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<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has an anti-inflammatory action in acute pancreatitis (AP). However, its mechanism of action and natural compounds/drugs to induce HO-1 in pancreas are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of HO-1 during AP using desoxo-narchinol-A (DN), the natural compound inducing HO-1 in the pancreas. Female C57/BL6 Mice were intraperitoneally injected with supramaximal concentrations of cerulein (50 μg/kg) hourly for 6 h to induce AP. DMSO or DN was administered intraperitoneally, then mice were sacrificed 6 h after the final cerulein injection. Administration of DN increased pancreatic HO-1 expression through activation of activating protein-1, mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases. Furthermore, DN treatment reduced the pancreatic weight-to-body weight ratio as well as production of digestive enzymes and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of HO-1 by tin protoporphyrin IX abolished the protective effects of DN on pancreatic damage. Additionally, DN treatment inhibited neutrophil infiltration into the pancreas via regulation of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) by HO-1. Our results suggest that DN is an effective inducer of HO-1 in the pancreas, and that HO-1 regulates neutrophil infiltration in AP via CXCL2 inhibition.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Desoxo-narchinol-A (DN) is a natural compound of HO-1 inducer in pancreas. </LI> <LI> Mechanism of DN-induced HO-1 is mediated by MAPK/Activator Protein-1/HO-1 signaling. </LI> <LI> DN-induced HO-1 blocks neutrophil infiltration into pancreas via inhibition of CXCL2. </LI> <LI> DN inhibits cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) and AP-associated lung injury. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>
안의삼동은 19세기 영남 지방 최고의 명승으로 각광받던 곳이었으나 오늘날에는 각 경관요소가 산재되어 전해오고 있다. 본 연구는 안의삼동의 경관구조 재현 및 명승적 가치 제고를 위해 관찬지리지에 수록된 주요지점을 추출하고 경관구조를 살펴본 결과 다음과 같은 결론을 도출하였다. 관찬지리지에 나타나는 안의삼동의 명승적 가치를 지닌 주요지점을 추출한 결과 화림동은 6개소, 심진동은 9개소, 원학동은 25개소로 확인되었다. 화림동은 누정과 형승이 각각 3개소로 나타났으며, 심진동의 주요지점은 모두 형승에 해당하는 자연물에 해당하였다. 원학동은 안의삼동 동천 중 가장 많은 요소들이 수록되었다. 화림동은 정자 중심의 경구집합형, 심진동은 계곡을 따라 분포하는 경점연속형, 원학동은 경구집합형과 경점연속형이 동시에 나타나는 복합형의 개별 분포 구조를 지니고 있었으며 각 동천의 집합적 의미구조를 살펴본 결과 지형에 따라 시각적·거리적 격리를 통해 주변과의 영역성을 달리하고 있으며, 좁은 입구와 위요된 지형은 동천이 무릉도원의 공간으로 인식되는 구조를 지니고 있었다. 또한 19세기 유람문화의 성행과 함께 효율적인 경로 모색에 의한 각 주요지점의 연계는 이전시기 개별 동천으로 인식되던 경관구조가 통합된 하나의 동천으로 확대되었으며, 이는 동일한 시점과 종점, 유람경로를 지니는 일반적인 동천의 경관전개와는 차별성을 지닌다. This study aims to reproduce of Anuisamdong's landscape structure and improve the value of Scenic site. It was extract main spot from Geography book published by government in the 19th Century. And analyzed landscape architecture of Dongcheon. Extract main spot from Geography book published by government. Consequently, Hwarim-dong main spot 6 places, Simjin-dong main spot 9 places, and Wonhak-dong main spot 25 places were identified. Hwarim-dong's main spot was divided into 3 places of pavilion and scenery, respectively. Simjin-Dong's main spots was all that natural elements as a scenery. Wonhak-dong's main spot was the most elements of the Anuisamdong in geography book published by government. Hwarim-dong was pavilion-based scenery area complex, Simjin-dong was continues scenery spot along the valley, and Wonhak-dong was hybrid distribution that landscape structure. Each dongcheon in Anuisamdong was created a separate area through isolated geographical, visually for structure of collectively means. Also, a narrow entrance and enclosure topography are areas which arouse atmosphere of paradise. In addition, Aunuisamdong's landscape structure, which was previously divided into individual Dongcheon, was expanded into a single integrated landscape structure of Dongcheon .This is different from the general landscape development of common Dongcheon with the same starting and ending points and sightseeing routes.
