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The purpose of this study is to understand more systematically the political and ideological tendency of Chong, Do-jeon based on the study of the literature references of Kyungjemunkam unveiled recently. Chong, Do-jeon accepted Neo-Confucianism, and used it as a reality-reforming idea. He accepted various scholastic tendencies of the Song and Won Kingdoms as eell Neo-Confucianism, and he got the theoretical foundation of the reality reform from them, which is mentioned in Kyungjemungam. The representative literature references of Kyungjemungam are Juregongeui and Sandangosek, which is a book of Shin-kung chih-hsueh series in the Chinese Ideological History and was written for settling the national structural crisis at the end of Nam-Song Kingdom by the general study of the national structure. Chong, Do-jeon saw Confucian Science as a practical science meeting the real change, and understood a confucian as a person realizing the perfect self-culture with the participation in the specific reality. Accordingly he thought that a confucian must straighten up the reality, cultivating the body and mind and studying the principles of all things, and that the confucian could play a role as a national manager only on the condition that he should know all about astronomy, geography and medicine as well as confucian science. Chong, Do-jeon needed the Shih-kung chin-hsueh idea in the real situation where social change and national structural change were in progress, which was an approach to the new set-up and operation of the national structure by shih-kung chin-hsueh which was proved to a science necessary for the national management based on the moral self-culture or personality cultivation. He prepared for the social change and the national structural change like this by interpreting the concept of confucian science more widely and giving importance to Shin-kung chin-hsueh. Chong, Do-jeon was after the Neo-Confucian order based on the Neo-Confucian outlook on the world and the human being. The political structure and social order after which the Neo-Confucianism was could not survive in the society of the Kory? Dynasty recognizing (3) religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Accordingly the national structural reform was inevitable for the realization of the Neo-Confucian order. Son Chong, Do-jeon would establish the Single Central Political Structure by reforming the wrong practices from the laws and institutions at that time by the contradictory national structure of the Kory? Dynasty. What Chong, Do-jeon accepted from Shih-kung chih-hsueh was (1) the Jurye political system from Shih-kung chih-hsueh of the Nam-Song Kingdom, (2) the Parliamentary Government System, (3) the capability-based state examination system and (4) the stable living of the people and the expansion of the national finance for this Chong,Chong, Do-jeon used Shih-kung chih-hsueh on the national structural reform of the late-Kory? Dynasty age, which is not the Shih-kung chin-hsueh which Chu Hsi criticized, but that similar to Neo-Confucianism or not going against Neo-Confucianism. In order words, He accepted Neo-Confucianism as a reformative idea and was after the Neo-Confucianism national managerial order. But in the current situation of the national structure and kingdom change periods, the part which was less in Neo-Confucianism he complemented from Shin-kung chih-hsueh. After all it is thought that his ideas are based on Neo-Confucianism as primary ideological foundation Shin-kung chih-hsueh as secondary one.
Examined in this article is how Gweon Geun justified his serving of two countries, and why he decided to cooperate with Jeong Do-jeon. Gweon Geun wanted to make the world a place ruled by Confucianism instead of Buddhism. He compiled important academic points of the Confucian philosophy when he wrote Ib’hak Do’seol and 『O’gyeong Cheon’gyeon-rok』. He intended to establish Confucianism as a legitimate, one-and-only righteous form of study. He argued that Confucianism was the ‘real, substantial’ philosophy(實學) to lead the world, and criticized Buddhism as a heresy that would impede the world’s efforts to become a better one. Based upon a Neo-Confucian view of the world, he criticized Buddhism as a school of thoughts that did not recognize the objective world