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      • Image-Guided Neutron Capture Therapy Using the Gd-DO3A-BTA Complex as a New Combinatorial Treatment Approach

        Jung,,Ki-Hye,Park,,Ji-Ae,Kim,,Jung,Young,Kim,,Mi,Hyun,Oh,,Seyoung,Kim,,Hee-Kyung,Choi,,Eun-Ji,Kim,,Han-Jun,Do,,Sun,Hee,Lee,,Kyo,Chul,Kim,,Kyeong,Min,Lee,,Yong,Jin,Chang,,Yongmin Hindawi 2018 Contrast media and molecular imaging Vol.2018 No.-

        <P>Gadolinium-neutron capture therapy (Gd-NCT) is based on the nuclear capture reaction that occurs when <SUP>157</SUP>Gd is irradiated with low energy thermal neutrons to primarily produce gamma photons. Herein, we investigated the effect of neutron capture therapy (NCT) using a small molecular gadolinium complex, Gd-DO3A-benzothiazole (Gd-DO3A-BTA), which could be a good candidate for use as an NCT drug due to its ability to enter the intracellular nuclei of tumor cells. Furthermore, MRI images of Gd-DO3A-BTA showed a clear signal enhancement in the tumor, and the images also played a key role in planning NCT by providing accurate information on the <I>in vivo</I> uptake time and duration of Gd-DO3A-BTA. We injected Gd-DO3A-BTA into MDA-MB-231 breast tumor-bearing mice and irradiated the tumors with cyclotron neutrons at the maximum accumulation time (postinjection 6 h); then, we observed the size of the growing tumor for 60 days. Gd-DO3A-BTA showed good therapeutic effects of chemo-Gd-NCT for the <I>in vivo</I> tumor models. Simultaneously, the Gd-DO3A-BTA groups ([Gd-DO3A-BTA(+), NCT(+)]) showed a significant reduction in tumor size (<I>p</I> < 0.05), and the inhibitory effect on tumor growth was exhibited in the following order: [Gd-DO3A-BTA(+), NCT(+)] > [Gd-DO3A-BTA(+), NCT(−)] > [Gd-DO3A-BTA(−), NCT(+)] > [Gd-DO3A-BTA(−), NCT(−)]. On day 60, the [Gd-DO3A-BTA(+), NCT(+)] and [Gd-DO3A-BTA(−), NCT(−)] groups exhibited an approximately 4.5-fold difference in tumor size. Immunohistochemistry studies demonstrated that new combinational therapy with chemo-Gd-NCT could treat breast cancer by both the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis-related proteins, with <I>in vivo</I> tumor monitoring by MRI.</P>

      • KCI등재

        지역사회 장애인체육 현황 및 발전 방안 -경상남도를 중심으로-

        김병일 ( Byung Il Kang ), 박병도 ( Byung Do Park ), 백승엽 ( Seung Yup Beak ), 유홍율 ( Hong Yul Yoo ) 한국특수체육학회 2014 한국특수체육학회지 Vol.22 No.2

