcia 아세아·태평양축산학회 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.2

        As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion with increasing the digestible energy of the diet. Four cannulated Holstein steers (2134 kg) were used in a 44 Latin square design to examine the combination of Optigen and U in a finishing diet containing different starch:acid detergent fibre ratios (S:F) on the characteristics of digestive function. Three S:F ratios (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0) were tested using a combination of U (0.80%) and Optigen (1.0%). Additionally, a treatment of 4.5 S:F ratio with urea (0.80% in ration) as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used to compare the effect of urea combination at same S:F ratio. The S:F ratio of the diet was manipulated by replacing the corn grain by dried distillers grain with solubles and roughage. Urea combination did not affect ruminal pH. The S:F ratio did not affect ruminal pH at 0 and 2 h post-feeding but, at 4 and 6 h, the ruminal pH decreased as the S:F ratio increased (linear, p<0.05). Ruminal digestion of OM, starch and feed N were not affected by urea combination or S:F ratio. The urea combination did not affect ADF ruminal digestion. ADF ruminal digestion decreased linearly (p = 0.02) as the S:F ratio increased. Compared to the urea treatment (p<0.05) and within the urea combination treatment (quadratic, p<0.01), the flow of microbial nitrogen (MN) to the small intestine and ruminal microbial efficiency were greater for the urea combination at a S:F ratio of 4.5. Irrespective of the S:F ratio, the urea combination improved (2.8%, p = 0.02) postruminal N digestion. As S:F ratio increased, OM digestion increased, but ADF total tract digestion decreased. The combination of urea at 4.5 S:F improved (2%, p = 0.04) the digestible energy (DE) more than expected. Combining urea and Optigen resulted in positive effects on the MN flow and DE of the diet, but apparently these advantages are observed only when there is a certain proportion of starch:ADF in the diet.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics of Feedlot Lambs Fed Finishing Diets with Different Starch to Acid Detergent Fiber Ratios

        A.,Estrada-Angulo,M.A.,Lopez-Soto,C.R.,Rivera-Mendez,B.I.,Castro,F.G.,Rios,H.,Davila-Ramos,A.,Barreras,J.D.,Urias-Estrada,R.A.,Zinn,A.,Plascencia 아세아·태평양축산학회 2016 Animal Bioscience Vol.29 No.12

        Recent findings have shown that microbial nitrogen flow and digestible energy of diets are increased when urea is combined with a slow-release urea (SRU) in diets with a starch to acid detergent fibre ratio (S:F) 4:1. This affect is attributable to enhanced synchrony between ruminal N availability for microbial growth and carbohydrate degradation. To verify the magnitude of this effects on lamb performance, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of combining urea and a SRU in diets containing S:F ratios of 3:1, 4:1, or 5:1 on performance, dietary energetics and carcass characteristics of finishing lambs. For that, 40 Pelibuey×Katahdin lambs (36.65±3 kg) were assigned to one of five weight groupings in 20 pens (5 repetition/treatments). The S:F ratio in the diet was manipulated by partially replacing the corn grain and dried distiller's grain with solubles by forage (wheat straw) and soybean meal to reach S:F ratios of 3:1, 4:1 or 5:1. An additional treatment of 4:1 S:F ratio with 0.8% urea as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used as a reference for comparing the effect of urea combination vs. conventional urea at the same S:F ratio. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake (DMI). Compared the urea combination vs urea at the same S:F ratio, urea combination increased (p<0.01) average daily gain (ADG, 18.3%), gain for feed (G:F, 9.5%), and apparent energy retention per unit DMI (8.2%). Irrespective of the S:F ratio, the urea combination improved the observed-to-expected dietary ratio and apparent retention per unit DMI was maximal (quadratic effect, p≤0.03) at an S:F ratio of 4:1, while the conventional urea treatment did not modify the observed-to-expected net energy ratio nor the apparent retention per unit DMI at 4:1 S:F ratio. Urea combination group tended (3.8%, p = 0.08) to have heavier carcasses with no effects on the rest of carcass characteristics. As S:F ratio increased, ADG, G:F, dietary net energy, carcass weight, dressing percentage and longissimus thoracis (LM) area increased linearly (p≤0.02). Combining urea and a slow-release urea product results in positive effects on growth performance and dietary energetics, but the best responses are apparently observed when there is a certain proportion (S:F ratio = 4:1) of starch to acid detergent fibre in the diet.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Characteristics of Digestion, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Digestible Energy in Steers Fed Diets with Different Starch:ADF Ratios