and its principles, and a mere form of belief that eventually forced people to ignore their own human obligations. In his eyes, Buddhism was a religion for the animals, as it allowed people to sever all the personal relationships, either between a king and a vassal, or between a father and son, by having them commit to a Buddhist way of life. He also argued that Buddhism considered all actions as of the mere heart(imagination), and did not acknowledge the existence of a principle or an obligation, from which the actions would generate, or upon which the actions would operate. With Neo-Confucian theories regarding the ‘Human nature(“Inseong, 人性”)’ and the ‘Law of Nature(“Cheon’ri, 天理)’ in mind, Gweon Guen considered morality to be very important, and hoped for an enlightenment to come to the people, based upon all that. He also wanted a world in which the people’s good nature would be more refined(or corrected from a corrupted state) with the concept of ‘Respect(Gyeong, 敬),’ so that morality could firmly be established. In order to maintain social stability and order, he preferred a character-building exercise based upon people’s moral nature and respect, to the employment of external forces such as law enforcement or institutional corrections. He wanted to reinforce school education, and modified the national examination system to prioritize Creative writing(製述), so that the Confucian concept of morality would dominate the people’s consciousness and living patterns. In the meantime, Gweon Geun decided to join the new dynasty and bring his plans to realize his political philosophy in motion. First, to support Jeong Do-jeon’s plans for a new dynasty in theoretical terms, he authored the foreword for 『Bulshi Jab’byeon』, and highlighted the book’s meaning. He depicted Jeong Do-jeon as a visionary who intended to establish a new country, and explained Jeong’s academic traits, from the perspective of the Neo-Confucian argument of legitimacy. Gweon Geun participated in the publication of 『Gyeong’je Mun’gam』 which did not thoroughly cited all the Chinese materials consulted in its creation. In 『Gyeong’je Mun’gam』, Jeong Do-jeon cited the Chinese texts yet marked them as his own thoughts, and Gweon Geun did the same, because he agreed with Jeong Do-jeon’s thoughts and accommodate his intentions. In short, Gweon Guen tried to establish an idealistic Confucian soceity, and joined the Joseon government, established a relationship with the powerful Jeong Do-jeon, and tried to accommodate his intentions.
This study was conducted in order to explore general flora of the Gyounggi-do Province and to clarify the distribution of some specificated taxa of the Korea. Daebu-do Island, Mt. Taewha, Mt. Hwaya, Mt. Gumdan, Mt. Chilhyun and Mt. Chulma among eighth grade-area of the Degree of Green Naturality (DGN) within the boundary of the Gyounggi-do Province were visited to investigate local flora. The number of identified vascular plant species were as follow; Mt. Hwaya: 120 species (99 genera of 67 families), Mt. Teawha: 132 species (103 genera of 56 families), Daebu-do Island: 124 species (103 genera of 50 families), Mt. Chulma: 129 species (99 genera of 67 families), Mt. Gumdan: 121 species (96 genera of 52 families), Mt. Chilyun: 90 species (74 genera of 42 families). The endemic Clematis brachyura Maxim. was found to distribute Daeby-do. It seemed that plantation was occupying large area in forest of the Gyounggi-do Province. Forty two specificated taxa were identified and 3 taxa, 10 taxa, 5 taxa, and 24 taxa were sorted into forth grade, third grade, second grade, and first grade respectively. Mt. Taewha showed the highest record (16 taxa) in the number of specificated taxa, Mt. Hwaya was the next with 13 taxa. Mt, Chulma (12 taxa), Mt. Gumdan (11 taxa), Daebu-do Island (7 taxi), and Mt, Chylma (4 taxi) followed. Mt. Taewa and Mt. Whaya were found to be relatively higher in the score calculated front the specificated taxa distribution, while Daebu-do Island and Mt. Chilyun were lower, that difference was probably due in part to consequences of severe disturbance of human activities. With respect to the consequences of severe disturbance of human activities. With respect to the geographical proximity to the Gangwon Province, Mt. Hwaya showed higher similarity of the species composition to that of the Mt. Jumbong.