        본 연구의 목적은 문헌연구와 선행연구를 검토하여 경상남도 장애인체육 현황을 분석하고, 이를 바탕으로 경상남도 장애인체육 발전방안을 제시하는 것이다. 이를 위하여 대한장애인체육회 및 시·도장애인체육회의 내부자료를 수집한 후 경상남도장애인체육회의 내부자료와 비교·검토하였다. 또한 경상남도 행정 관련 지표 자료, 장애인체육 행정 관련 지표 자료 그리고 경기도(2007), 서울특별시장애인체육회(2008), 강원도(2009), 충청남도장애인체육회(2009)에서 실시한 지역별 장애인체육 중장기계획 문헌자료를 수집하여 경상남도장애인체육 현황과 비교·검토하였다. 이 자료를 특수체육 전공교수 2인, 특수체육 전공 박사 2인, 그리고 도체육회 사무국 직원 2인들로 구성된 전문가 집단을 구성하여 총 3차의 전문가 회의를 실시하였고, 이를 통하여 장애인체육 환경을 장애인 체육행정 조직체계, 사회 · 교육적 환경, 시설 환경, 그리고 국제교류 환경으로 범주화하였다. 본 연구에서 제시하고 있는 경상남도 장애인체육 발전방안을 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 장애인체육 참여인구 확대를 도모해야 한다. 이를 위해서 생활체육 프로그램 지원과 지도자 배치, 우수선수 발굴, 우수지도자 양성이 우선적으로 이루어져야 한다. 둘째, 장애인체육과 관련한 조직정비를 통하여 지원체계를 구축하는 것이 필요하다. 왜냐하면 경상남도 내의 장애인체육 지역균형 발전을 도모할 수 있기 때문이다. 셋째, 체육시설 지원 및 확충이 이루어져야 한다. 특히 장애인체육 시설은 장애인들의 스포츠 활동 참여 동기를 높일 수 있는 매우 중요한 요소이다. 따라서 기존에 운영되고 있는 시설을 효과적으로 활용하는 것뿐만 아니라 지역적으로도 균형적으로 지원 및 확충되어야 한다. 넷째, 통합체육 프로그램의 개발이 이루어지고, 현장에 보급되어야 한다. 이를 위하여 경상남도 교육청과 연계할 필요성이제기된다. 또한 교사들의 통합체육 연수과정을 활성화하여 장애인체육의 발전을 도모할 수 있을 것이다. 마지막으로 세계화 시대에 발맞추어 국제 교류를 활성화 시키고 확대해야 한다. 이는 경상남도 장애인체육회의 위상 강화는 물론 장애인체육의 발전을 위하여 지속적으로 이루어져야 한다. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current state of disability sports in Gyeongsangnam-do based on literature review and previous studies, then suggest the development plans of disability sports in Gyeongsangnam-do. For the completion of this study, after collecting the internal documents in Korea Sports Association for the Disabled as well as the Sports Association for the Disabled in local area, then the internal documents in Gyeongsangnam-do Sports Association for the Disabled have been compared and reviewed. Documents on administration index and adminstration index for disability sports of Gyeongsangnam-do, and Literature materials for the development plans on disability sports in local area conducted by Gyeonggi-do, Seoul capital city, Gangwon-do, and Chungcheonam-do have been collected and compared to those of Gyeongsangnam-do. 2 professors, 2 doctors majored in adapted physical education, and 2 staffs working in Gyeongsangnam-do Sports Association for the Disabled have taken three times meetings, then have categorized four environments in the field of disability sports. They include the organizational system of disability sports administration, socio-educational environments, facilities environments, and international exchange environments. First, the rate of participating in the disability sports should be expanded. Programs support on sports for all, disposition of experts, discovery of talented athletes, and cultivating the experts in disability sports should be prioritized. Second, supporting system through the organization maintenance on disability sports would be required due to development of regional balance of disability sports in Gyeongsangnam-do. Third, supporting and expanding the physical training facilities should be required. Specifically, facilities for disability sports are important factor for leading to the increase in participation in physical activities for people with disabilities. As a result, it is critical not only to use the existing facilities, but to support and expand the facilities for regional balance. Fourth, development of inclusive physical activity programs should be created and disseminated by making a connection with Gyeongsangnam-do Office of Education. In addition, inclusive physical education training course should be developed to revitalize. Lastly, international exchange should be revitalized and expanded to keep pace with the globalization era. It leads to the reinforcement of Gyeongsangnam-do Sports Association for the Disabled as well as the consistently development of disability sports in Korea.

