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      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome: What We Know and What We Don`t

        ( Don D. Sin ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2017 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.80 No.1

        Approximately one in four patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have asthmatic features consisting of wheezing, airway hyper-responsiveness or atopy. The Global initiative for Asthma/Globalinitiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease committee recently labelled these patients as having asthma-COPD overlap syndrome or ACOS. ACOS also encompasses patients with asthma, ≥40 years of age, who have been cigarette smokers (more than 5-10 pack years) or have had significant biomass exposure, and demonstrate persistent airflow limitation defined as a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV<sub>1</sub>)/forced vital capacity of <70%. Data over the past 30 years indicate that patients with ACOS have greater burden of symptoms including dyspnea and cough and show higher risk of COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations than those with pure COPD or pure asthma. Patients with ACOS also have increased risk of rapid FEV<sub>1</sub> decline and COPD mortality. Paradoxically, experimental evidence to support therapeutic decisions in ACOS patients is lacking because traditionally, patients with ACOS have been systematically excluded from therapeutic COPD and asthma trials to maintain homogeneity of the study population. In this study, we summarize the current understanding of ACOS, focusing on definitions, epidemiology and patient prognosis.

      • KCI등재

        Error Analysis in Two Nigerian Newspapers

        Don’ Emenike,Success Asuzu 한국중원언어학회 2016 언어학연구 Vol.0 No.41

        The purpose of this study was to explicate the nature of errors shown in two Nigerian newspapers, Punch and Vanguard. For the purpose, the authors of this study first identified errors shown in the newspapers, and then classified them into some categories. Finally, they made an attempt to explain the causes of the errors. In analyzing errors, this study employed theoretical frame works of Corder’s error analysis and Selinker’s interlanguage. Through a qualitative analysis, the authors identified and analyzed twenty-one errors in both newspapers. Some types of errors that were more frequently identified were prepositional errors, capitalization errors, malapropism, and others. It was found that error types in both newspapers were identical, probably because the writers/journalists would experience the same sociolinguistic background and educational system. The errors shown in the two newspapers could be instances of interlanguage transfer or poor knowledge of English grammar rules. The study made some implications for L2 language teaching as the analyzed errors could serve useful resources in terms of curriculum design for educating L2 learners in professional and other language learning situations.

      • AHCISCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재

        Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome: What We Know and What We Don't

        Sin, Don D. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory 2017 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.80 No.1

        Approximately one in four patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have asthmatic features consisting of wheezing, airway hyper-responsiveness or atopy. The Global initiative for Asthma/Globalinitiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease committee recently labelled these patients as having asthma-COPD overlap syndrome or ACOS. ACOS also encompasses patients with asthma, ${\geq}40$ years of age, who have been cigarette smokers (more than 5-10 pack years) or have had significant biomass exposure, and demonstrate persistent airflow limitation defined as a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second ($FEV_1$)/forced vital capacity of <70%. Data over the past 30 years indicate that patients with ACOS have greater burden of symptoms including dyspnea and cough and show higher risk of COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations than those with pure COPD or pure asthma. Patients with ACOS also have increased risk of rapid $FEV_1$ decline and COPD mortality. Paradoxically, experimental evidence to support therapeutic decisions in ACOS patients is lacking because traditionally, patients with ACOS have been systematically excluded from therapeutic COPD and asthma trials to maintain homogeneity of the study population. In this study, we summarize the current understanding of ACOS, focusing on definitions, epidemiology and patient prognosis.