<P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>To compare the physical characteristics of detrusor overactivity (DO) induced by intravesical infusion of saline in awake, sham rats and rats with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), by simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>Male Sprague-Dawley rats, normal or with a spinal vascular clip at the level of Th9, were investigated cystometrically 1 and 4 weeks after SCI. Intravesical pressure (IVP) and intraabdominal pressure (IAP) were recorded simultaneously to evaluate true DO. During the filling phase, the event of IVP rises, defined as increments that exceeded 2 cmH<SUB>2</SUB>O from baseline, were determined as DO according to the absence of simultaneous changes in IAP.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>All SCI rats exhibited DO during the filling phase, which was not shown in sham rats. The frequency and pressure of DO had a tendency to decrease with time. The DO frequency of SCI rats after 4 weeks (0.9±0.2 min<SUP>-1</SUP>) was decreased compared with that after 1 week (2.1±0.4 min<SUP>-1</SUP>; P<0.05). The DO pressure of SCI rats after 4 weeks (8.4±1.9 cmH<SUB>2</SUB>O) was decreased compared with that after 1 week (11.6±2.9 cmH<SUB>2</SUB>O; P>0.05).</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>Cystometric studies in awake male SCI rats showed some significant changes in bladder function after SCI. All SCI rats exhibited DO during the filling phase, and showed different physical characteristics of DO over the course of time. The neurological basis of these time-related changes remains poorly understood, but may provide important prognostic information about long-term urological management in SCI patients.</P>
A pilot scale SBR (working volume, 20㎥) treating piggery wastewater was operated with real wastewater. The operation mode of intermittent feeding of raw water and sub-cycle with repeating anoxic-aeration conditions were adapted to avoid the high-strength nitrogen inhibition. In sub-cycle, aeration time for nitrification was tried to be controled with ORP and/or DO meter. The characteristics of control was somewhat different between ORP and DO. DO showed potential ability to detect complete ammonia oxidation point by the first order differential values or absolute value. Especially, DO was proved to be useful for high loading rates. ORP indicated the ending point of nitrification by the plateau appearing after bending point. Because ORP can be utilized as a diagnosis tool by its good sensitivity for the microbial condition in reactor, the simultaneous application of DO and ORP was recommended for the stable control of SBR.
This study inquires into comparison and changes in Metabolic when people do inline-skating through comparing members of internet inline-skating association with normal people, and grasps the effect of doing inline-skating on Metabolic per minute. Also, this study provides information for activation of internet inline-skates association and health as scientific methods of inline-skating and domestic athletics. The conclusion is as follows. First, there are significant differences in 2minutes doing between members in association of internet inline-skates and normal people, and after verification, there are significant differences between male and female in association, between male in association and normal male, between male in association and normal female.(p<.01). Second, there is no significant difference in Metabolic of 4 minutes doing between members in association of internet inline-skates and normal people. Third, there are significant differences in 6 minutes doing between members in association of internet inline-skates and normal people, and after verification, there are significant differences between male and female in association, between male in association and normal male, between male in association and normal female.(p<.05). rmal people. Firth, there is no significant difference in Metabolic of 8 minutes doing between members in association of intemet inline-skates and normal people. Fifth, there is no significant difference in Metabolic of 10 minutes doing between members in association of intemet inline-skates and normal people. sixth, there are significant differences in sum total doing between members in association of internet inline-skates and normal people, and after verification, there are significant differences between male and female in association, between male in association and normal male, between male in association and normal female.(p<.05).