        Lopez-Soto,,M.A.,Rivera-Mendez,,C.R.,Aguilar-Hernandez,,J.A.,Barreras,,A.,Calderon-Cortes,,J.F.,Plascencia,,A.,Davila-Ramos,,H.,Estrada-Angulo,,A.,Valdes-Garcia,,Y.S. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.2

        As a result of the cost of grains, the replacement of grains by co-products (i.e. DDGS) in feedlot diets is a common practice. This change produces diets that contain a lower amount of starch and greater amount of fibre. Hypothetically, combining feed grade urea (U) with slow release urea (Optigen) in this type of diet should elicit a better synchrony between starch (high-rate of digestion) and fibre (low-rate of digestion) promoting a better microbial protein synthesis and ruminal digestion with increasing the digestible energy of the diet. Four cannulated Holstein steers ($213{\pm}4$ kg) were used in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square design to examine the combination of Optigen and U in a finishing diet containing different starch:acid detergent fibre ratios (S:F) on the characteristics of digestive function. Three S:F ratios (3.0, 4.5, and 6.0) were tested using a combination of U (0.80%) and Optigen (1.0%). Additionally, a treatment of 4.5 S:F ratio with urea (0.80% in ration) as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used to compare the effect of urea combination at same S:F ratio. The S:F ratio of the diet was manipulated by replacing the corn grain by dried distillers grain with solubles and roughage. Urea combination did not affect ruminal pH. The S:F ratio did not affect ruminal pH at 0 and 2 h post-feeding but, at 4 and 6 h, the ruminal pH decreased as the S:F ratio increased (linear, p<0.05). Ruminal digestion of OM, starch and feed N were not affected by urea combination or S:F ratio. The urea combination did not affect ADF ruminal digestion. ADF ruminal digestion decreased linearly (p = 0.02) as the S:F ratio increased. Compared to the urea treatment (p<0.05) and within the urea combination treatment (quadratic, p<0.01), the flow of microbial nitrogen (MN) to the small intestine and ruminal microbial efficiency were greater for the urea combination at a S:F ratio of 4.5. Irrespective of the S:F ratio, the urea combination improved (2.8%, p = 0.02) postruminal N digestion. As S:F ratio increased, OM digestion increased, but ADF total tract digestion decreased. The combination of urea at 4.5 S:F improved (2%, p = 0.04) the digestible energy (DE) more than expected. Combining urea and Optigen resulted in positive effects on the MN flow and DE of the diet, but apparently these advantages are observed only when there is a certain proportion of starch:ADF in the diet.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Combining Feed Grade Urea and a Slow-release Urea Product on Performance, Dietary Energetics and Carcass Characteristics of Feedlot Lambs Fed Finishing Diets with Different Starch to Acid Detergent Fiber Ratios

        Estrada-Angulo,,A.,Lopez-Soto,,M.A.,Rivera-Mendez,,C.R.,Castro,,B.I.,Rios,,F.G.,Davila-Ramos,,H.,Barreras,,A.,Urias-Estrada,,J.D.,Zinn,,R.A.,Plascencia,,A. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2016 Animal Bioscience Vol.29 No.12

