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본 연구의 목적은 문헌연구와 선행연구를 검토하여 경상남도 장애인체육 현황을 분석하고, 이를 바탕으로 경상남도 장애인체육 발전방안을 제시하는 것이다. 이를 위하여 대한장애인체육회 및 시·도장애인체육회의 내부자료를 수집한 후 경상남도장애인체육회의 내부자료와 비교·검토하였다. 또한 경상남도 행정 관련 지표 자료, 장애인체육 행정 관련 지표 자료 그리고 경기도(2007), 서울특별시장애인체육회(2008), 강원도(2009), 충청남도장애인체육회(2009)에서 실시한 지역별 장애인체육 중장기계획 문헌자료를 수집하여 경상남도장애인체육 현황과 비교·검토하였다. 이 자료를 특수체육 전공교수 2인, 특수체육 전공 박사 2인, 그리고 도체육회 사무국 직원 2인들로 구성된 전문가 집단을 구성하여 총 3차의 전문가 회의를 실시하였고, 이를 통하여 장애인체육 환경을 장애인 체육행정 조직체계, 사회 · 교육적 환경, 시설 환경, 그리고 국제교류 환경으로 범주화하였다. 본 연구에서 제시하고 있는 경상남도 장애인체육 발전방안을 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 장애인체육 참여인구 확대를 도모해야 한다. 이를 위해서 생활체육 프로그램 지원과 지도자 배치, 우수선수 발굴, 우수지도자 양성이 우선적으로 이루어져야 한다. 둘째, 장애인체육과 관련한 조직정비를 통하여 지원체계를 구축하는 것이 필요하다. 왜냐하면 경상남도 내의 장애인체육 지역균형 발전을 도모할 수 있기 때문이다. 셋째, 체육시설 지원 및 확충이 이루어져야 한다. 특히 장애인체육 시설은 장애인들의 스포츠 활동 참여 동기를 높일 수 있는 매우 중요한 요소이다. 따라서 기존에 운영되고 있는 시설을 효과적으로 활용하는 것뿐만 아니라 지역적으로도 균형적으로 지원 및 확충되어야 한다. 넷째, 통합체육 프로그램의 개발이 이루어지고, 현장에 보급되어야 한다. 이를 위하여 경상남도 교육청과 연계할 필요성이제기된다. 또한 교사들의 통합체육 연수과정을 활성화하여 장애인체육의 발전을 도모할 수 있을 것이다. 마지막으로 세계화 시대에 발맞추어 국제 교류를 활성화 시키고 확대해야 한다. 이는 경상남도 장애인체육회의 위상 강화는 물론 장애인체육의 발전을 위하여 지속적으로 이루어져야 한다. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current state of disability sports in Gyeongsangnam-do based on literature review and previous studies, then suggest the development plans of disability sports in Gyeongsangnam-do. For the completion of this study, after collecting the internal documents in Korea Sports Association for the Disabled as well as the Sports Association for the Disabled in local area, then the internal documents in Gyeongsangnam-do Sports Association for the Disabled have been compared and reviewed. Documents on administration index and adminstration index for disability sports of Gyeongsangnam-do, and Literature materials for the development plans on disability sports in local area conducted by Gyeonggi-do, Seoul capital city, Gangwon-do, and Chungcheonam-do have been collected and compared to those of Gyeongsangnam-do. 2 professors, 2 doctors majored in adapted physical education, and 2 staffs working in Gyeongsangnam-do Sports Association for the Disabled have taken three times meetings, then have categorized four environments in the field of disability sports. They include the organizational system of disability sports administration, socio-educational environments, facilities environments, and international exchange environments. First, the rate of participating in the disability sports should be expanded. Programs support on sports for all, disposition of experts, discovery of talented athletes, and cultivating the experts in disability sports should be prioritized. Second, supporting system through the organization maintenance on disability sports would be required due to development of regional balance of disability sports in Gyeongsangnam-do. Third, supporting and expanding the physical training facilities should be required. Specifically, facilities for disability sports are important factor for leading to the increase in participation in physical activities for people with disabilities. As a result, it is critical not only to use the existing facilities, but to support and expand the facilities for regional balance. Fourth, development of inclusive physical activity programs should be created and disseminated by making a connection with Gyeongsangnam-do Office of Education. In addition, inclusive physical education training course should be developed to revitalize. Lastly, international exchange should be revitalized and expanded to keep pace with the globalization era. It leads to the reinforcement of Gyeongsangnam-do Sports Association for the Disabled as well as the consistently development of disability sports in Korea.