      • 청소용역노동자 노동조건 및 생활 실태 분석

        조돈문 가톨릭대학교 사회과학연구소 2007 社會科學硏究 Vol.23 No.-

        청소노동자들의 노동조건은 열악하고 이는 파견용역이라는 고용형태에서 비롯된 것임은 익히 잘 알려져 있다. 하지만 청소용역노동자들에 대한 심층연구는 찾기 어렵다. 본 연구의 연구목적은 청소노동자들 가운데 파견용역직 노동자들의 노동조건과 생활실태를 파악하는 것이다. 본 연구로 확인한 청소용역노동자들의 노동조건과 생활실태를 다음과 같이 정리될 수 있다. 청소용역노동자들의 노동조건은 근무 기관들 사이에 큰 편차를 보이고 있으며, 대학과 병원이 타 기관들에 비해 열악하며, 사적부문에 비해 공적부문이 더 열악한 것으로 나타났다. 청소용역노동자들은 물질적 곤궁으로 취업했음에도 불구하고 노동자들에 대한 물질적 보상 수준은 매우 열악하여 저임금 수준과 그로 인한 생활고는 청소용역노동자들 불만의 핵심을 형성하고 있다. 청소용역노동자들은 저임금과 열악한 노동조건에도 불구하고 사회에 대한 기대수준이 별로 높지 않아 기대와 희망까지 포기한 체념상태의 삶을 영위하고 있음을 보여준다. 청소용역노동은 도급용역계약의 외양을 띠고 있지만 원청업체 관리자의 실질적 개입 현상은 불법파견의 성격도 지니고 있음을 확인시켜준다. 청소용역노동자의 노동기본권은 존중되지 않고 부당노동행위 등 노동관계법 위반 현상이 확산·고착되어 일상화·보편화되고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 노동부를 중심으로 한 정부에 대한 청소용역노동자들의 불신의 정도는 매우 높은 것으로 나타났다. 청소용역노동자들의 노동기본권에 대한 지식정보가 매우 부족하여 권리의식이 발달하지 못하고 결국 적극적으로 노동조건을 개선하기 어렵게 하는 것으로 나타났다. It is well known that working conditions of cleaning workers are very inferior owing to their status of subcontracting. It is not easy, however, to find in-depth studies of subcontracted cleaning workers. This study aims to study working and living conditions of subcontracted cleaning workers. There are significant variations across types of employer in terms of working conditions, while universities and hospitals turn out to be the worst employers and the public sector is worse than the private sector. Although cleaning workers entered into labor market out of poverty, they ended up with those jobs of low wages so that they come to complain of poor wages more than any other things. Despite their poor working conditions, cleaning workers don’t expect too much because they see very little possibility of improvement. Although subcontracted cleaning jobs take the form of legal subcontracting, they turn out to be illegal dispatching in many cases with the direction of contractor firm personnels. Basic labor rights of subcontracted cleaning workers are not respected in work places. Subcontracted cleaning workers do not dare to appeal to government authorities including the branches of Labor Ministry which don’t look dependable. Subcontracted cleaning workers have very little knowledge of labor rights and labor laws, so that they have consciousness of labor rights underdeveloped and thus they are not so capable of improving their working conditions for themselves.

      • KCI등재

        2007년(年) 개정(改正) 교육(敎育) 과정(課程)에 따른 한문(漢文) 교과서(敎科書) 『검정(檢定) 기준(基準)』과 『편찬상(編纂上)의 유의점(留意點)』의 특징(特徵)과 문제점(問題點)