        Recent findings have shown that microbial nitrogen flow and digestible energy of diets are increased when urea is combined with a slow-release urea (SRU) in diets with a starch to acid detergent fibre ratio (S:F) 4:1. This affect is attributable to enhanced synchrony between ruminal N availability for microbial growth and carbohydrate degradation. To verify the magnitude of this effects on lamb performance, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of combining urea and a SRU in diets containing S:F ratios of 3:1, 4:1, or 5:1 on performance, dietary energetics and carcass characteristics of finishing lambs. For that, 40 Pelibuey${\times}$Katahdin lambs ($36.65{\pm}3kg$) were assigned to one of five weight groupings in 20 pens (5 repetition/treatments). The S:F ratio in the diet was manipulated by partially replacing the corn grain and dried distiller's grain with solubles by forage (wheat straw) and soybean meal to reach S:F ratios of 3:1, 4:1 or 5:1. An additional treatment of 4:1 S:F ratio with 0.8% urea as the sole source of non-protein nitrogen was used as a reference for comparing the effect of urea combination vs. conventional urea at the same S:F ratio. There were no treatment effects on dry matter intake (DMI). Compared the urea combination vs urea at the same S:F ratio, urea combination increased (p<0.01) average daily gain (ADG, 18.3%), gain for feed (G:F, 9.5%), and apparent energy retention per unit DMI (8.2%). Irrespective of the S:F ratio, the urea combination improved the observed-to-expected dietary ratio and apparent retention per unit DMI was maximal (quadratic effect, $p{\leq}0.03$) at an S:F ratio of 4:1, while the conventional urea treatment did not modify the observed-to-expected net energy ratio nor the apparent retention per unit DMI at 4:1 S:F ratio. Urea combination group tended (3.8%, p = 0.08) to have heavier carcasses with no effects on the rest of carcass characteristics. As S:F ratio increased, ADG, G:F, dietary net energy, carcass weight, dressing percentage and longissimus thoracis (LM) area increased linearly ($p{\leq}0.02$). Combining urea and a slow-release urea product results in positive effects on growth performance and dietary energetics, but the best responses are apparently observed when there is a certain proportion (S:F ratio = 4:1) of starch to acid detergent fibre in the diet.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        The Spin-Rotation Interaction of the Proton and the Fluorine Nucleus in the Tetrahedral Spherical Top Molecules

        Lee,,Sang-Soo,Ozier,,Irving,Ramsey,,N.F. Korean Nuclear Society 1973 Nuclear Engineering and Technology Vol.5 No.1

        A $X_4$형분자인 C $H_4$, Si $H_4$, Ge $H_4$, C $F_4$, Si $F_4$ 및 Ge $F_4$의 양자 또는 불소원자핵의 spin과 분자의 회전사이의 상호작용의 크기를 나타내는 spin-rotation constant $c_{av}$ 를 분자선자기공명방법에 의하여 실험적으로 결정하였다. 강자장근사에 의한 Hamiltonian 은 W $m_{I}$ $m_{J}$=- $g_{I}$ $m_{I}$H- $g_{J}$ $m_{J}$H- $C_{av}$ $m_{I}$ $m_{J}$로 주어지며, $c_{av}$ 는 C tensor의 trace의 3분지 1이 된다. 원자핵자기공오곡선은 v=- $g_{I}$H- $c_{av}$ $m_{J}$로 주어지는 여러개의 회전광공오선의 중첩으로 이룩되며, 전체곡선은 Gauss곡선으로 근사하여 $c_{av}$ 값을 구하였다. 회전공오선은 v= $g_{J}$H- $C_{av}$ $m_{I}$로 주어지며, $m_{I}$는 0, $\pm$1, $\pm$2의 값을 갖는다. $c_{av}$ 의 크기는 인접하는 두 회전공오곡선사이의 진동수치로서도 구할수 있다. 본실험에서 원자핵공오과 회전공오 공히 이용되였다. $c_{av}$ 의 부호는 분자선자기공오실험에서 쓰이는 방법으로서, 양자화되여서 불균일자장에서 분리된 분자선을 진행하는 방향의 좌측 또는 우측에서 부분적으로 차단하면서, 공오곡선의 변화를 보는것으로, 결정된 부호 와 $c_{av}$ 의 크기는 다음과 같다. C $H_4$; -10.3$\pm$0.4kHz Si $H_4$; +3.71$\pm$0.08kHz / Ge $H_4$; +3.79$\pm$0.13kHz C $F_4$; -6.81$\pm$0.08kHz / Si $F_4$; -2.46$\pm$0.06kHz Ge $F_4$; -1.84$\pm$0.04kHz The spin-rotation constants of the proton and tile fluorine nucleus in C $H_4$, Si $H_4$, Ge $H_4$, C $F_4$, Si $F_4$ and Ge $F_4$ were determined experimentally by the molecular beam magnetic resonance method. From the Hamiltonian and the high field approximation, the quantized energy level is given by the following equation. W $m_{I}$ $m_{J}$=- $g_{I}$ $m_{I}$H- $g_{J}$ $m_{J}$H- $C_{av}$ $m_{I}$ $m_{J}$, where $c_{av}$ is one third of the trace of the C tensor. In the nuclear resonance experiment, the proton and the fluorine nuclear resonance curves consist of many unresolved lines given by v=- $g_{J}$H- $C_{av}$ $m_{I}$, and a Gaussian approximation is made to correlate $c_{av}$ to the experimentally obtained half-width of the resonance curve. In the rotational resonance experiment, the five resonance peaks as predicted by v=- $g_{I}$H- $c_{av}$ $m_{I}$, $m_{I}$=0, $\pm$1 and $\pm$2, were all observed. The magnitude of car was determined by measuring the frequency distance between two adjacent peaks. The sign of $c_{av}$ was determined by the side peak suppression technique. The technique is described, and the sign and magnitude of the spin-rotation constant cav are summarized as following: for C $H_4$ -10.3$\pm$0.4tHz(from the rotational resonance), for SiH +3.71$\pm$0.08kHz(from the nuclear resonance), for Ge $H_4$+3.79$\pm$0.13kHz(from the nuclear resonance), for C $F_4$, -6.81$\pm$0.08kHz(from the rotational resonance), for Si $F_4$, -2.46$\pm$0.06kHz(from the rotational resonance), and finally for Ge $F_4$-1.84$\pm$0.04kHz(from the rotational resonance).onal resonance).esonance).

