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( Hyung Joon Kim ), ( Sun Young Cho ), ( Woo Hee Cho ), ( Do Hyun Lee ), ( Do Hyoung Lim ), ( Pil Won Seo ), ( Mi Hyun Park ), ( Wonae Lee ), ( Jai Hyuen Lee ), ( Doh Hyung Kim ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2013 Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Vol.75 No.5
Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is usually caused by extrinsic compression or invasion of the superior vena cava (SVC) by malignant tumors involving mediastinal structures. Although thymomas are well-known causes of SVCS, cases of SVCS caused by malignant thymomas protruding into adjacent vessels draining the SVC with thrombosis have been very rarely reported worldwide. We experienced a 39-year-old female patient with SVCS that developed after the direct invasion of the left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV) and SVC by an anterior mediastinal mass with a high maximum standardized uptake value on the chest computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography-CT. Based on these results, she underwent en bloc resection of the tumor, including removal of the involved vessels, and was eventually diagnosed as having a type B2 thymoma permeating into the LBCV and SVC. We present this case as a very rare form of SVCS caused by an invasive thymoma.
Purpose: The aims of the present study were to quantitatively assess graft height changes after sinus lift procedures and to analyze the factors that influenced graft height changes, including the residual bone height before surgery, surgical approach, and tooth type. Methods: A total of 39 maxillary posterior implants placed during a simultaneous sinus lift procedure were evaluated. Panoramic radiographs of all patients were taken immediately after implant installation and at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years. To analyze graft height changes over time, we measured the distance between the implant platform and the base of the grafted sinus floor at 3 locations. The radiographs were analyzed by a single examiner. Results: Graft height tended to decrease over time, and a statistically significant difference was observed at 2 years compared to baseline (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in graft height change according to the surgical approach or tooth type. For residual bone height, a statistically significant difference in graft height change was found between those with 4–7 mm of residual bone height and those with ≥7 mm (P<0.05). Conclusions: Graft height after sinus lift procedures significantly decreased at 2 years compared to baseline after sinus augmentation. Further studies should be done with controlled variables, and prospective studies with 3-dimensional images are needed to clarify the factors that influence graft height changes.
<P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>We investigated nuclear localization signal (NLS) determinants within the AT-hook and ETS DNA-binding domains of murine Elf3 (mElf3), a member of the subfamily of epithelium-specific ETS transcription factors. Deletion mutants containing the AT-hook, ETS domain or both localized strictly in the nucleus, suggesting that these individual domains contain independent NLS motif(s). Within the AT-hook domain, four basic residues (<SUP>244</SUP>KRKR<SUP>247</SUP>) were critical for strong NLS activity, and two potent bipartite NLS motifs (236–252 and 249–267) were sufficient for nuclear import of mElf3, although less efficient than the full domain. In addition, one stretch of basic residues (<SUP>318</SUP>KKK<SUP>320</SUP>) within the ETS domain appears to be essential for mElf3 nuclear localization. Taken together, mElf3 contains multiple NLS motifs, which may function cooperatively to effect efficient nuclear transport.</P>
Phytoncides are volatile substances diffused largely from trees to protect themselves against harmful factors. Many people are attracted to forest bathing and the effects of forest bathing involve the effect of protecting human dermal cell against reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activation of immune function and the reduction of stress hormones. Since phytoncides are released to prevent plants from rotting or being eaten by animals, we expect that phytoncides have negative effects on insects. However, there is almost no study to show the effects of phytoncides of Chamaecyparis obtusa on insects so far. Therefore, we examined the effects of phytoncides on insects using fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Our results showed that the exposure to phytoncides scents reduced the lifespan of Drosophila in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, development rate, locomotion and fecundity of fruit flies were also decreased with phytoncides exposure. In food preference test, fruit flies and house flies showed strong avoidance behavior to the food containing phytoncides in a dose dependent manner. Overall, these results suggest the possibility of phytoncides as human-friendly insect repellent.
The dynamic current-voltage (Ⅰ-V) characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) during field emission were investigated by in-situ imaging and field emission (FE) measurement inside a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). As the electric field increases, the bent nanotubes (BNT) generally become erect and align to a parallel electric field line. However, the FE of BNTs can initially occur after they are fully straightened or it can start at the bended-state (during geometrical straightening) as the applied field increases. In the former case, the FE showed conventional Fowler-Nordheim (FN) behavior with a linear slope. In the latter case, two linear slopes were observed, in which a break in the FN plot corresponds to the applied voltage at which the BNTs becomes fully straightened. The FE of as-straightened CNTs successfully followed conventional FN theory with a single linear slope in FN plots.
ZnO film has been used for CIGS solar cells as a buffer layer as itself or by doping Mg and Sn; ZnO film also has been used as a transparent conducting layer by doping Al or B for solar cells. Since ZnO itself is a host material for many applications it is necessary to understand the electrical and optical properties of ZnO film itself with various preparation conditions. We prepared ZnO films by converting ZnS precursor into ZnO film by thermal annealing. ZnO film was formed at low temperature as low as 500°C by annealing a ZnS precursor layer in air. In the air annealing, the electrical resistivity decreased monotonically with increasing annealing temperature; the intensity of the green photoluminescence at 505 nm increased up to 750°C annealing. The electrical resistivity further decreased and the intensity of green emission also increased in reducing atmospheres. The results suggest that deep-level defects originated by oxygen vacancy enhanced green emission, which reduce light transmittance and enhance the recombination of electrons in conduction band and holes in valence. More oxidizing environment is necessary to obtain defect-free ZnO film for higher transparency.