The purpose of this study is to understand more systematically the political and ideological tendency of Chong, Do-jeon based on the study of the literature references of Kyungjemunkam unveiled recently. Chong, Do-jeon accepted Neo-Confucianism, and used it as a reality-reforming idea. He accepted various scholastic tendencies of the Song and Won Kingdoms as eell Neo-Confucianism, and he got the theoretical foundation of the reality reform from them, which is mentioned in Kyungjemungam. The representative literature references of Kyungjemungam are Juregongeui and Sandangosek, which is a book of Shin-kung chih-hsueh series in the Chinese Ideological History and was written for settling the national structural crisis at the end of Nam-Song Kingdom by the general study of the national structure. Chong, Do-jeon saw Confucian Science as a practical science meeting the real change, and understood a confucian as a person realizing the perfect self-culture with the participation in the specific reality. Accordingly he thought that a confucian must straighten up the reality, cultivating the body and mind and studying the principles of all things, and that the confucian could play a role as a national manager only on the condition that he should know all about astronomy, geography and medicine as well as confucian science. Chong, Do-jeon needed the Shih-kung chin-hsueh idea in the real situation where social change and national structural change were in progress, which was an approach to the new set-up and operation of the national structure by shih-kung chin-hsueh which was proved to a science necessary for the national management based on the moral self-culture or personality cultivation. He prepared for the social change and the national structural change like this by interpreting the concept of confucian science more widely and giving importance to Shin-kung chin-hsueh. Chong, Do-jeon was after the Neo-Confucian order based on the Neo-Confucian outlook on the world and the human being. The political structure and social order after which the Neo-Confucianism was could not survive in the society of the Kory? Dynasty recognizing (3) religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Accordingly the national structural reform was inevitable for the realization of the Neo-Confucian order. Son Chong, Do-jeon would establish the Single Central Political Structure by reforming the wrong practices from the laws and institutions at that time by the contradictory national structure of the Kory? Dynasty. What Chong, Do-jeon accepted from Shih-kung chih-hsueh was (1) the Jurye political system from Shih-kung chih-hsueh of the Nam-Song Kingdom, (2) the Parliamentary Government System, (3) the capability-based state examination system and (4) the stable living of the people and the expansion of the national finance for this Chong,Chong, Do-jeon used Shih-kung chih-hsueh on the national structural reform of the late-Kory? Dynasty age, which is not the Shih-kung chin-hsueh which Chu Hsi criticized, but that similar to Neo-Confucianism or not going against Neo-Confucianism. In order words, He accepted Neo-Confucianism as a reformative idea and was after the Neo-Confucianism national managerial order. But in the current situation of the national structure and kingdom change periods, the part which was less in Neo-Confucianism he complemented from Shin-kung chih-hsueh. After all it is thought that his ideas are based on Neo-Confucianism as primary ideological foundation Shin-kung chih-hsueh as secondary one.
Examined in this article is how Gweon Geun justified his serving of two countries, and why he decided to cooperate with Jeong Do-jeon. Gweon Geun wanted to make the world a place ruled by Confucianism instead of Buddhism. He compiled important academic points of the Confucian philosophy when he wrote Ib'hak Do'seol and 『O'gyeong Cheon'gyeon-rok』. He intended to establish Confucianism as a legitimate, one-and-only righteous form of study. He argued that Confucianism was the ‘real, substantial' philosophy(實學) to lead the world, and criticized Buddhism as a heresy that would impede the world's efforts to become a better one. Based upon a Neo-Confucian view of the world, he criticized Buddhism as a school of thoughts that did not recognize the objective world and its principles, and a mere form of belief that eventually forced people to ignore their own human obligations. In his eyes, Buddhism was a religion for the animals, as it allowed people to sever all the personal relationships, either between a king and a vassal, or between a father and son, by having them commit to a Buddhist way of life. He also argued that Buddhism considered all actions as of the mere heart(imagination), and did not acknowledge the existence of a principle or an obligation, from which the actions would generate, or upon which the actions would operate. With Neo-Confucian theories regarding the ‘Human nature(“Inseong, 人性”)' and the ‘Law of Nature(“Cheon'ri, 天理)' in mind, Gweon Guen considered morality to be very important, and hoped for an enlightenment to come to the people, based upon all that. He also wanted a world in which the people's good nature would be more refined(or corrected from a corrupted state) with the concept of ‘Respect(Gyeong, 敬),' so that morality could firmly be established. In order to maintain social stability and order, he preferred a character-building exercise based upon people's moral nature and respect, to the employment of external forces such as law enforcement or institutional corrections. He wanted to reinforce school education, and modified the national examination system to prioritize Creative writing(製述), so that the Confucian concept of morality would dominate the people's consciousness and living patterns. In the meantime, Gweon Geun decided to join the new dynasty and bring his plans to realize his political philosophy in motion. First, to support Jeong Do-jeon's plans for a new dynasty in theoretical terms, he authored the foreword for 『Bulshi Jab'byeon』, and highlighted the book's meaning. He depicted Jeong Do-jeon as a visionary who intended to establish a new country, and explained Jeong's academic traits, from the perspective of the Neo-Confucian argument of legitimacy. Gweon Geun participated in the publication of 『Gyeong'je Mun'gam』 which did not thoroughly cited all the Chinese materials consulted in its creation. In 『Gyeong'je Mun'gam』, Jeong Do-jeon cited the Chinese texts yet marked them as his own thoughts, and Gweon Geun did the same, because he agreed with Jeong Do-jeon's thoughts and accommodate his intentions. In short, Gweon Guen tried to establish an idealistic Confucian soceity, and joined the Joseon government, established a relationship with the powerful Jeong Do-jeon, and tried to accommodate his intentions.
