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Objectives: The aim was to evaluate dentinal crack formation after root canal preparation with ProTaper Next system (PTN) with and without a glide path. Materials and Methods: Forty-five mesial roots of mandibular first molars were selected. Fifteen teeth were left unprepared and served as controls. The experimental groups consist of mesiobuccal and mesiolingual root canals of remaining 30 teeth, which were divided into 2 groups (n = 15): Group PG/PTN, glide path was created with ProGlider (PG) and then canals were shaped with PTN system; Group PTN, glide path was not prepared and canals were shaped with PTN system only. All roots were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 mm from the apex, and the sections were observed under a stereomicroscope. The presence/absence of cracks was recorded. Data were analyzed with chi-square tests with Yates correction. Results: There were no significant differences in crack formation between the PTN with and without glide path preparation. The incidence of cracks observed in PG/PTN and PTN groups was 17.8% and 28.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The creation of a glide path with ProGlider before ProTaper Next rotary system did not influence dentinal crack formation in root canals.
Objectives: This study evaluated the effects of intraradicular moisture on the pushoutbond strength of a fibre post luted with several self-adhesive resin cements. Materials and Methods: Endodontically treated root canals were treated with oneof three luting cements: (1) RelyX U100, (2) Clearfil SA, and (3) G-Cem. Roots werethen divided into four subgroups according to the moisture condition tested: (I) dry:excess water removed with paper points followed by dehydration with 95% ethanol,(II) normal moisture: canals blot-dried with paper points until appearing dry, (III)moist: canals dried by low vacuum using a Luer adapter, and (IV) wet: canals remainedtotally flooded. Two 1-mm-thick slices were obtained from each root sample and bondstrength was measured using a push-out test setup. The data were analysed using atwo-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test with p = 0.05. Results:Statistical analysis demonstrated that moisture levels had a significant effect on thebond strength of luting cements (p < 0.05), with the exception of G-Cem. RelyX U100displayed the highest bond strength under moist conditions (III). Clearfil SA had thehighest bond strength under normal moisture conditions (II). Statistical ranking ofbond strength values was as follows: RelyX U100 > Clearfil SA > G-Cem. Conclusions:The degree of residual moisture significantly affected the adhesion of luting cements toradicular dentine.
Objectives This study aimed to introduce the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for evaluation of the mineral content of root canal dentin, and to assess whether a correlation exists between LIBS and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) methods by comparing the effects of irrigation solutions on the mineral content change of root canal dentin. Materials and Methods Forty teeth with a single root canal were decoronated and longitudinally sectioned to expose the canals. The root halves were divided into 4 groups (n = 10) according to the solution applied: group NaOCl, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 1 hour; group EDTA, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 2 minutes; group NaOCl+EDTA, 5.25% NaOCl for 1 hour and 17% EDTA for 2 minutes; a control group. Each root half belonging to the same root was evaluated for mineral content with either LIBS or SEM/EDS methods. The data were analyzed statistically. Results In groups NaOCl and NaOCl+EDTA, the calcium (Ca)/phosphorus (P) ratio decreased while the sodium (Na) level increased compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). The magnesium (Mg) level changes were not significant among the groups. A significant positive correlation was found between the results of LIBS and SEM/EDS analyses (r = 0.84, p < 0.001). Conclusions Treatment with NaOCl for 1 hour altered the mineral content of dentin, while EDTA application for 2 minutes had no effect on the elemental composition. The LIBS method proved to be reliable while providing data for the elemental composition of root canal dentin.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro studies regarding the effectiveness of reciprocating and rotary instrumentation on microbial reduction in root canals. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and the gray literature were searched through December 2019. Studies comparing the influence of reciprocating and rotary instrumentation on the removal of microorganisms from root canals that quantified the antimicrobial effect were included. Data extraction was completed using a systematic form for data collection. The risk of bias of the studies was evaluated. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects meta-analysis. Results: Seventeen in vitro studies were included in this systematic review, of which 7 provided adequate data for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Both reciprocating and rotary systems were similarly effective in reducing the microbial load in infected root canals (SMD [95% CI], 0.0481 [−0.271, 0.367]). Three studies showed a low risk of bias, whereas most of the studies (82%) presented a medium risk. Conclusions: Although both techniques decrease the microbial content (with reductions of 23.32%–88.47% and 23.33%–89.86% for reciprocating and rotary instrumentation, respectively), they are not able to provide complete disinfection of root canals.