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Background : ICAM-1 act as one of major adhesion molecules in the atherosclerotic lesion. ICAM-1 expression is mainly regulated at the level of transcription and depend on IFN-γ signal transduction pathway in which the STAT1 transcrption factor is a critical intermediate. IFN-γreceptor not only initiates tyrosine 701 phosphorylation of STAT1 by Jak1 and Jak2, but also phosphorylates serine 727 through the activation of Raf-1/MAP kinases. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors have anti-atherosclertic effects, beyond normalization of hypercholesterolemia, by directly acting on endothelial cells, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors suppress the synthesis of isoprenoid intermediates such as geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate or farnesylpyrophosphate. These effects results inhibitors suppress the synthesis of isoprenoid intermediates such as geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate or farnesylpyrophosphate. These effects results inhibition posttranslational farnesylation and geranyl-geranylation processing of small GTP-binding preoteins and inhibition of normal signaling activities. Method : We made several 5'-deletion constructs of rat ICAM-1 promoter and analyzed the promoter activities by measuring the luciferase activity after transfection into ECV304 cells and smooth muscle cells. We checked the level of total and phosphorylated STAT1 protein by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies. Results : Lovastatin inhibits IFN-γ-induced ICAM-1 gene expression in the ECV304cell. The cells pretreated with PD98059, MEKK inhibitor showed significantly low ICAM-1 RNA induction with IFN-γ stimulatio. IFN-γ induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 701 was not significantly changed by the pretreatment of lovastatin. But lovastatin suppresses IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/ERK2 which are responsible for the seine 727 phosphorylation in STAT1. Conclusion : We showed that HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, lovastatin, suppresses IFN-γ mediated ICAM-1 gene expression through the inhibition of transcription. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor suppresses IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of serine 727 in STAT1 through the modulation of MAP kinases.
The electrical properties of Maleate copolymer (C_(18)MA-VE_(2)) and Itaconate copolymer (C_(18)ITA-VE_(2)) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films for in-plane were investigated to develop the gas sensor. The C_(18)MA-VE_(2) and C_(18)ITA-VE_(2) were used as sensitive materials and deposition on the slide-glass substrate using LB method which could control the thickness in the molecular order (Å). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were measured to investigated the response characteristics in chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol gases. The conductivity of sensitive films were 10^(-)7[S/cm] for an in-plane. The change of conductivity was occurred by behavior of organic gases, which mean that the behavior of organic gases could be analyzed using conductivity change and application to gas sensor. In the experimental results, the relation between sensitive films and organic gases could be divided by three-type. Thus, we could analyze the modeling of the response characteristics of organic gases using the conductivity change of sensitive films.
The deformation behavior of a mechanical alloyed Al-Fe and Al-Fe-Ce alloy was studied in the temperature range of 300℃ to 500℃. The steady state for Al-8wt.%Fe powder was obtained after 1000 minutes of mechanical alloying at the process condition of 2wt.% stearic acid, 46:1 of grinding media/powder weight ratio, and 300 rpm of impeller revolving velocity. The relative densities of Al-8wt.%Fe alloy powders reached almost 100% after 1 hour sintering at 470℃ under vacuum state. With increasing the amount of PCA, hardness of the sintered alloys increased but the relative densities were not affected. It was also found that decrease in hardness and tensile strength after high temperature aging treatment was reduced with increasing the amount of Ce addition.
To observe the expression of p53 protein and PCNA in lung carcinomas and to evaluate the correlationship between the two results, the author has been carried out immunohistochemical staining with mononuclear antibodies against p53 and PCNA. 64 cases of lung carcinomas used consist of 32 cases of squamous cell carcinomas, 18 cases of adenocarcinomas and 14 cases of small cell carcinomas, respectively. 1. p53 protein expression was seen in 16 cases out of 32 (50%) in squamous cell carcinoma, 7 cases out of 18 (39%) in adenocarcinoma and 10 cases out of 14 (71%) in small cell carcinoma. The positive rate of p53 is highest in small cell carcinoma. 2. p53 staining degrees showed that 3+ in 75% of squamous cell carcinoma, 1+ in 58% of adenocarcinoma and 1+ in 50% in small cell carcinma. were observed. The tumor cell composing of squamous cell carcinoma showed most strong staining to p53 protien. 3. PCNA labelling index showed higher index in p53(+) cases than p53(-) cases. The PCNA index of squamous cell carcinoma was highest and adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma in order. Above findings suggested that the PCNA index was related to p53 protein in tumor cells, but the PCNA index appeared to be influenced by the p53 protein content in tumor cells than whether the p53 protien was or not. So the growth rate of squamous cell carcinoma appeared to be most rapid than adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma.
Conventionally, identification and classification methods of natural products include the morphological survey and assay of chemical disposition. Using these methods, however, is not satisfying for the precise identification of natural products because they are often variable in the compositions, genomic DNA analysis such as RAPD, RFLP and Amp-FLP can be adopted for this purpose. In this study, various ginsengs and bear gall bladder were tested for the development of genetic identification and classification method. Varieties of ginsengs such as, P. ginseng, P. quinquefolium, P. japonicus and P. notohinseng, were genetically analyzed by RAPD. Also, DNA isolated form Bear blood and gall bladder, Ursus thibetanus, Ursus americanus and Ursus arctors, were analyzed by the same method. The results demonstrated that the identification and classification of bear gall bladder and various ginsengs were possible by RAPD analysis. Therefore, this method was thought to be used as a additional method for the identification of other natural products.
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The purpose of this study is to identify youth' brand equity with regard to sports brand identity. The subjects included 107 male and 106 female teenagers who live in the Seoul area and who were selected by a multi-stage sampling method. Data were collected by suing a questionnaire about sport corporations' brand equity, and the subjects were asked to indicate the degree of importance they place on certain variables on 1 5 point Likert scale by the self administration method. The scales were deemed reliable since the Cronbach a for the brand awareness and brand preference, brand association image, hand equity scales were .8325, .7289, .8247, .7582 respectively. As result, the following conclusion were drawn: 1. The brand identity element is important and recognized. 2. The brand which it prepers most was NIKE, character and high class it is with it appeared with the reason. 3. According to the specics of the population statistics(sex, area, grade) each brands showes differences in the brands equity(brand awareness and brand preference, brand association image, brand equity). 4. There was a difference to the brand equity(brand awareness and brand preference, brand association image, brand equity) which it follows in population statistics quality(sex, area, grade) of the outside brand. 5. There was a difference to the brand equity(brand awareness and brand preference, brand association image, brand equity) which it follows in population statistics quality(sex, area, grade) of the domestic brand. 6. There was a difference to the brand equity(hand awareness and brand preference, brand association image, brand equity) which it follows in population statistics quality(sex, area, grade) of the domestic brand and outside brand.
The purpose of this study is to examine GPS data accuracy on traffic behavior analysis and to investigate GPS measurement in the real road condition. This measurement uses GPS hardware and software for collecting speed and position of two model cars at the same time. Data of Disto meter and GPS data which are bases of GPS data value are compared for judging through t-testing and correlation analysis. GPS data is used for calculating car moving distance and speed change. It is useful to traffic control in a city by analyzing basic traffic behavior appeared on leading car and following car.