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      • Teukyakmaip System of Large Retailers

        Dong‐Ho Kim,Myoung-Kil Youn 한국유통과학회 2013 KODISA ICBE (International Conference on Business Vol.2013 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Purpose - The debate over comprehensive measures to regulate unfair practices of large retailers is heating up in Korea, especially with regard to the frequent violations of the Teukyakmaip system by large retailers and its adverse effects on retail industry. The aim of this article is to explore and examine both benefits and consequences of the ‘Teukyakmaip’ system, to provide comprehensive and accurate information to decision makers, and to benefit the distribution industry. Research design – This research is designed to explore and assess the specific policy. As such, comprehensive analyses of the background and current status of the policy based on secondary data are employed. Telephone and personal interviews were conducted with employees of department stores and suppliers. Results – The research findings suggest that there are benefits and consequences of the system for both large retailers and suppliers. Conclusions – Promoting economic efficiency, eradicating monopoly and oligopolistic business structures, and combating unfair trade and business practices are the key and necessary variables in determining the success of this public policy debate and enactment.

      • KCI등재

        식용식물자원으로부터 활성물질의 탐색 : Ⅵ. 쑥갓(Chrysanthemum coronarium L.)으로부터 sterol의 분리 Ⅵ. Isolation of Sterol Compounds from the Aerial Parts of Garland (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.)

        송명종,홍윤희,김동현,김대근,정인식,이윤형,김성훈,박미현,김인호,권병옥,백남인 한국응용생명화학회 2003 Applied Biological Chemistry (Appl Biol Chem) Vol.46 No.4

        쑥갓의 지상부를 MeOH로 추출하고, 추출물을 EtOAc, n-BuOH 및 물로 분배, 추출하였다. EtOAc 분획으로부터 silica gel column chromatography를 반복하여 3종의 sterol을 분리하였다. 각각의 화학구조는, NMR 및 MS등의 스펙트럼을 해석하여, stigmast-5-en-3β-ol(1,β-sitosterol), stigmast-4-en-6β-ol-3-one (2), stigmast-4-en-6α-ol-f-one (3)으로 동정하였다. 화합물 2와 3은 육상식물에서는 처음으로 분리되었다. The aerial parts of the Garland (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) were extracted in MeOH and solvent fractionated with EtOAc, n-BuOH and water, successively. EtOAc fractions gave three steroid compounds through application of silica gel column chromatographies. The chemical structures of the steroids were determined by the interpretation of several spectral data, including NMR and MS as stigmast-5-en-3β-ol (1, β-sitosterol), stigmast-4-en-6β-ol-3-one (2), stigmast-4-en-6α-ol-3-one (3). Compounds 2 and 3 have been so far reported only in the aquatic plants, were isolated for the first time from the land plants.

      • KCI등재후보

        현대패션에 표현된 스트라이프패턴의 이미지 분석

        신주동(Ju Dong Shin) · 김희숙(Hee Sook Kim) · 최종명(Jong Myoung Choi) 충북대학교 생활과학연구소 2008 생활과학연구논총 Vol.12 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The purpose of this study was to analyze the image of stripe pattern expressed in contemporary fashion. For this research, the fashion magazines, Dong-a TV, Internet sites were used as references. In the middle age, the use of stripe pattern was banned because it was regarded as the pattern of the devil in Europe. But nowadays the stripe pattern plays the role of symbolizing health, youth, and personality. The stripe pattern is being used in various kinds of patterns like alternate stripe, block stripe, candy stripe, chalk stripe, herringbone stripe, hombre stripe, pekin stripe, pin stripe, rope stripe, sports stripe, and stitch stripe. The stripe patterns were expressed by the techniques of weaving, printing, sewing, knitting, and embroidery. The image of stripe pattern appeared during 2006 S/S∼2008 S/S collections could be classified into five images of modern, mannish, elegant, exotic, and sporty image.

      • KCI등재후보

        우리나라 사람면역결핍바이러스(Human Immunodeficiency Virus) 감염환자에서 발병한 악성종양

        최평균,송진수,조재현,김성한,박경화,방지환,박완범,김홍빈,김동완,김태유,허대석,오명돈,김남중,최강원 대한감염학회 2006 감염과 화학요법 Vol.38 No.6