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정도전은 주자의 사서오경(四書五經)의 주석(註釋)을 받아들이고, 세계와 인간, 사회를 성리학의 리기(理氣), 태극(太極), 성정(性情) 으로 설명하였다. 《대학》과 《중용》을 통하여 천도(天道)와 인도(人道)를 재확인하고 《논어》와 《맹자》를 통하여 유학의 경세 론(經世論)을 이해하였으며, 오경(五經)을 통하여 수기치인(修己治 人)의 학을 말하고 도통(道統)을 제시하였다. 정도전은 《주례》에 의한 중앙집권체제와 재상정치론을 제시하 였다. 불교를 이단으로 비판하였고, 주자가례의 시행을 통하여 유교의 예적 질서를 확립하고자 하였으며, 성리학의 명분론(名分論) 및 춘추대의(春秋大義)와 천리인욕설(天理人欲說)을 기초로 의(義)와 공(公)에 의한 공적 관계를 내세웠다. 그런데 정도전은 정치적․사상적으로 제대로 평가받지 못했다. 왕자의 난을 일으켰다는 이유로 반역, 간신으로 죽임을 당하고, 태종이 즉위하면서 정도전의 부정적인 평가는 확립되었다. 문묘종사(文 廟從祀)에 배향되지 못하였고, 김종직, 신흠, 허균과 같은 조선 유학자들은 정도전을 부정적으로 인식하였다. 이는 정도전이 모반을 꾀하였다는 점이 국가의 공식적인 사실로서 인정받게 되고, 성리학의 도통(學統)을 학문 수수(收受)의 사실 여부나 학문 업적보다는 의리(義理) 정신의 실천에 그 기준을 삼은 결과였다. 조선시기에 정도전을 부정적으로 인식해도, 사상면에서 달리 볼수 있는 여지가 있다. 정도전과 동시대 유학자인 권근이 평가하고, 500여년이 지난 지금의 정도전 연구에서 인정하듯, 정도전이 불교를 배척하며 성리학을 진흥한 공을 받아들일 수 있기 때문이다. In this article, the bases of Jeong Do Jeon s philosophy in terms of Confucian classic texts, and the characteristics of his political ideas(政治思想), are examined. Jeong Do Jeon explained Ju Hi s annotation(註釋) of Four texts and Five classics(四書五經), and the issue of humans and the society, with concepts such as Ih-Gi /理氣(Ih and Gi elements of the universe), Taegeuk /太極(Taegeuk principle of the universe) and Seongjeong /性情(nature of human beings). He reasserted Confucianism s Way of the universe (天道) and Way of the humans(人道) through Daehak and Jungyong, understood Confucianism s suggestion of how to govern the world(經世論) through Noneo(Confucius words) and Maengja(Mencius words), and commented upon the task of building one s character and then leading the others( 修己 治人 ) and suggested the line of legitimacy(道統) , through his interpretation of the Five classics(五經). Jeong Do Jeon presented a centralized format of political governance and a concept of governance led by the ministers, based upon the teachings of Juryae/周禮. He criticized Buddhism as heresy, tried to establish a protocol-based Confucian order by implementing the dictations of Juja Garyae throughout the society, and supported a public and official relationship between people & entities built upon righteous(義) & public(公) elements, based upon the notion of a righteous cause(名分論) , Chunchu s grand righteousness(春秋大義) and the theory of Universe s reason and humans desire(天理人欲說) of Neo-Confucianism. Yet in subsequent periods Jeong Do Jeon s philosophy was not appreciated for what it was worth, in terms of politics and philosophy. In a political reality, he was killed as a treacherous figure under the charge of treason and of staging the insurrection of the princes, and after King Taejong rose to the throne a negative evaluation of his actions became complete. He was not admitted into the Munmyo/文廟 shrine and was not paid any respect in its services(從祀). A lot of Seoweon/書院 schools were erected, yet his achievements and their academic values were not reevaluated. Kim Jong Jik or other Sarim figures who were faithful to Neo-Confucianism, and Joseon dynasty Confucian scholars like Shin Heum or Heo Gyun also maintained a negative attitude toward Jeong Do Jeon. This means that the charges that Jeong Do Jeon faced, committing treason, was established as a nationally official fact. It was a result of the Joseon society, which embraced Neo-Confucianism as its own doctrine(國是), establishing the line of legitimacy in Neo-Confucian studies(學統), neither with the criteria to base such line upon facts regarding actual exchanges(收受) of studies nor with