      • KCI등재

        정도전의 사공학 수용과 정치사상

        都賢喆 한국사상사학회 2003 韓國思想史學 Vol.0 No.21

        The purpose of this study is to understand more systematically the political and ideological tendency of Chong, Do-jeon based on the study of the literature references of Kyungjemunkam unveiled recently. Chong, Do-jeon accepted Neo-Confucianism, and used it as a reality-reforming idea. He accepted various scholastic tendencies of the Song and Won Kingdoms as eell Neo-Confucianism, and he got the theoretical foundation of the reality reform from them, which is mentioned in Kyungjemungam. The representative literature references of Kyungjemungam are Juregongeui and Sandangosek, which is a book of Shin-kung chih-hsueh series in the Chinese Ideological History and was written for settling the national structural crisis at the end of Nam-Song Kingdom by the general study of the national structure. Chong, Do-jeon saw Confucian Science as a practical science meeting the real change, and understood a confucian as a person realizing the perfect self-culture with the participation in the specific reality. Accordingly he thought that a confucian must straighten up the reality, cultivating the body and mind and studying the principles of all things, and that the confucian could play a role as a national manager only on the condition that he should know all about astronomy, geography and medicine as well as confucian science. Chong, Do-jeon needed the Shih-kung chin-hsueh idea in the real situation where social change and national structural change were in progress, which was an approach to the new set-up and operation of the national structure by shih-kung chin-hsueh which was proved to a science necessary for the national management based on the moral self-culture or personality cultivation. He prepared for the social change and the national structural change like this by interpreting the concept of confucian science more widely and giving importance to Shin-kung chin-hsueh. Chong, Do-jeon was after the Neo-Confucian order based on the Neo-Confucian outlook on the world and the human being. The political structure and social order after which the Neo-Confucianism was could not survive in the society of the Kory? Dynasty recognizing (3) religions of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Accordingly the national structural reform was inevitable for the realization of the Neo-Confucian order. Son Chong, Do-jeon would establish the Single Central Political Structure by reforming the wrong practices from the laws and institutions at that time by the contradictory national structure of the Kory? Dynasty. What Chong, Do-jeon accepted from Shih-kung chih-hsueh was (1) the Jurye political system from Shih-kung chih-hsueh of the Nam-Song Kingdom, (2) the Parliamentary Government System, (3) the capability-based state examination system and (4) the stable living of the people and the expansion of the national finance for this Chong,Chong, Do-jeon used Shih-kung chih-hsueh on the national structural reform of the late-Kory? Dynasty age, which is not the Shih-kung chin-hsueh which Chu Hsi criticized, but that similar to Neo-Confucianism or not going against Neo-Confucianism. In order words, He accepted Neo-Confucianism as a reformative idea and was after the Neo-Confucianism national managerial order. But in the current situation of the national structure and kingdom change periods, the part which was less in Neo-Confucianism he complemented from Shin-kung chih-hsueh. After all it is thought that his ideas are based on Neo-Confucianism as primary ideological foundation Shin-kung chih-hsueh as secondary one.