The purpose of this study was to confirm the effect of core stability exercise, dong-bang therapy, and combined treatment on reducing pain, pelvic correction and stress hormone concentration in patients suffering from sciatic neuralgia due to pelvic displacement. Middle aged(40~50age) suffering from sciatic neuralgia over 6 months were operated with core stability exercise, dong-bang therapy, and combined treatment 3 times a week for 12 weeks. VAS and X-ray was performed to collect pain scales and pelvic displacement data and cortisol and epinephrine concentration in blood were tested. 1. pain scale rate was reduced in all groups. especially, dong-bang therapy group and combined treatment group showed more directive pain reduce. 2. pelvic displacement improvement was not significant in core stability exercise group, and it was significant in dong-bang therapy group and combined treatment group. no significant difference was shown between dong-bang therapy group and combined treatment group. however, combined treatment group showed higher correction effect. 3. concentration of stress hormone was significantly increased in all groups after the first operation. after 12 weeks concentration level was reduced to same level before treatment. Dong-bang therapy and combined treatment improve pelvic displacement, and are effective treatments on reducing sciatic neuralgia due to pelvic displacement. combined treatment of dong-bang treatment and core stability exercise is considered an effective program of correction for pelvic displacement and maintenance.
The objective of this study was to examine the development pattern of children's literature in the 1920s, which is the formative period of children's literature, using children's narratives serialized in Dong A Ilbo. In this study, children's narratives published in Dong A Ilbo were examined from three aspects creativeness, writer and background thought. First, in the aspect of background thought, this study explained the development patterns of the nationalist line and the socialist line. This explanation was based on the assumption that the two lines confronted each other in the history of juvenile movements and previous studies on children's literature. In the results of analyzing the works of writers representing the two lines, it was found that the applied pattern was different from the confrontational pattern observed in juvenile movements and youth magazines. That is, Dong A Ilbo gave priority to the common denominator ‘children' rather than emphasizing the writers' different orientations. Second, in the aspect of writer, the narratives were divided into professional writers and non?professional ones. Professional writers were those who published many works in Dong A Ilbo, and non?professional writers were those whose contributions were selected. In this study, the writers of Dong A Ilbo were divided superficially into professional and non?professional ones through the analysis of their works, but many of those classified as professional writers were professional oral narrators of fairy tales. With regard to this, the way for children to enjoy fairy tales in those days was not only reading fairy tale books but also listening to the oral narration of fairy tales, and these ways of access fairy tales influenced children's narratives serialized in Dong A Ilbo. in the aspect of creativeness, the narratives were divided largely into creative works and non?creative ones. Creative works included works grouped as ‘creative fairy tales' and those obtained through prize contests or readers' contribution. Non creative ones were the translations of foreign works, Korean folktales, etc., and they were examined carefully in that they depicted sympathy as creative works did. The main part of the thesis explained the reason for children's narratives to spotlight sympathy in connection to Lee Gwang soo. It was explained as the result of reflecting Lee Gwang soo's theory of literature aiming to raise desirable modern subjects through the education of sentiment and sympathy.
The acute toxicity of STB-HO-BM was evaluated in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and beagle dogs. STB-HO-BM was administered orally to rats at dose levels of 0 and 2,000 ㎎/㎏/day and to dogs at dose levels of 0, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 ㎎/㎏/day. In these experiments, there were no death and clinical changes which were related to STB-HO-BM administration. In addition, there were no significant changes between control and treated groups in body weights and autopsy findings. In conclusion, the administration of STB-HO-BM 2,000 ㎎/㎏ in SD rats and up to 2,000 ㎎/㎏ in beagle dogs was proved to be safe, and it is thought that STB-HO-BM may not show any toxicity in its clinical use.