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This paper focuses on the historical fact that the name Geunjeongjeon(勤政殿), created by Chung Do-Jeon(鄭道傳), means “diligence helps governance”, and he set a theme about monarchies’ diligent governance for the civil service examination in the 5th Year of Taejo, and then aims to examine the political ideas of the Joseon Dynasty through analyzing the answer sheets written by Kim Ik-Jung(金益精) who was the top examination passer that year. Chung Do-Jeon established the goal for political systems and ideas of the Joseon Dynasty and suggested the ideal monarchy which was essential in managing the monarchy-state. His viewpoint of monarchy was found out while Hangyang City Wall was constructing at the time of the founding of the country. The construction of Gyeonbokgung was completed in the 4th year of Taejo(1395) and the name of Geunjeongjeon, which means “diligence helps governance” indicated the Neo-Confucian ideal for monarchy. Chung Do-Jeon asked what the ways of practice for monarchies’ diligent governance are as a theme for the civil service examinations. Kim Ik-Jung, the top examination passer, suggested in his answer sheets that monarchies should practise the diligent governance on the basis of the Neo-Confucianism, and they should possess sagacious judgements of the right policy to be conducted diligently, and that they should open the offices to the wise men in order to be helpful to monarchies’ sagacity, and that they should strive to figure out people’s actual circumstances, and that they should not be contrary to the most pressing agenda and the late King’s precedents. This is what Kim Ik-Jung organized diligent governance by appealing to Neo-Confucian Sung-Hak(聖學, Learning of the Sage) according to Chung Do-Jeon’s ideal for monarchy. 본고는 정도전이 태종 4년에 근정전의 의미를 설명하면서 군주의 근면 정치를 제시하고, 태조 5년에 과거시험 문제로 군주의 근면 정치를 제시했다는 점에 착안하여, 태조 5년 과거 시험의 장원 급제자인 김익정의 답안지를 분석하여 조선의 정치이념을 살펴본 글이다. 조선왕조의 정치체제와 정치이념의 방향을 설정하였고, 왕조국가의 정치운영의 핵심인 이상군주론을 제시하였다. 정도전의 군주관은 조선왕조 건국기에 한양 도성 건설 사업의 과정에서 나타났다. 1395년(태조 4) 9월 경복궁이 완성되고, 근정전이라는 명칭을 통해 군주의 근면 정치라는 성리학적 군주상이 제시되었다. 다음 해인 1396년(태조 5) 5월 과거 시험 문제에서 정도전은 시험 문제로 군주의 근면한 정치의 구체적인 실천방법을 질문하는 것이었다. 이 시험의 장원급제자인 김익정은 성리학적 사유를 바탕으로 군주가 근면한 정치를 행하되, 근면하게 시행해야 할 올바른 정책에 대한 명철한 인식을 가질 것, 현자를 등용하여 군주의 명철함을 돕도록 할 것, 백성들의 실정을 파악하는 데 힘쓸 것, 당대의 급선무와 선왕의 전례에 어긋나지 않도록 할 것 등의 구체적인 방법을 제시하였다. 이는 정도전의 이상군주론에 부응해서, 김익정이 군주의 근면한 정치를 성리학의 성학론으로 풀어 정리한 것이다.
1. Chungcheong-nam-do is located in west central part of South Korea. Being not very far from the capital-city area, some funtions of Chungcheong-nam-do absorbed by the capital city. This is well evidenced by the recent statistical figures of its population which show a minemal increase. 2. Its geology is rich in granite and gneiss and these igneous and metamorphic rocks have been eroded and the relief of land is generally slow. The area of its cultivated land is 33% of the whole land. 3. High temperaure and humidity in summer, alluvial flood plain, and high density of population have made possible the development of rice farming. In recent years, with the shortening of the transportation time to and from the cosmopolitan areas due to the development modern means of transportation, the area for cashcrop and dairy farming is on the increase. 4. Large scale comprehensive development projects such as the construction of the- Asan Dam and Daecheong Dam are being executed. With the execution of these proj- ects, conditions for the development of modern industries are beeing created and in the near future industrial seems to be changed greatly 5. Its capital city is Daejeon; Daejeon is a spot on the semi-cercular form railway running in the eastern and south-eastern part of Chungcheong nam-do. According to the viewpoint of central-place theory, the development of the Kongju area in the central part of Chungcheong-nam-do seems to be urgent and unavoidable for the development; of Chungcheong-nam-do.
This experiment investigated changes in metabolic rate (MO2), critical oxygen saturation (Scrit), and blood chemistry of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus exposed to progressive hypoxia and returned to normoxic water at 20°C. The normoxic standard metabolic rate (SMR) and routine metabolic rate (RMR) were 69.5-83.9 and 70.2-156.4 mg O2 kg-1h-1, respectively based on fish weight. Scrit was 31.0% dissolved oxygen (DO) at 20°C. After returning the fish to 70% DO following exposure to hypoxia (20% DO), MO2 increased two-fold compared to the normoxic SMR and then decreased into the range of the RMR with time. Blood PO2 and plasma lactate decreased significantly after exposure to hypoxia (20% DO) and then increased as ambient oxygen saturation decreased. Cortisol levels increased as ambient oxygen saturation decreased, but the levels decreased rapidly in the range of the normoxic control when the fish were returned to ambient water with 70% DO. Plasma glucose levels increased when the fish were returned to normoxic water after exposure to a progressively more hypoxic condition.