individuals accomplishments, but with the criteria to base such line upon an obligatory determination to realize the spirit of righteousness(義理) in the world. Even if he had been negatively viewed for the duration of the Joseon dynasty period, we can still reevaluate his philosophy in many different ways. No matter what kind of negative reviews had been suggested over the years, Jeong Do Jeon should be noticed for his vetoing Buddhism and promoting Neo-Confucianism, as had been already acknowledged by Confucian scholar Gweon Geun who lived in the same period with Jeong, by Lee Deok Mu who lived in the latter half period of Joseon, and by many people who still study Jeong s thoughts after some five hundred years.
This study was conducted in order to explore general flora of the Gyounggi-do Province and to clarify the distribution of some specificated taxa of the Korea. Daebu-do Island, Mt. Taewha, Mt. Hwaya, Mt. Gumdan, Mt. Chilhyun and Mt. Chulma among eighth grade-area of the Degree of Green Naturality (DGN) within the boundary of the Gyounggi-do Province were visited to investigate local flora. The number of identified vascular plant species were as follow; Mt. Hwaya: 120 species (99 genera of 67 families), Mt. Teawha: 132 species (103 genera of 56 families), Daebu-do Island: 124 species (103 genera of 50 families), Mt. Chulma: 129 species (99 genera of 67 families), Mt. Gumdan: 121 species (96 genera of 52 families), Mt. Chilyun: 90 species (74 genera of 42 families). The endemic Clematis brachyura Maxim. was found to distribute Daeby-do. It seemed that plantation was occupying large area in forest of the Gyounggi-do Province. Forty two specificated taxa were identified and 3 taxa, 10 taxa, 5 taxa, and 24 taxa were sorted into forth grade, third grade, second grade, and first grade respectively. Mt. Taewha showed the highest record (16 taxa) in the number of specificated taxa, Mt. Hwaya was the next with 13 taxa. Mt, Chulma (12 taxa), Mt. Gumdan (11 taxa), Daebu-do Island (7 taxi), and Mt, Chylma (4 taxi) followed. Mt. Taewa and Mt. Whaya were found to be relatively higher in the score calculated front the specificated taxa distribution, while Daebu-do Island and Mt. Chilyun were lower, that difference was probably due in part to consequences of severe disturbance of human activities. With respect to the consequences of severe disturbance of human activities. With respect to the geographical proximity to the Gangwon Province, Mt. Hwaya showed higher similarity of the species composition to that of the Mt. Jumbong.
A pilot scale SBR (working volume, 20㎥) treating piggery wastewater was operated with real wastewater. The operation mode of intermittent feeding of raw water and sub-cycle with repeating anoxic-aeration conditions were adapted to avoid the high-strength nitrogen inhibition. In sub-cycle, aeration time for nitrification was tried to be controled with ORP and/or DO meter. The characteristics of control was somewhat different between ORP and DO. DO showed potential ability to detect complete ammonia oxidation point by the first order differential values or absolute value. Especially, DO was proved to be useful for high loading rates. ORP indicated the ending point of nitrification by the plateau appearing after bending point. Because ORP can be utilized as a diagnosis tool by its good sensitivity for the microbial condition in reactor, the simultaneous application of DO and ORP was recommended for the stable control of SBR.