This paper aims to have a bird's?eye view on Baek, Seok's works who has reached the 100th anniversary and avoid the mistake of looking into the parts and not the whole. Paek, Seok was born at Jeong?ju, Pyeong?buk on July 1912 and lived a life of extreme ups and downs. He made his literary debut through annual spring literary contest of Chosun Daily newspaper on January 1930 when he was 19 and finished his publication of works with ‘Naruteo'(Ferry) on May 1962. After he went to a cooperative in Gwanpyong?ri, Samsoo?gun leaving the central literary circle on January 1959, he lived as a shepherd for more than 30 years of his later part of life. Having been brought into sudden prominence in the literary circle with his poem book Saseum(Deer) in 1936, Paek, Seok kept his literary reputation as a writer of juvenile stories by publishing fairy poem book Jipgene Ne Hyongje(Four Brothers of the Hermit Crabs, 1957) in the North Korea. However, he had to focus on children's literature without the freedom of writing and he could not be reinstated to Pyongyang after he had received the ‘Red Letter' in 1959. Referred as a genius poet, however, his life was ended tragically without beingable to write what he wanted to and criticized for his lack of loyalty and ‘vestige of bourgeois.' Total unearthed poems of Paek, Seok are 148 including recent ones discovered by Song, Joon. More of his unearthed works will be included later. His proses are total 44 with the variety of novel, essay, review, political comment, translation, etc. He focused more on translation in the North Korea and they are 197 works of translated modern poems and 11 works of fairy poems. He translated 4 long novels including Silent Don 1, Silent Don 2 and 1 collected short novel and 2 short novels. Silent Don recently discovered with the help of professor Yoon, Hae?yeon is more than 1,000 pages and has an importance as the first direct translation fro Russian into Korean by Bake, Seok. More works of him will be unearthed as time goes on. However, with those newly unearthed works, the study on Baek, Seok's literature has already reached a new phase. Now researchers have to include those works written in the North Korea. Unearthing the texts of important poets such as Baek, Seok is very meaningful for the study of modern Korean poetry. Considering the process of unearthing his works until now, more of his translated works will be found. However, his own creation has less possibility of being included in the list. Though there will be the difficulties such as the division of Korea into south and north, researchers should be able to get over them to continue the study of Baek, Seok.
We have investigated the genotoxicity of STB-HO-BM using in vitro and in vivo system such as Ames reverse mutation test, chromosomal aberration test and micronucleus test. in Ames reverse mutation test, STB-HO-BM treatment at the dose range up to 5,000 ug/plate did not induce mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, TA1537 and in Escherichia coli WP2 uvrA with and without metabolic activation. Any significant aberration wasn't observed in chinese hamster lung (CHL) fibroblast cells treated with STB-HO-BM at the concentration of 12.5, 2.5, 5 ㎎/㎖ both in the absense and presence of metabolic activation system. In mouse micrnucleus test, no significant increase in the occurrence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was observed in ICR male mice orally administered with STB-HO-BM at the doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g/㎏. These results indicate that STB-HO-BM has no mutagenic potential under the condition in this study.
This study was performed to evaluate repeated-dose toxicities of STB-HO-BM in Sprague-Dawley rats. STB-HO-BM was administered orally to rats at dose levels of 0, 100, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. In recent study, there were no dose related changes in mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, food and water consumption, opthalmoscopy, organ weights, urine analysis, hematological findings, and biochemical examination of all animals treated with STB-HO-BM. Gross and histopathological findings revealed no evidence of specific toxicity related to STB-HO-BM. These results suggest that the oral no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of STB-HO-BM may be over 1,000 mg/kg in rats.