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경영자는 회계원칙이 허용되는 범위 안에서 발생액을 이용하여 이익을 조정(발생액 이익조정, Accrual-based Earnings Management)하거나 실제 경영활동을 통해 이익을 조정(실질이익조정, Real Earnings Management)하기도 한다. 이러한 이익조정에 관한 연구들은 발생액 이익조정과 실질이익조정으로 구분되어 진행되어 왔다. 이에 본 연구에서는 발생액 이익조정과 실질이익조정을 통합하여, 발생액 이익조정의 기준들(재량적 발생액, 이익의 횡단면 분포, 비재량적 이익)이 실질 이익조정의 식별에도 유용한지를 검증하였다. 실질이익조정의 측정변수로는 비정상적 영업현금흐 름과 재량적 비용 및 제조원가를 사용하였다. 본 연구의 실증분석 결과는 다음과 같이 요약된다. 첫째, 발생액 이익조정의 식별기준들에 따라 구분된 이익조정집단과 통제집단 간의 실질이익조정 측정변수의 차이를 분석하였다. 재량적 발생액과 비재량적 이익으로 구분된 이익조정집단과 통제 집단 간에는 실질이익조정 측정변수 모두에서 통계적으로 유의한 차이를 발견하였다. 그러나 이익의 횡단면 분포에 따라 구분된 이익조정집단과 통제집단 간에는 모든 실질이익조정 측정변수의 계수 값이 예측부호와 반대로 나타났다. 둘째, 발생액 이익조정의 식별기준들에 따라 구분한 이익 조정 여부의 더미변수와 실질이익조정 측정변수 간의 상관관계를 분석하였다. 집단 간 차이분석과 마찬가지로, 재량적 발생액과 비재량적 이익으로 구분한 이익조정 여부의 더미변수는 실질이 익조정 측정변수 모두와 통계적으로 유의한 상관관계를 나타내었다. 그러나 이익의 횡단면 분포로 구분한 이익조정 여부의 더미변수와 모든 실질이익조정 측정변수는 예측부호와 반대의 상관계수 값이 나타났다. 셋째, 이익조정에 영향을 미치는 요인들을 통제하기 위하여 발생액 이익조정의 식별기준들에 따른 이익조정 여부를 종속변수로 하고, 실질이익조정 측정변수와 통제변수들을 독립변수로 회귀분석을 시행하였다. 재량적 발생액으로 이익조정 여부를 구분한 경우, 모든 실질이 익조정 측정변수들이 예측부호와 일치하는 유의한 계수 값을 나타냈다. 반면에, 이익의 횡단면 분포로 이익조정 여부를 구분한 경우, 모든 실질이익조정 측정변수들이 예측부호와 반대의 계수 값을 가졌다. 그리고 비재량적 이익으로 이익조정 여부를 구분한 경우, 비정상적 영업현금흐름과 제조원가의 계수 값만이 예측부호와 일치하면서 통계적으로 유의하였다. 이상의 분석결과를 종합하 면, 발생액 이익조정의 기준으로 사용되는 재량적 발생액은 실질이익조정을 식별하는 데에도 유용한 반면, 비재량적 이익은 비정상적 영업현금흐름과 제조원가로 나타나는 실질이익조정만을 식별하는 데에 제한적으로 유용하였다. 한편, 발생액 이익조정의 또 다른 식별기준인 이익의 횡단면 분포는 실질이익조정을 식별하는 데에 유용하지 못하였다. The purpose of this paper is to inspect whether the criteria which detect manager s earnings management in prior studies can distinguish the manager s real earnings management activities from the real management activities. According the prior study, in this article we use DAC benchmark, Cross-sectional histogram benchmark and NDNI benchmark to do empirical analysis. To measure the real earnings management, following Roychowdhury(2006), we use abnormal cash flow from operation, abnormal discretionary expense and abnormal production cost as variables. The research method is: first, according the benchmarks we distinguish two groups, upward earnings management and earnings management without upward. To compare the real earnings management variables we do the t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Second, we inspect the relationship between upswing earnings management and real earnings management with logistic regression analysis. The empirical results are as follows. First, according the variation analysis result of real earnings management variables in the two groups, cross-sectional histogram benchmark can not distinguish real earnings activity very well, but the other two benchmarks can do. According to the prior studies, there is no earnings management in some of the earnings management firms which is distinguished by cross-sectional histogram benchmark. So cross-sectional histogram benchmark has the problem with validity when detect the earnings management. Second, to examine the relationship between upward earnings management and real earnings management variables, the logistic regression make sure cross-sectional histogram benchmark can not distinguish real earnings management very well. Moreover, there are no firm doing real earnings management in the earnings management firms which are distinguished by NDNI benchmark. The final conclusion is that in the benchmarks with earnings management in this study, DAC benchmark can detect real earnings management activities best.