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Synthesis, Fastness and Spectral Properties of Some New Azo Pyrazole and Pyrazolotriazole Derivatives

        Rizk,,Hala,F.,El-Badawi,,Mahmoud,A.,Ibrahim,,Seham,A.,El-Borai,,Mohamed,A. Korean Chemical Society 2010 대한화학회지 Vol.54 No.6

        5-Amino-1,3-diaryl-pyrazoles 1a-c 와 다양한 aryl amine의diazonium salts를 반응시켜서 1,3-diaryl-5-amino-4-arylazopyrazoles 3a-l을 합성하였으며, 몇 가지 화합물은 5-amino-1,3-diaryl-4-nitroso-1H-pyrazoles 2a-c와 aryl amine의 diazonium salts를 반응시켜서 얻었다. 합성한 azo 유도체 화합물 3a-l을 DMF 용매 속에서 cupric acetate와 산화반응시켜서 2,4,6-triaryl-2,4-dihydropyrazolo [4,3-d]-1,2,3-triazoles 4a-l을 합성하였으며, 합성한 cyclic triazoles에 대한 형광 특성을 측정하였다. 한편, Diazotization of sodium nitrite/ortho-phosphoric acid 조건에서 5-amino-1,3-diaryl-1H-pyrazoles 1a-c를 diazotization화 반응시킨 다음에, aryl amines과 반응시켜서 o-aminoazo compounds 5a-f를 합성하였다. 합성한 화합물 5a-f를 pyridine/cupric acetate 반응 조건에서 반응시켜서 triazole 6a-f들을 합성하였으며, 얻어진 화합물 6a-f을 aryl diazonium salts과 반응시켜서 화합물 7a-j을 합성하였다. 합성한 염료 화합물을 polyesters에 분산염료와 정착성을 측정하였다. Coupling of 5-amino-1,3-diaryl-pyrazoles 1a-c with diazonium salts of different aryl amines gave a series of novel 1,3-diaryl-5-amino-4-arylazopyrazoles 3a-l. Such compounds could be also obtained by reaction of 5-amino-1,3-diaryl-4-nitroso- 1H-pyrazoles 2a-c with different aryl amines in alkaline medium. Oxidation of azo derivatives 3a-l with cupric acetate, in dimethyl formamide and stream of air, gave 2,4,6-triaryl-2,4-dihydropyrazolo [4,3-d]-1,2,3-triazoles 4a-l. and the fluorescence properties of the cyclic triazoles were studied. Diazotization of 5-amino-1,3-diaryl-1H-pyrazoles 1a-c by sodium nitrite in ortho-phosphoric acid followed by coupling with some aryl amines gave o-aminoazo compounds 5a-f. Cyclisation of compounds 5a-f in pyridine and cupric acetate gave the corresponding triazoles 6a-f. The coupling of compounds 6a-f with different aryl diazonium salts gave compounds 7a-j. The synthesized dyes were applied to polyesters as disperse dyes and the fastness properties were evaluated.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