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『동아일보』의 신춘문예는 신진 작가의 발굴을 내세우며 등장하였다. 이는 독자 참여 제도의 시행 목적이 ‘독자' 확보에서 ‘작가' 확보로 변모했음을 의미한다. 하지만 아동작품은 ‘작가' 확보와는 다른 목적에서 시행하였다. 『동아일보』는 신춘문예 시행 첫해부터 문예계, 부인계, 소년계 등으로 독자의 층위를 구분하여 작품을 모집하였다. 이는 여성과 아동이라는 새로운 독자층을 발굴하여 가정란과 아동란을 신설한 매체의 지면혁신 정책과 연계된 작업이자, 이전 시기 독자 참여 제도의 전통 계승에서 비롯된 결과였다. 문화주의를 표방하며 창간한 『동아일보』는 계몽의 차원에서 여성과 아동 독자를 호출하였다. 민족을 개량하여 문명화를 달성하기 위해 아동을 교육함으로써 근대적 주체를 양성하고자 한 것이다. 신문의 잠재적인 독자층을 확보하기 위해서나 문명화를 추진하기 위한 아동 교육의 필요에 의해서나 아동을 대상으로 한 문장 교육은 중요한 과제였다. 작문은 이러한 복합적인 배경에서 선택되어, 신춘문예의 모집부문에 포함될 수 있었다. 신춘문예 작문 부문 당선작은 자연 묘사 및 아동의 일상을 주로 다루었다. 하지만 작문은 단순히 자연을 묘사하거나 사건을 기록하는 데 그치지 않고 각 상황에서 촉발된 구체적인 감정을 드러냈다. 이를 통해 작문이 조선어 글쓰기를 통한 아동의 정서 함양을 지향했던 사실을 알 수 있다. 식민지 시기 총독부의 교육 정책은 조선어 교육을 폐지하는 것이었다. 이러한 상황에서 동아일보사는 브나로드 운동을 주관하고, 다양한 한글 관련 기획란을 마련하여 언문철자법의 보급에 앞장섰다. 그리고 아동들에게 읽을거리를 제공하는 한편 조선어로 된 작품을 모집, 발표하였다. 결국, 작문은 습작을 통한 조선어 글쓰기의 보급 및 아동 계몽을 목적으로 시행되었으며, 아동 계몽의 실질적인 내용은 정과 동정의 함양이었다. 신문의 지면개편에 관여하고 신춘문예를 주관한 이광수는 아동 교육에 관심이 많았다. 그는 근대적 사회를 형성하는 데 필요한 새로운 감정 규범으로 정과 동정을 제시하고, 그 실현 수단으로 작문을 활용하였다. 당선작의 내용을 분석한 결과, 제도 시행 초기 편집진의 이러한 의도가 신춘문예 시행동안 지속적으로 관철되었음을 확인하였다. The Spring Literary Contest of “Dong-A Ilbo” appeared with the excavation of young authors. However, works for children were implemented for a purpose different from discovering new authors. “Dong-A Ilbo” recruited works by dividing the layers of readers into literary, ladies, and boys from the beginning of the Spring Literary Contest. It was a work in connection with the media s paper innovation policy that created a family section and a children section by discovering a new readership of women and children. “Dong-A Ilbo”, which advocated culturalism, called women and children in the dimension of enlightenment. It aimed to cultivate a modern subject by educating children to improve the nation and achieve civilization. To secure a potential readership of newspapers, or because of the educational need to promote civilization, sentence education for children was an important task. The composition was conducted in this context. The winning work of the Spring Literary Contest mainly coped with the depiction of nature and the daily life of children. The composition did not stop at simply describing nature or recording events, but revealed specific emotions triggered in each situation. Through this, it can be seen that the composition was aimed at cultivating children s emotions through writing in Korean (Joseoneo). The educational policy of the governor-general during the colonial period was to abolish Korean language (Joseoneo) education. In this situation, Dong-A Ilbo took the lead in spreading the Korean word spelling by managing the Vnarod movement and preparing various Hangeul-related planning sections. In addition, while providing reading materials to children, it recruited and published works in Korean (Joseoneo). The composition was attempted at the dimension of teaching sentences for children to create a modern subject. Lee Gwang-su, who hosted the Spring Literary Contest, was very interested in education for children, and was also involved in reshuffling sections of the newspaper. He presented affection and sympathy as a new norm of emotion necessary to form a modern society, and used his writing as a means of realization.