        Background : Since highly active antiretroviral therapy has lengthened the life span of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the importance of malignancy associated with HIV has been increased. The relative frequencies of malignancies in HIV infected patients may vary in different race and region. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and characteristics of malignancies in patients with HIV infection in South Korea. Materials and Methods : To identify HIV patients with malignancy, we reviewed the electronic database of pathological reports for all HIV-infected patients seen from January 1986 to December 2005 at the Seoul National University Hospital. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of them. Results : Among 850 patients infected with HIV, 33 episodes of malignant diseases were diagnosed in 32 patients (3.76%). Thirty were males, and median age was 46 years (range 29-70). At the time of the diagnosis of malignancy, median CD4^(+) lymphocytes count was 100/uL (range 5-620) and in 27 (82%) patients, CD4^(+) lymphocytes count were less than 200/uL. For 13 patients (40%), malignancy was initial presentation of HIV infection. Excluding patients initially diagnosed as malignancy, median follow-up duration from the first visit to diagnosis of malignancy was 36 months (range 3-96). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was the most frequent malignancy (13 patients), followed by Kaposi's sarcoma (7), Hodgkin‘s disease (3), acute myeloid leukemia (1), and other solid cancer (9) including one case of anal cancer associated with human papillomavirus. Among 13 patients with non- Hodgkin's lymphoma, 4(31%) achieved the complete remission after chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, and had been followed without evidence of recurrence. Conclusion : Malignancy was diagnosed in 3.76% of patients infected with HIV. Non-Hodgkin‘s lymphoma is the most prevalent malignancy in HIV patients in South Korea. 목적 : 효과적인 항레트로바이러스 다제요법이 도입됨에 따라, HIV 감염환자들의 수명이 증가되었고, 이에 따라 HIV 감염환자에서 악성종양의 중요성 또한 증가하고 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 우리나라 HIV 감염환자에서 악성종양의 유병률과 호발하는 악성종양의 특성을 밝히는 것이다. 재료 및 방법 : 1986년부터 2005년까지 서울대학교병원에서 치료를 받은 HIV 감염환자의 의무기록을 후향적으로 분석하였고, 병리학적 검사 결과를 검토하여 악성종양이 진단된 환자들을 대상으로 연구를 시행하였다. 결과 : 총 850명의 환자 중, 32명(3.76%)에서 33예의 악성종양이 진단되어, 악성종양의 발병률은 1,000인년 당13.0명(95% 신뢰구간: 8.6∼17.4명)이었다. 그 중 남자는 30명이었고, 악성종양 진단 당시 연령의 중간값은 46 (29-70)세이었다. 악성종양 진단받을 당시, CD4 림프구 수의 중간값은 lOO/uL (5-620 uL) 이었고, CD4 림프구수가 200/ uL 미만인 환자가 27명(82%)이었다. 악성종양에 대한 검사 도중에 HIV 감염사실이 밝혀진 환자가 13명(40%)이었다. HIV를 진단 받은 후 악성종양이 발병한 환자들에서, HIV 진단 후 악성종양의 발병까지는 평균 36개월(3-96개월)이 걸렸다. 13명의 HIV 감염 환자에서 진단된 비호지킨림프종이 가장 흔한 악성종양이었고, 이외에 카포시육종이 7명, 호지킨병이 3명, HPV와 연관된 항문암이 1명의 HIV 환자에서 진단되었다. 그 밖에 급성백혈병, 방광암, 췌장장, 폐암, 진행성위암, 갑상선암, 간세포암, 후두암이 각각 1예씩 진단되었다. 비호지킨림프종이 진단된13명 환자 중, 4명(31%)은 항암치료 및 방사선치료를 받아 완전관해가 되었고, 현재 재발의 증거 없이 외래에서 경과 관찰 중이다. 결론 : 우리나라 HIV 감염환자에서 악성종양의 유병률은 3.76%이었고, 비호지킨림프종이 가장 흔한 악성종양이었다.

      • KCI등재후보

        국내 다기관에서 조사한 지역사회획득 메티실린내성 황색포도알균의 빈도와 임상적 특성

        송진수,최평균,송경호,조재현,김성한,방지환,이창섭,박경화,박경운,신수,최희정,김의석,김동민,이미숙,박완범,김남중,오명돈,김의종,김홍빈,최강원 대한감염학회 2006 감염과 화학요법 Vol.38 No.6