      • KCI등재

        정도전의 경학관과 성리학적 질서의 지향

        도현철(Do Hyeon-chul) 한림대학교 태동고전연구소 2008 泰東古典硏究 Vol.24 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        정도전은 주자의 사서오경(四書五經)의 주석(註釋)을 받아들이고, 세계와 인간, 사회를 성리학의 리기(理氣), 태극(太極), 성정(性情) 으로 설명하였다. 《대학》과 《중용》을 통하여 천도(天道)와 인도(人道)를 재확인하고 《논어》와 《맹자》를 통하여 유학의 경세 론(經世論)을 이해하였으며, 오경(五經)을 통하여 수기치인(修己治 人)의 학을 말하고 도통(道統)을 제시하였다. 정도전은 《주례》에 의한 중앙집권체제와 재상정치론을 제시하 였다. 불교를 이단으로 비판하였고, 주자가례의 시행을 통하여 유교의 예적 질서를 확립하고자 하였으며, 성리학의 명분론(名分論) 및 춘추대의(春秋大義)와 천리인욕설(天理人欲說)을 기초로 의(義)와 공(公)에 의한 공적 관계를 내세웠다. 그런데 정도전은 정치적․사상적으로 제대로 평가받지 못했다. 왕자의 난을 일으켰다는 이유로 반역, 간신으로 죽임을 당하고, 태종이 즉위하면서 정도전의 부정적인 평가는 확립되었다. 문묘종사(文 廟從祀)에 배향되지 못하였고, 김종직, 신흠, 허균과 같은 조선 유학자들은 정도전을 부정적으로 인식하였다. 이는 정도전이 모반을 꾀하였다는 점이 국가의 공식적인 사실로서 인정받게 되고, 성리학의 도통(學統)을 학문 수수(收受)의 사실 여부나 학문 업적보다는 의리(義理) 정신의 실천에 그 기준을 삼은 결과였다. 조선시기에 정도전을 부정적으로 인식해도, 사상면에서 달리 볼수 있는 여지가 있다. 정도전과 동시대 유학자인 권근이 평가하고, 500여년이 지난 지금의 정도전 연구에서 인정하듯, 정도전이 불교를 배척하며 성리학을 진흥한 공을 받아들일 수 있기 때문이다. In this article, the bases of Jeong Do Jeon s philosophy in terms of Confucian classic texts, and the characteristics of his political ideas(政治思想), are examined. Jeong Do Jeon explained Ju Hi s annotation(註釋) of Four texts and Five classics(四書五經), and the issue of humans and the society, with concepts such as Ih-Gi /理氣(Ih and Gi elements of the universe), Taegeuk /太極(Taegeuk principle of the universe) and Seongjeong /性情(nature of human beings). He reasserted Confucianism s Way of the universe (天道) and Way of the humans(人道) through Daehak and Jungyong, understood Confucianism s suggestion of how to govern the world(經世論) through Noneo(Confucius words) and Maengja(Mencius words), and commented upon the task of building one s character and then leading the others( 修己 治人 ) and suggested the line of legitimacy(道統) , through his interpretation of the Five classics(五經). Jeong Do Jeon presented a centralized format of political governance and a concept of governance led by the ministers, based upon the teachings of Juryae/周禮. He criticized Buddhism as heresy, tried to establish a protocol-based Confucian order by implementing the dictations of Juja Garyae throughout the society, and supported a public and official relationship between people & entities built upon righteous(義) & public(公) elements, based upon the notion of a righteous cause(名分論) , Chunchu s grand righteousness(春秋大義) and the theory of Universe s reason and humans desire(天理人欲說) of Neo-Confucianism. Yet in subsequent periods Jeong Do Jeon s philosophy was not appreciated for what it was worth, in terms of politics and philosophy. In a political reality, he was killed as a treacherous figure under the charge of treason and of staging the insurrection of the princes, and after King Taejong rose to the throne a negative evaluation of his actions became complete. He was not admitted into the Munmyo/文廟 shrine and was not paid any respect in its services(從祀). A lot of Seoweon/書院 schools were erected, yet his achievements and their academic values were not reevaluated. Kim Jong Jik or other Sarim figures who were faithful to Neo-Confucianism, and Joseon dynasty Confucian scholars like Shin Heum or Heo Gyun also maintained a negative attitude toward Jeong Do Jeon. This means that the charges that Jeong Do Jeon faced, committing treason, was established as a nationally official fact. It was a result of the Joseon society, which embraced Neo-Confucianism as its own doctrine(國是), establishing the line of legitimacy in Neo-Confucian studies(學統), neither with the criteria to base such line upon facts regarding actual exchanges(收受) of studies nor with individuals accomplishments, but with the criteria to base such line upon an obligatory determination to realize the spirit of righteousness(義理) in the world. Even if he had been negatively viewed for the duration of the Joseon dynasty period, we can still reevaluate his philosophy in many different ways. No matter what kind of negative reviews had been suggested over the years, Jeong Do Jeon should be noticed for his vetoing Buddhism and promoting Neo-Confucianism, as had been already acknowledged by Confucian scholar Gweon Geun who lived in the same period with Jeong, by Lee Deok Mu who lived in the latter half period of Joseon, and by many people who still study Jeong s thoughts after some five hundred years.

      • KCI등재

        권근의 유교 정치 이념과 정도전과의 관계

        도현철(Do, Hyeon-chul) 한국역사연구회 2012 역사와 현실 Vol.- No.84

        Examined in this article is how Gweon Geun justified his serving of two countries, and why he decided to cooperate with Jeong Do-jeon. Gweon Geun wanted to make the world a place ruled by Confucianism instead of Buddhism. He compiled important academic points of the Confucian philosophy when he wrote Ib'hak Do'seol and 『O'gyeong Cheon'gyeon-rok』. He intended to establish Confucianism as a legitimate, one-and-only righteous form of study. He argued that Confucianism was the ‘real, substantial' philosophy(實學) to lead the world, and criticized Buddhism as a heresy that would impede the world's efforts to become a better one. Based upon a Neo-Confucian view of the world, he criticized Buddhism as a school of thoughts that did not recognize the objective world and its principles, and a mere form of belief that eventually forced people to ignore their own human obligations. In his eyes, Buddhism was a religion for the animals, as it allowed people to sever all the personal relationships, either between a king and a vassal, or between a father and son, by having them commit to a Buddhist way of life. He also argued that Buddhism considered all actions as of the mere heart(imagination), and did not acknowledge the existence of a principle or an obligation, from which the actions would generate, or upon which the actions would operate. With Neo-Confucian theories regarding the ‘Human nature(“Inseong, 人性”)' and the ‘Law of Nature(“Cheon'ri, 天理)' in mind, Gweon Guen considered morality to be very important, and hoped for an enlightenment to come to the people, based upon all that. He also wanted a world in which the people's good nature would be more refined(or corrected from a corrupted state) with the concept of ‘Respect(Gyeong, 敬),' so that morality could firmly be established. In order to maintain social stability and order, he preferred a character-building exercise based upon people's moral nature and respect, to the employment of external forces such as law enforcement or institutional corrections. He wanted to reinforce school education, and modified the national examination system to prioritize Creative writing(製述), so that the Confucian concept of morality would dominate the people's consciousness and living patterns. In the meantime, Gweon Geun decided to join the new dynasty and bring his plans to realize his political philosophy in motion. First, to support Jeong Do-jeon's plans for a new dynasty in theoretical terms, he authored the foreword for 『Bulshi Jab'byeon』, and highlighted the book's meaning. He depicted Jeong Do-jeon as a visionary who intended to establish a new country, and explained Jeong's academic traits, from the perspective of the Neo-Confucian argument of legitimacy. Gweon Geun participated in the publication of 『Gyeong'je Mun'gam』 which did not thoroughly cited all the Chinese materials consulted in its creation. In 『Gyeong'je Mun'gam』, Jeong Do-jeon cited the Chinese texts yet marked them as his own thoughts, and Gweon Geun did the same, because he agreed with Jeong Do-jeon's thoughts and accommodate his intentions. In short, Gweon Guen tried to establish an idealistic Confucian soceity, and joined the Joseon government, established a relationship with the powerful Jeong Do-jeon, and tried to accommodate his intentions.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Near-Normalized Gene Expression Profiles in Bladder With Detrusor Overactivity in Rats With Bladder Outlet Obstruction After Deobstruction