        H.C.,Liu,J.F.,Huang,S.R.,Lee,H.L.,Liu,C.H.,Hsieh,C.W.,Huang,M.C.,Huang,C.,Tai,J.P.,Poivey,R.,Rouvier,Y.S.,Cheng 아세아·태평양축산학회 2015 Animal Bioscience Vol.28 No.5

        A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie (h2 = 0.07±0.03) and M (h2 = 0.07±0.01), moderately low for Dm (h2 = 0.13±0.02), of medium values for H (h2 = 0.20±0.03) and F (h2 = 0.23±0.03). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm (rg = 0.93), between F and H (rg = 0.97) and between Dm and H (rg = 0.90). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The average predicted genetic response for F was 40% of genetic standard deviation per generation of selection. The mule ducklings' feather colour also was improved. It was concluded that this study provided results for a better understanding of the genetics of the duration of fertility traits in the common female duck bred for mule and that the selection of a synthetic strain was effective method of improvement.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Selection for Duration of Fertility and Mule Duck White Plumage Colour in a Synthetic Strain of Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

        Liu,,H.C.,Huang,,J.F.,Lee,,S.R.,Liu,,H.L.,Hsieh,,C.H.,Huang,,C.W.,Huang,,M.C.,Tai,,C.,Poivey,,J.P.,Rouvier,,R.,Cheng,,Y.S. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2015 Animal Bioscience Vol.28 No.5

        A synthetic strain of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) was developed by introducing genes for long duration of fertility to be used as mother of mule ducklings and a seven-generation selection experiment was conducted to increase the number of fertile eggs after a single artificial insemination (AI) with pooled Muscovy semen. Reciprocal crossbreeding between Brown Tsaiya LRI-2 (with long duration of fertility) and Pekin L-201 (with white plumage mule ducklings) ducks produced the G0. Then G1 were intercrossed to produce G2 and so on for the following generations. Each female duck was inseminated 3 times, at 26, 29, and 32 weeks of age. The eggs were collected for 14 days from day 2 after AI. Individual data regarding the number of incubated eggs (Ie), the number of fertile eggs at candling at day 7 of incubation (F), the total number of dead embryos (M), the maximum duration of fertility (Dm) and the number of hatched mule ducklings (H) with plumage colour were recorded. The selection criterion was the breeding values of the best linear unbiased prediction animal model for F. The results show high percentage of exhibited heterosis in G2 for traits to improve (19.1% for F and 12.9% for H); F with a value of 5.92 (vs 3.74 in the Pekin L-201) was improved in the G2. Heritabilities were found to be low for Ie ($h^2=0.07{\pm}0.03$) and M ($h^2=0.07{\pm}0.01$), moderately low for Dm ($h^2=0.13{\pm}0.02$), of medium values for H ($h^2=0.20{\pm}0.03$) and F ($h^2=0.23{\pm}0.03$). High and favourable genetic correlations existed between F and Dm ($r_g=0.93$), between F and H ($r_g=0.97$) and between Dm and H ($r_g=0.90$). The selection experiment showed a positive trend for phenotypic values of F (6.38 fertile eggs in G10 of synthetic strain vs 5.59 eggs in G4, and 3.74 eggs in Pekin L-201), with correlated response for increasing H (5.73 ducklings in G10 vs 4.86 in G4, and 3.09 ducklings in Pekin L-201) and maximum duration of the fertile period without increasing the embryo mortality rate. The average predicted genetic response for F was 40% of genetic standard deviation per generation of selection. The mule ducklings' feather colour also was improved. It was concluded that this study provided results for a better understanding of the genetics of the duration of fertility traits in the common female duck bred for mule and that the selection of a synthetic strain was effective method of improvement.

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