        목적 : 최근 전세계적으로 지역사회획득 메티실린내성 황색포도알균(community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, CA-MRSA)의 보고가 증가하고 있다. 하지만, 우리나라에서는 CA-MRSA 감염증에 대한 증례보고만 있을 뿐 아직까지 체계적인 연구결과가 없는 실정이다. 저자들은 국내에서 CA-MRSA의 빈도, 감염증의 임상적 양상, 분리된 균주의 항균제내성 양상을 조사하였다. 재료 및 방법 : 2005년 1월부터 2005년 6월까지 7개 병원에서 MRSA가 분리된 환자의 명단을 파악한 후 의무기록지와 건강보험심사평가원의 자료를 검토하였다. 외래나 응급실에서 혹은 입원 후 72시간 이내에 균주가 분리되고 MRSA 획득과 관련된 위험인자가 없는 경우 CA-MRSA로 정의하였으며, 분리된 균주의 임상적 의미에 따라 원인병원체(pathogen), 집락화(colonizer), 미결정(undetermined)으로 분류하였다. Penicillin과 oxacillin을 제외하고 3개 이상의 다른 계열 항균제에 내성이면 다제내성으로 정의하였다. 결과 : 연구기간동안 총 3,251주의 황색포도알균이 분리되었으며, 이 중 MRSA는 1,900주(58.4%)였다. MRSA 가운데 CA-MRSA는 114주(6.0%) 였으며, 이들이 분리된 부위는 귀(62주), 비뇨기계(14주), 피부 및 연부조직(11주), 호흡기계(10주), 혈액(3주) 등이었다. CA-MRSA 균주 가운데 집락균은 22주, 원인병원체는 22주였으며, 나머지 균주에 대해서는 그 임상적 의미를 결정할 수 없었다. 항균제 감수성 검사를 시행한 73균주 중 47주(64.4%)는 다제내성이었다. CA-MRSA 감염증 22예 중 피부 및 연부조직 감염(9예)과 중이염/외이도염(9예)이 가장 흔하였다. 침습적 감염증(invasive infection)은 4명(원발성 균혈증 3예, 감염성 관절염 1예)에서 확인되었지만, CA-MRSA 감염증으로 사망한 환자는 없었다. 결론 : 병원내 감염증에서는 MRSA가 심각한 문제이지만, 아직까지 지역사회 감염증에서 CA-MRSA는 흔하지 않았다. Background : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has emerged in patients who do not have the established risk factors. In Korea, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical features of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Material and Methods : Clinical microbiology laboratory databases of 7 hospitals were reviewed to identify the patients from whom MRSA was isolated during the period of January to July 2005. Only one isolate per patient was enrolled. In order to identify the risk factors of MRSA acquisition, the medical records and the Health Insurance Review Agency databases were reviewed. CA-MRSA was defined as MRSA isolated from patient without established risk factors. We analyzed patient demographics, underlying medical conditions, characteristics of infection, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Results : Of total 3,251 S. aureus isolates, 1900 (58.4%) were MRSAs. Of the MRSA isolates, 114 (6.0%) were CA-MRSA. Of 114 CA-MRSA isolates, 22 (19.3%) were colonizers, 22 (19.3%) were pathogens, and the clinical significance of remaining 70 (61.4%) could not be determined. Median age of the 22 patients with CA-MRSA disease was 47 years. Nine patients had skin and soft tissue infections, 9 ear infections, 3 bacteremia, 1 septic arthritis. Seven patients had underlying medical disease. None died of the CA-MRSA infections. Of the 73 isolates of CA-MRSA, 47 (64.4%) were resistant to more than 3 classes of antibiotics besides β-lactams. Conclusion : Although MRSA is highly prevalent among hospital-associated S. aureus infection, CA-MRSA infections are not common.

      • Pb(Zr_0.56 Ti_0.44)O₃+ x[wt%]Cr₂O₃세라믹스의 길이진동에 대한 온도안정성

        김동오,한성훈,이개명 濟州大學校 情報通信硏究所 1999 情報通信硏究所論文集 Vol.2 No.-

        Recently mobile communication fields need piezoelectric ceramic resonators and filters as possible as small. The length-extensional vibration mode of a rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plate has the advantage of the small size. but the mode has not been studied sufficiently because it was not used extensively until now. In this paper. PZT + x[wt%] Cr₂O₃ ceramics with rhombohedral phase were fabricated. And temperature stability for the mode of the ceramic specimen was investigated. Contrary to our expectations. addition of the stabilizer. Cr₂O₃did not promote the temperature stability for the mode in the PZT ceramic specimen with rhombohedral phase.

