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To construct transfurmed Bm5 cells, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus(AcNPV) IE1 gene, an immediate early viral gene was firstly used in this study. AcNPV IE1 gene, which shares on 95.3% nucleotide sequence homology with Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) IE1 gene, was isolated and cloned into pBluescript. Neomycin gene from pKO-neo was inserted under the control of the IE1 promoter to yield pAcIE1-neo. The plasmid pAcIE1-neo was transfected into Bm5 or Sf9 cells, and neomycin-resistant cells were selected in TC100 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 1 mg/ml G4l8 for two weeks. Individual clones were picked and each was amplified for further characterization. The genomic DNA from neomycin-resistant cells was isolated and characterized by PCR using AcNPV IEI gene-specific primers and by Southern blot analysis using neomycin gene probe. We concluded that AcNPV IE1 gene was functional in B. mori-derived Bm5 cells as well as Spodoptera fugjprrda-derived Sf9 cells to produce stably-transformed insect cells
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Shakespeare dramatizes the inexplicability of love's choice in A Midsummer Night's Dream. As the origin of love never lies in reason, the playwright ventures to display this inexplicability through myth and fantasy, running counter to a long tradition of criticism such as realism. Entering into a magic fairy realm, the four lovers to through role transformation and identity crisis. They come to face with mythic and fantasy devices such as the love-juice, animality, and literary metamorphoses that are unfamiliar to realist plays. After the adventure, they enter another realm of theater and have time to reflect on their experience, as they watch a play within the play. A Midsummer Night's Dream as a zigzag play features stories within stories and plays within plays. Zigzagging each story and realm, this play produces its own structure and dynamics. While each realm crosses over, each story also crosses over. Through this chiasmus, this play establishes the mythic and fantasy structure. Theseus and Hippolyta as critics for other realms have their strong and opposite opinions regarding the existence of the fairy wood and the effectiveness of theater. This serves as a conclusion in denouement. Simultaneously it leads the audience to hesitation for other realms. The theatricality of this play is accomplished when paradoxes and hesitation are overcome. Their discussion to clarify the existence of the other realms, therefore, is a research for imagination and the inexplicability. A response to other realms presented through myth and fantasy is to provide another way of recognition for reality.
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Purpose - The purpose of this research was to examine the regulation and distribution channel of second-hand goods in cross-border trade in order to propose methods of protecting consumers through the international standardization of the intensifying second-hand trade and resource recycling. Research design, data, methodology - This study first defines several concepts relevant to research in international second- hand goods. Second, a questionnaire and interviews were conducted with manufacturers of second-hand toner cartridges and automobile parts to identify the current status of export and manufacturing. Results - The study proposes the international standardization of second-hand goods and waste to protect consumers and promote efficient resource recycling. Conclusions - The results of the study reveal that second- hand goods (except automobiles) do not have an HSK code to use for import/export data collection. Though used car exports are declining, used cars are increasing. Collecting data on used car parts is impossible because the buyers purchase and ship the second-hand parts.
Eun-Jeung,Kim,Chae-Kyu,Hong,Chae-Man,Choi,Eun-Hee,Kim,Su-Jeong,Choi,Young-Sook,Hwang,Mi-Ra,Jang,Young-Ho,Seo,Bu-chuhl,Choi,Tae-Rang,Kim,In-Sook,Hwang,Moo-Sang,Kim,Young-Zoo,Chae 한국농약과학회 2011 한국농약과학회 학술발표대회 논문집 Vol.2011 No.11
PURPOSE. This study examined the effects of the abutment types and dynamic loading on the stability of implant prostheses with three types of implant abutments prepared using different fabrication methods by measuring removal torque both before and after dynamic loading. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Three groups of abutments were produced using different types of fabrication methods; stock abutment, gold cast abutment, and CAD/CAM custom abutment. A customized jig was fabricated to apply the load at 30° to the long axis. The implant fixtures were fixed to the jig, and connected to the abutments with a 30 Ncm tightening torque. A sine curved dynamic load was applied for 105 cycles between 25 and 250 N at 14 Hz. Removal torque before loading and after loading were evaluated. The SPSS was used for statistical analysis of the results. A Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to compare screw loosening between the abutment systems. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to compare screw loosening between before and after loading in each group (α=0.05). RESULTS. Removal torque value before loading and after loading was the highest in stock abutment, which was then followed by gold cast abutment and CAD/CAM custom abutment, but there were no significant differences. CONCLUSION. The abutment types did not have a significant influence on short term screw loosening. On the other hand, after 105 cycles dynamic loading, CAD/CAM custom abutment affected the initial screw loosening, but stock abutment and gold cast abutment did not.
Studies were earned out to determine the effect of feeding diet containing 5% canola oil on growth, feed efficiency, and fatty acid profile of bacon in finishing pigs and of longissimus muscle in horses fattening for meat production. In experiment 1, twenty cross-bred barrows and twenty cross-bred gilts (average weight, 80 ㎏) were blocked by sex and weight, and five barrows or five gilts were allotted to one of eight pens (6.25 ㎡/pen), respectively. Four pens (two with barrows and two with gilts) randomly selected were assigned to a control diet containing 5% tallow and the remaining four pens to a diet containing 5% canola oil. The average daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed efficiency over a 6-wk feeding period were not different (p>0.05) between the two diets, nor was backfat thickness. Fatty acid profile in bacon fat showed that the n-3 fatty acid (a-linolenic acid) content in pigs fed diet containing 5% canola oil was approximately three times (P<0.01) as much as in pigs fed tallow. In experiment 2, thirty-two Jeju horses (average weight±SE, 244±5 ㎏) were blocked by sex and weight, and two horses of the same sex and similar body weight were allotted to one (15 ㎡/pen) of eight pens. Eight pens (four with males and four with females) selected randomly were assigned to a control diet containing 5% tallow and the remaining eight pens to a diet containing 5% canola oil. The average daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed efficiency for concentrates without roughages over a 5-month feeding period were not different (P>0.05) between the two diet groups. Fatty acid profile in the muscle fat showed that the n-3 fatty acid (a-linolenic acid) content in horses fed diet containing 5% canola oil was approximately two times (P<0.01) that in horses fed tallow. The increased (P<0.01) n-3 fatty acid content in pigs and horses fed canola oil decreased the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids compared to the control, indicating a significant improvement in pork and horsemeat fatty acid profile for health benefit Our study demonstrated that feeding diet containing 5% canola oil may help produce polk and horsemeat with more health benefit, increasing their α-linolenic acid content without deleterious effects on growth of pigs and horses.
Mechanical stimuli such as tension, compression, torsion, and shear stress generated a variety of cellular response. In this study, we explored the biological response of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) to equibiaxial cyclic stretch at 0.5 Hz frequency with 10% maximum elongation. HMSC on the collagen-coated elastomer reoriented their cellular dimension to 90 degree of the stretch direction. Based on immunofluorescence staining, the cyclic stretch disrupted the cell-peripheral web-like staining of fibronectin, probably due to their matrix remodeling during the cell reorientation. Expression of a-smooth muscle actin and collagen I was also decreased after the stretch application but expression of CD44 was stimulated by the stretch application. However, the stretch-induced decrement in extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and intracellular cytoskeletal system was not due to their lower expression of fibronectin or their increased degradation by MMPs stimulation or TIMPs inhibition. In conclusion, the cyclic stretch application to hMSC inhibits the formation of stable cell to substratum interaction through fibronectin and integrin, which may be resulted from ECM and cytoskeletal remodeling by the periodic stretch.