        이돈석 ( Don Suk Lee ) 東方漢文學會 2009 東方漢文學 Vol.0 No.40

        이 논문은 2007년 개정 교육과정의 『검정 기준』과 『편찬상의 유의점』이 어떻게 달라졌는지 그 특징을 점검하고 한문 교과서 검정 제도의 문제는 무엇이며 이에 따른 보완 방향에 대해 살펴보았다. 이상의 논의를 바탕으로 필자는 다음과 같은 의견을 제시한다. 우선, 7차 교육과정과 2007년 개정 교육과정의 『검정 기준』과 『편찬상의 유의점』이 연례행사처럼 반복되고 있는 문제점이 있었다. 따라서 반복되어지는 기준들은 과감하게 제거하고 교과서 집필에 있어 최소한의 기준인 `공통 기준`만을 제시고 나머지 부분은 집필진들이 스스로 판단하도록 하는 새로운 검정 방법이 새로운 교과서를 만들기 위한 방법이 아닐까 생각되어진다. 다음으로 일반적, 추상적으로 진술되어 있는 『검정 기준』과 『편찬상의 유의점』을 가지고 교과서 합격, 불합격을 심사 하는 검인정 제도를 과감하게 타파하고 교과서 집필에 근간이 되는 『교육과정 해설서』를 지금 보다 구체적으로 진술하여 교과서 집필의 최소 기준으로써의 역할을 하도록 해야 할 것이다. 마지막으로, 교과서 `외형 체계`를 교과서 가격이 상승된다는 이유만으로 억제하고 있어 시각 매체에 길들여진 학생들에게 흥미를 잃게 만드는 문제점도 있었다. 따라서 교과서의 `외형 체계`에 대한 기준을 삭제하여 학생들의 흥미와 동기를 부여 해 줄 수 있는 창의적 교과서를 집필할 수 있도록 해야 할 것이다. 이상을 종합 했을 때 교과서의 검인정 제도를 유지 할 것이 아니라 교과서 집필의 최소 기준만을 제시하여 교과서를 검정하거나 교과서를 자유롭게 발행할 수 있는 자유 발행제로의 이행이 요구되어진다. A new revised curriculum in 2007 has been applied to the educational situation by textbooks. However, in Korea, when the textbooks are published, they are based on `standards for authorizing` and `instructions for publishing textbooks`, not on curriculum. This thesis is focused on revealing the problems of the current authorizing system by analyzing the `common standards` and `standards by subjects`, which are presented in `standards for authorizing` and `instructions for publishing textbooks` which are used in both the 7th national curriculum and the new revised curriculum in 2007. First, standards which are applied to both curriculums are almost same. As a result, `standards for authorizing` and `instructions for publishing textbooks` don`t play an effective role in publishing helpful textbooks. This shows that, rather than `standards for authorizing` and `instructions for publishing textbooks`, `the guide for curriculum` should be a standard for authorizing textbooks. Also, the current standards for authorizing textbooks force the publishing companies not to change the physical factors of textbooks, such as size, color, paper quality, which makes students lose interest in textbooks. Consequently, it is required that the current official approval system be abolished and the new system for publishing textbooks, that is free publishing system, be introduced.

      • KCI등재

        On Form-function Mismatch Puzzles in Fragments

        Hee-Don Ahn(안희돈),Sungeun Cho(조성은) 담화·인지언어학회 2006 담화와 인지 Vol.13 No.1

        Fragmentary utterances refer to short answers smaller than grammatically complete sentence. Interestingly, the fragments convey the same propositional content that their full sentential counterparts do and have assertoric force. To capture this form-function mismatch, two types of analyses have been made so far: direct interpretation analyses and ellipsis analyses. The former assumes that fragments don't have hidden sentential structure and consist of non-sentential XPs. Hence, the expository burden from form-function mismatch is placed on syntax-semantics. The latter assumes that fragments have full sentential structure prior to ellipsis. Hence, compared with direct interpretation analyses, less simple syntactic structure is assumed. The ellipsis analyses have a crucial advantage such as preservation of usual syntax-semantic mapping: uniform factors in interpretation must stem from uniform syntactic source. This paper aims to show that the ellipsis analyses are more plausible in explaining grammatical properties of fragments. We claim that ellipsis approach is superior to alternatives in explaining both case-marked and non-case-marked fragments in Korean. Diverse evidence from case-matching, scope, P-stranding is presented to confirm our analysis.