      • 에이즈 환자의 거대세포바이러스 감염증

        김홍빈,박상원,김남중,최희정,신동현,오명돈,김우호,정흠,최강원 대한감염학회 1998 감염 Vol.30 No.4

        배 경 : 거대세포바이러스 감염은 인간면역부전바이러스 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) 감염자에서 발생하는 가장 중요한 기회감염증의 하나이다. 특히, 국내에서는 95%이상의 국민이 거대세포바이러스의 1차감염을 경험한 상태이므로 에이즈 환자에서 거대세포바이러스 질환의 빈도가 높을 것으로 예상된다. 대상 및 방법 : 1987년 10월부터 1996년 9월까지 서울대학교 병원에서 추적 관찰하였던 128명의 HIV 감염자를 대상으로 하였다. 이들 환자의 의무 기록에서 임상 자료를 얻었다. 거대세포바이러스 망막염은 안과 전문의의 임상적인 소견으로 진단하였으며, 위장관 등 망막이외 부위의 거대세포마이러스 질환은 조직학적으로 확인된 경우에 한하였다. 결 과 : 대상환자 128명의 추적관찰기간은 중앙값이 6(0∼59)개월 이었으며 7명 (5.4%)에서 거대세포바이러스 질환이 발생하였다. 거대세포바이러스 질환은 망막염이 6예, 식도염이 2예, 대장염이 1예, 폐렴 및 부신감염이 1예, 범발성 감염이 1예였다. 거대세포바이러스 질환의 발생빈도는 CD4+ 림프구 수가 적을수록 높았으며, CD4+ 수가 200/㎣미만인 환자 중 15% (6/33)에서 거대세포바이러스 질환이 확인되었다. 11예 중 9예를 ganciclovir로 치료하였으며 이중 7예에서 호전 또는 진행의 억제가 확인되었다. 추적관찰이 가능한 6예 중 3예 (50%)에서 재발하였다. 결 론 : 국내 에이즈 환자에서 거대세포바이러스 질환은 비교적 흔한 기회감염증이다. Background : Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the important opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. In Korea, seroprevalence of IgG against CMV is over 95%. Therefore, CMV diseases are expected to be a prevalent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. in Korea. Methods : We reviewed the medical records of 128 patients with HIV infection who visited the Seoul National University Hospital during the period from Nov. 1987 TO Sep. 1996. All the patients were examined by one ophthalmologist and the diagnosis of CMV retinitis were made by funduscopic findings. Other CMV diseases were diagnosed when histopathologic examinations showed the characteristic cytomegalic cells. Results : Median duratior, of follow-up was 8 months. Eleven CMV diseases were found in 7 patients (5.4%): 6 patients ahd retinitis, 2 esophagitis, 1 colitis, 1 pneumonitis, and one patient developed disseminated infection. Fifteen percent (6/33) of the patients whose CD4+ lymphocyte counts were less than 200/㎣ at baseline developed CMV diseases. Out of the 9 cases treated with ganciclovir, 7 improved or were stabilized. No patient received maintenance treatment and 3 had relapsed. Conclusion : CMV diseases are common opportunistic infections in AIDS patients in Korea.

      • 전신마취 유도 직후 발생한 일측성 급성 기도폐쇄

        김명화,이동준,김문철 仁濟大學校 白病院 2010 仁濟醫學 Vol.31 No.-

        Acute unilateral airway obstruction may be developed immediately after general anesthetic induction. Tracheal intubation is essential procedure to support lives for who is coma or undergo general anesthesia, but several complications could occur. One of these is airway obstruction immediately after endotracheal tube insertion because of bronchial mucous plug, previous aspirated foreign body, hemoptysis ect. This acute bronchial obstruction may be manifested clinically by hypoxemia, cardiovascular instability, brain damage, if more aggravated to death due to partial or complete interruption of ventilation to an lung. Therefore if endotracheal tube obstruction may occur, early detection and treatment is very critical. A 53-year-old male patient underwent acute unilateral obstruction of bronchus immediately after inserted endotracheal tube, so he revealed hypoxemia, hypotension, but smooth operation and anesthetic care was progressed overall owing to endotracheal tube suction and replacement of tube.

      • 정지형 자전거 운동 훈련이 건강한 여성의 체구성,심폐기능 및 유연성에 미치는 효과

        김동옥,최정숙,안혜영,민혜숙,이경숙,박연환,송미령,최명애,최정안,김매자 서울대학교 간호대학 간호과학연구소 1999 간호학 논문집 Vol.13 No.1

        The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in body composition, cardiopulmonary function, and flexibility following 8 weeks' bicycle ergometer exercise training. The subjects of this research consisted of healthy adult women between 30 and 40 years of age. Initial intensity of bicycle ergometer exercise was based on the target heart rate equivalent to 55% of maximal oxygen uptake, and intensity of the exercise increased by 5% every 2 weeks. Body composition, cardiopulmonary function at rest and during maximal exercise, as well as flexibility were determined before and after 8 weeks of bicycle ergometer exercise training. Masimal exercise was performed on the treadmill according to Bruce Protocol. The results obtained were as follows; 1. There were o changes in body weight, percent body fat, fat body weight, and lean body weight as well. The ventilation volume for 1 minute, respiratory quotient and expired CO₂ volume have not changed significantly after the training, either. 2. As a result of training, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly(p<.05) 3. Maximal heart rate, maximal oxygen consumption and maximal running time increased significantly after the training(p<.05) 4. Pelvic flexibility increased slightly after the training, however, it did not reach the statistical significance. Trunk flexion forward increased significantly after the training(p<.05). From these results, it may be concluded that 8 weeks bicycle ergometr training improve the cardiopulmonary function and flexibility in healthy adult women between 30-40 years of age.

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