This study inquires into comparison and changes in Metabolic when people do inline-skating through comparing members of internet inline-skating association with normal people, and grasps the effect of doing inline-skating on Metabolic per minute. Also, this study provides information for activation of internet inline-skates association and health as scientific methods of inline-skating and domestic athletics. The conclusion is as follows. First, there are significant differences in 2minutes doing between members in association of internet inline-skates and normal people, and after verification, there are significant differences between male and female in association, between male in association and normal male, between male in association and normal female.(p<.01). Second, there is no significant difference in Metabolic of 4 minutes doing between members in association of internet inline-skates and normal people. Third, there are significant differences in 6 minutes doing between members in association of internet inline-skates and normal people, and after verification, there are significant differences between male and female in association, between male in association and normal male, between male in association and normal female.(p<.05). rmal people. Firth, there is no significant difference in Metabolic of 8 minutes doing between members in association of intemet inline-skates and normal people. Fifth, there is no significant difference in Metabolic of 10 minutes doing between members in association of intemet inline-skates and normal people. sixth, there are significant differences in sum total doing between members in association of internet inline-skates and normal people, and after verification, there are significant differences between male and female in association, between male in association and normal male, between male in association and normal female.(p<.05).
기후변화는 생물계절반응 변화와 식물 자생지 이동을 초래한다. 우리나라 상록활엽수림도 과거 20년에 비해 분포역이 넓어지고 있으며, 자생지 범위가 북상하고 있다. 이에 따른 녹나무과 상록활엽수의 자생지 변화 예측을 위해 먼저, 식생의 분포와 관련이 깊은 온량지수와 한랭지수, 최한월 최저기온, 연평균기온 등 기후지표를 분석하였다. 그 변화량과 공간분포분석을 통해 우리나라 난온대 지역에 분포하는 녹나무과 상록활엽수 8종의 자생지 기후지표특성을 파악하였다. 또한, 기후지표특성을 바탕으로 MaxEnt 종 분포모형을 적용하여 기후변화 시나리오(RCP 4.5/8.5)에 따른 21세기 자생지 변화를 예측하였다. 녹나무과 상록활엽수 8종의 자생지 월 평균 기후지표 특성은 온량지수 116.9±10.8℃, 한랭지수 3.9±3.8℃, 연강수량 1495.7±455.4㎜, 건습지수 11.7±3.5, 연평균 기온 14.4±1.1℃, 동계 평균 최저기온 1.0±2.1℃로 나타났다. 기후변화 시나리오 RCP 4.5에 근거한 녹나무과 상록활엽수의 분포는 전라남도와 경상남도를 포함하는 도서지방과 서·남해안의 인접지역, 동해안의 강원도 고성까지 분포가 확대되는 것으로 분석되었다. 기후변화 시나리오 RCP 8.5에 근거한 분포의 경우 전라남도와 경상남도의 전 지역과 전라북도, 충청남도, 경상북도, 수도권의 일부 지역을 제외한 대부분 지역으로 분포가 확대될 것으로 분석되었다. 기후변화에 대비한 녹나무과 상록활엽수의 보전을 위해서는 자생지 내·외 보전 기준설정 및 다양한 자생지 특성 분석이 수행되어야 한다. 또한, 기후지표를 기반으로 한 생물계절정 자료를 통해 기후변화에 따른 녹나무과 상록활엽수의 분포, 이동, 쇠퇴 등의 미세변화를 선제적으로 감지하고 보전관리 방안을 수립하여야 할 것이다. Climate change leads to changes in phenological response and movement of plant habitats. Korea's evergreen broad-leaved forest has widened its distribution area compared for the past 20 years, and the range of its native habitats is moving northward. We analyzed climate indices such as the warmth index, the cold index, the lowest temperature in the coldest month, and the annual average temperature, which are closely related to vegetation distribution, to predict the change in the native habitat of Lauraceae evergreen broad-leaved trees. We also analyzed the change and spatial distribution to identify the habitat climate characteristics of 8 species of Lauraceae evergreen broad-leaved trees distributed in the warm temperate zone in Korea. Moreover, we predicted the natural habitat change in the 21st century according to the climate change scenario (RCP 4.5/8.5), applying the MaxEnt species distribution model. The monthly average climate index of the 8 species of Lauraceae evergreen broad-leaved trees was 116.9±10.8℃ for the temperate index, the cold index 3.9±3.8℃, 1495.7±455.4㎜ for the annual precipitation, 11.7±3.5 for the humidity index, 14.4±1.1℃ for the annual average temperature, and 1.0±2.1℃ for the lowest temperature of winter. Based on the climate change scenario RCP 4.5, the distribution of the Lauraceae evergreen broad-leaved trees was analyzed to expand to islands of Jeollanam-do and Gyeongsangnam-do, adjacent areas of the west and south coasts, and Goseong, Gangwon-do on the east coast. In the case of the distribution based on the climate change scenario RCP 8.5, it was analyzed that the distribution would expand to all of Jeollanam-do and Gyeongsangnam-do, and most regions except for some parts of Jeollabuk-do, Chungcheongnam-do, Gyeongsangbuk-do, and the capital region. For the conservation of Lauraceae evergreen broad-leaved trees to prepare for climate change, it is necessary to establish standards for conservation plans such as in-situ and ex-situ conservation and analyze various physical and chemical characteristics of native habitats. Moreover, it is necessary to preemptively detect changes such as distribution, migration, and decline of Lauraceae evergreen broad-leaved trees following climate change based on phenological response data based on climate indicators and establish conservation management plans.