      • KCI등재

        사회의 불가능성과 민주주의, 그리고 한국문학 : 실재의 윤리를 참조한 ‘문학의 정치’ 연구를 위한 시론

        함돈균 ( Ham Don-kyoon ) 국제비교한국학회 2017 비교한국학 Comparative Korean Studies Vol.25 No.2

        오늘날 현대민주주의 이론은 단순한 권력분립이나 형식적 사회제도에 관한 이론이 아니라, 정치의 가능성을 근본적으로 성찰해 보는 계기로서 작용하고 있다. 민주주의 이론은 권력의 중심을 하나로 수렴하지 않으며, 사회체를 유기적인 것으로 상정하지 않고, 정치를 유지하는 원리들을 불변하는 보편원리 속에서 사고하지 않는다는 독특한 특징을 지닌다. 유동성, 불확실성, 불가능성, 비유기성 등 정치에 대한 민주주의 이론의 기본 관점은, 사회의 주체들을 통합하는 지적 체계, 이데올로기에 대해서 비판적인 관점을 취한다는 점에서 정신분석이 상징적 질서를 이해하는 기본관점과 상당히 유사한 지점을 보여준다. 한편 사회와 정치에 대한 이러한 접근방식은 사회를 구성하는 상징적 요소들로서 문학현상이 일어나는 일과 통하는 면이 있다. 문학현상은 오히려 사회의 중심이나 전체로 통합되지 않는 요소들이 존재한다는 것을 보여준다는 점에서 파열이고 증상적인 것이다. 이 논문은 이러한 문학현상의 본질적 특성을 ‘실재의 윤리’라 일컬어지는 정신분석의 윤리로 이해해 보고, 이를 정치의 장에서 일어나는 ‘정치적인 것’으로 해석함으로써 문학과 정신분석과 현대민주주의를 결합할 수 있는 가능성을 탐색해 보려는 시론적 성격을 지닌다. 한국현대문학은 이에 대한 하나의 예시로서 제시된다. The theory of the modern democracy is not only the theory on power structure but also the chance thinking the radical possible of the politics. It don’t regard the politics as the totality, the universal principle, the invariability. This point of view is similar to the psychoanalytic understanding of the symbolic(culture-society). When Jacques Lacan’s psychoanalysis leads to an epistemology of the world, its ultimate insight is related to an understanding of the world as an absent totality. According to the perspective of Slavoj Zizek, who appropriates Lacan’s insight on social and ideological levels, Lacan’s psychoanalysis is related to the real (le reel) concealed by the symbolic order, or to the lack and contradiction of the world. Based on such problematics, Zizek understands the moment at which Lacan’s subject poses hysterical questions as a symptom (symptome) of the exposure of the fissures in the symbolic order and interprets this as a moment at which ideological fantasy is ruptured. As an ontological sign that reveals the impossibility of the subject as a vehicle of an organic and unified consciousness constructed through a mechanism of misrecognition, this can be seen as a sign of the so-called “not-whole (pas-tout)” in the Lacanian sense. From this perspective, this becomes a symptom that reveals the extreme tension and conflict within the modern literature, which are generated by the ontological lack and contradiction inherent to both the subject and the world. The present study thus links such psychoanalytical concepts to modern literature which is an aesthetic sign of the non-assimilation of the subject to the object, and endeavors to expand anew the concept of the theory of the modern democracy. this study attempts an exploration of the ethical possibility for the (Korean) modern literature and the modern democracy simultaneously to maintain its unique aesthetic form and to mediate the world on social and ideological levels.