        Lee,,Tack,Lim,,U-Sung,Kang,,Dong,Hyuk,Jung,,Hae-Do,Kim,,Hyunzu,Choi,,Bo-Hwa,Kang,,Ju-Hee,Yoon,,Sang-Min,Park,,Chang-Shin Korean Continence Society 2017 International Neurourology Journal Vol.21 No.4

        <P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>The pathophysiological role of detrusor overactivity (DO) in the bladder, which is commonly observed in various bladder diseases, is not well understood. DO appears in bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), and may continue even after subsequent deobstruction. DO therefore provides an excellent opportunity to observe molecular biological changes.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>In this study, to understand the molecular effects of persistent DO after BOO induction and deobstruction, we performed awake cystometry on female Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 4 groups: a sham group, a BOO group, a deobstructed group with DO after BOO (DDO), and a deobstructed group without DO after BOO (non-DDO). Total RNA was extracted from the bladder samples, and gene expression profiles were compared between the sham and model groups.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>DO was observed in 5 of the 6 rats (83%) in the BOO group, and in 6 of the 13 rats (46%) in the deobstructed group. The non-DDO group showed a significantly greater residual volume than the DDO group. Through a clustering analysis of gene expression profiles, we identified 7,532 common upregulated and downregulated genes, the expression of which changed by more than 2 fold. In the BOO group, 898 upregulated and 2,911 downregulated genes were identified. The non-DDO group showed 3,472 upregulated and 4,025 downregulated genes, whereas in the DDO group, only 145 and 72 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively.</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>Abnormal function and gene expression profiles in bladders after BOO were normalized in the BOO rats with DO after deobstruction, whereas in those without DO, abnormal function persisted and the gene expression profile became more abnormal. DO may play a protective role against the stress to the bladder induced by BOO and deobstruction as a form of adaptive neuroplasticity.</P>