본 연구는 대청도와 소청도의 곤충다양성에 관한 연구를 위하여 실시하였으며 2011년 6월부터 10월까지 6회에 걸쳐 주간과 야간조사를 병행하여 실시하였다. 대청도에서 조사된 곤충은 총 9목 75과 286종이며 소청도에서 조사된 곤충은 총 8목 42과 106종으로 대청도와 소청도에서는 9목 78과 336종의 곤충이 서식하는 것으로 조사되었다. 기존참고문헌을 포함하여 대청도와 소청도에 서식하는 전체 곤충을 정리하면 총 10목 103과 744종으로 나비목이 29과 439종으로 59%의 비율을 차지하며 우점하였고, 딱정벌레목이 27과 124종으로 16%의 비율로 조사되었다. 이 중에서 환경부 지정 멸종위기야생동물은 2종으로 애기뿔소똥구리와 왕은점표범나비가 확인되었다. 그 외 IUCN 적색목록에 포함된 종이 2종(봄처녀나비, 큰주홍부전나비), 국외반출승인대상종 25종, 고유종 5종, 한국적색목록 6종, 특정종 77종, 기후민감종이 2종으로 확인되었다. 본 조사에 새롭게 조사되어 신규등록된 곤충은 대청도에서 58과 147종이며 소청도에서 24과 43종으로 확인되었다. This study was carried out to investigate the insect diversity in the islands of Daecheong-do and Socheong-do, Incheon, Korea. The survey was conducted six times throughout the day and night from June to October 2011. As a result, a total of 336 species, belonging to 78 families of 9 orders of insects were collected: 286 species, of 75 families in 9 orders from Daecheong-do and 106 species, 42 families and 8 orders from Socheong-do. 744 species, belonging to 103 families of 10 orders were identified in total including previous reference. Lepidoptera was the most commonly identified order with 439 species of 29 families (59%), and the next most commonly identified order was Coleoptera with 124 species of 27 families (16%). Among them, Copris tripartitus and Fabriciana nerippe, endangered species of wildlife fauna in Korea, were found in this study. Also, 2 species (Coenonympha oedippus, Lycaena dispar) belonging to IUCN Red List, 25 species belonging to Management of Exportable species, 5 species belonging to Endemic species, 6 species belonging to Korean Red List, 77 species belonging to Designated species and 2 species belonging to Climate-sensitive Indicator species were recorded. In this study, 147 species of 58 families and 43 species of 24 families were newly added in Daecheong-do and Socheong-do, respectively.
Purpose: Recently, we should look for the causes and characteristics of the social problem ``do not ask`` crimes to raise improvement. Methods: This study utilizes the literature and official data and to prepare the concept and characteristics, causes, search for improvements to analysis of domestic and foreign practice of ``do not ask`` crime. Conclusion: ``Do not ask`` criminals is needed the management and protection and it causes a lot lacking in the most vulnerable groups such as home environment and social support in our society. In addition, there is a need to develop a system of social care support help can receive the appropriate early intervention and treatment with mental disorders to the biased thinking and perceptions to impact on ``do not ask`` crimes. Finally, it may appear as extreme anger and hate increase of disadvantaged due to the deepening of socio-economic inequalities. The cooperation in the implementation and protection service agencies will have to be provided community members so that they can move forward with to the establishment of social welfare and criminal policy.