      • KCI등재

        베네수엘라 차베스정부의 국유화 정책과 국민여론

        조돈문(Cho Don-Moon) 한국라틴아메리카학회 2011 라틴아메리카연구 Vol.24 No.4

        The politics of nationalization tended to evolve in the mode of direct confrontation between government and capitalists as the Chavez government began to push ahead with its nationalization policy after winning a referendum in February 2009. Once nationalization measures came to reach the food industry which in turn further sharpened socio-political conflicts, the tide of public opinion began to exercise influence on the form and direction of nationalization policy. However, public opinion on the nationalization policy has not been well studied by social scientists. It is the aim of this study to analyze public opinion on the nationalization policy, and identify significant causes and causal mechanisms in the formation of public opinion so as to make sense of the background and implications of the strategic choices made by the protagonists of nationalization policy. This study of public opinion came up with three findings. First, an overwhelming majority are in opposition to the nationalization policy, siding with capitalists in their confrontation with the government. Second, Chavez’s reputation exerts greater influence on public opinion about the nationalization policy in comparison with the capitalists’ reputation, a factor with countervailing effect against the capitalists’ edge in reputation. Third, among the various explanatory variables the evaluation of Chavez’s performance turned out to be most influential, while not only Chavez’s evaluation but also his ideological orientation has exerted significant effects on citizens’ opinion about the nationalization policy. The current tide of public opposition to the nationalization policy demonstrates the failure of the Chavez government to form a national consensus on the issue of nationalization. It implies that calls for nationalization based upon the need to deal with poor working conditions, violations of basic labor rights, the problem of industrial monopolies, the possible consequence of productivity improvements, and the public good and workers’ control fell short of convincing the Venezuelans of the inevitable need for nationalization measures. The failure of the Chavez government to form favorable public opinion largely owes to the strategic choices made by Chavez and his government. They chose to take advantage of Chavez’s high popularity which far exceeds the proportion of public opinion in favor of nationalization policy. They intended to persuade Chavez’s supporters to endorse Chavez’s transformative policies such as the nationalization policy rather than to engage in dialogue with those who give low approval ratings to Chavez. It was a rational choice for their strategy. However, this typical dichotomization strategy could make it difficult to build up public opinion in favor of the nationalization policy because it could alienate those who don’t give a positive rating to the performance of the Chavez government. As a result, the nationalization policy may face serious national resistance as the political polarization of Venezuelan society intensifies further.

      • KCI등재

        일반논문 : 전자기록의 문서성과 전자기록죄의 문제점

        황병돈 ( Byeong Don Hwang ) 홍익대학교 법학연구소 2014 홍익법학 Vol.15 No.1

        형법 개정을 통하여 전자기록죄 일부 범죄유형이 처벌되고 있지만, 전자기록의 문서성을 인정할 것인가의 문제는 아직 논의의 실익이 있다. 통설과 판례는 가독성(可讀性)이 없음을 이유로 전자기록을 문서개념에 포섭될 수 없는 것으로 이해하고 있으나, 원본성이 문서의 본질이 아니듯 문서의 가독성도 문서의 본질이 될 수 없다. 문서의 개념은 시대적인 개념이고 역사를 통하여 항상 변용되어 왔다고 할 수 있다. 사상과 관념을 표현하는 방식으로서 전자기록의 중요성이 더욱 증대되고 있고 나아가 문서를 대체하는 현상까지 낳고 있는 현대사회에 있어서 종래의 문서개념을 고수할 필요는 없다고 본다. 전자기록을 형법상 문서로서 이해하고, 광의의 문서에 협의의 문서, 도화, 전자기록을 포함시켜 해석한다면 별도의 입법이 필요없이 문서의 일부로서 전자기록에 대한 공공의 신용과 거래의 안전을 보호할 수 있다. 전자기록의 문서성 인정 여부와 별도로 전자기록죄 처벌규정의 흠결을 보완하는 형법 개정 작업이 필요하다. Some electronic record related crimes were provided in criminal act but the documentation of electronic record is available to study. According to prevalent theory and judicial precedents, electronic record is different from document because it has not the nature of document, visibility and readability. I think that the visibility is not the true nature of document or the essence of documentation like the originality. Because the concept of document is variable in ages and at places. We don`t have to maintain the conceptual view of document. The innovation of technology make electronic record as the important method of recording of idea and thought. We should understand eletronic record as a kind of document like painting. Then extra provisions of criminal law are not necessary. At this time the defect of electronic record related crimes needs to be amended.

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