      • 京畿道의 植物相 : 태화산, 화야산, 대부도, 칠현산, 철마산, 검단산

        崔道烈,張珍成,金正猷,全正壹,金輝,閔雄基,姜佑昌 서울대학교 수목원 2001 서울大學校 樹木園 硏究報告 Vol.- No.21

        This study was conducted in order to explore general flora of the Gyounggi-do Province and to clarify the distribution of some specificated taxa of the Korea. Daebu-do Island, Mt. Taewha, Mt. Hwaya, Mt. Gumdan, Mt. Chilhyun and Mt. Chulma among eighth grade-area of the Degree of Green Naturality (DGN) within the boundary of the Gyounggi-do Province were visited to investigate local flora. The number of identified vascular plant species were as follow; Mt. Hwaya: 120 species (99 genera of 67 families), Mt. Teawha: 132 species (103 genera of 56 families), Daebu-do Island: 124 species (103 genera of 50 families), Mt. Chulma: 129 species (99 genera of 67 families), Mt. Gumdan: 121 species (96 genera of 52 families), Mt. Chilyun: 90 species (74 genera of 42 families). The endemic Clematis brachyura Maxim. was found to distribute Daeby-do. It seemed that plantation was occupying large area in forest of the Gyounggi-do Province. Forty two specificated taxa were identified and 3 taxa, 10 taxa, 5 taxa, and 24 taxa were sorted into forth grade, third grade, second grade, and first grade respectively. Mt. Taewha showed the highest record (16 taxa) in the number of specificated taxa, Mt. Hwaya was the next with 13 taxa. Mt, Chulma (12 taxa), Mt. Gumdan (11 taxa), Daebu-do Island (7 taxi), and Mt, Chylma (4 taxi) followed. Mt. Taewa and Mt. Whaya were found to be relatively higher in the score calculated front the specificated taxa distribution, while Daebu-do Island and Mt. Chilyun were lower, that difference was probably due in part to consequences of severe disturbance of human activities. With respect to the consequences of severe disturbance of human activities. With respect to the geographical proximity to the Gangwon Province, Mt. Hwaya showed higher similarity of the species composition to that of the Mt. Jumbong.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Time-Related Changes in Detrusor Overactivity in Awake Rats with Spinal Cord Injury Observed by Simultaneous Registrations of Intravesical and Intraabdominal Pressures

        Jin,,Long-Hu,Shin,,Hwa-Yoan,Yoon,,Seung-Hwan,Seong,,Do-Hwan,Park,,Chang-Shin,Lee,,Tack,Yoon,,Sang-Min Korean Continence Society 2011 International Neurourology Journal Vol.15 No.1

        <P><B>Purpose</B></P><P>To compare the physical characteristics of detrusor overactivity (DO) induced by intravesical infusion of saline in awake, sham rats and rats with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), by simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures.</P><P><B>Methods</B></P><P>Male Sprague-Dawley rats, normal or with a spinal vascular clip at the level of Th9, were investigated cystometrically 1 and 4 weeks after SCI. Intravesical pressure (IVP) and intraabdominal pressure (IAP) were recorded simultaneously to evaluate true DO. During the filling phase, the event of IVP rises, defined as increments that exceeded 2 cmH<SUB>2</SUB>O from baseline, were determined as DO according to the absence of simultaneous changes in IAP.</P><P><B>Results</B></P><P>All SCI rats exhibited DO during the filling phase, which was not shown in sham rats. The frequency and pressure of DO had a tendency to decrease with time. The DO frequency of SCI rats after 4 weeks (0.9±0.2 min<SUP>-1</SUP>) was decreased compared with that after 1 week (2.1±0.4 min<SUP>-1</SUP>; P<0.05). The DO pressure of SCI rats after 4 weeks (8.4±1.9 cmH<SUB>2</SUB>O) was decreased compared with that after 1 week (11.6±2.9 cmH<SUB>2</SUB>O; P>0.05).</P><P><B>Conclusions</B></P><P>Cystometric studies in awake male SCI rats showed some significant changes in bladder function after SCI. All SCI rats exhibited DO during the filling phase, and showed different physical characteristics of DO over the course of time. The neurological basis of these time-related changes remains poorly understood, but may provide important prognostic information about long-term urological management in SCI patients.</P>

      • KCI등재후보

        DO와 ORP를 이용한 축산폐수처리 SBR운전 제어

        전병희,김도환,최은희,배현,김성신,김창원 한국물환경학회 ( 구 한국수질보전학회 ) 2002 한국물환경학회지 Vol.18 No.5

        A pilot scale SBR (working volume, 20㎥) treating piggery wastewater was operated with real wastewater. The operation mode of intermittent feeding of raw water and sub-cycle with repeating anoxic-aeration conditions were adapted to avoid the high-strength nitrogen inhibition. In sub-cycle, aeration time for nitrification was tried to be controled with ORP and/or DO meter. The characteristics of control was somewhat different between ORP and DO. DO showed potential ability to detect complete ammonia oxidation point by the first order differential values or absolute value. Especially, DO was proved to be useful for high loading rates. ORP indicated the ending point of nitrification by the plateau appearing after bending point. Because ORP can be utilized as a diagnosis tool by its good sensitivity for the microbial condition in reactor, the simultaneous application of DO and ORP was recommended for the stable control of SBR.

      • 경남지역 전통민속놀이에 대한 기초연구

        김한도(kim, Han-Do) 경남연구원 2020 경남학연구 Vol.- No.2

        우리의 전통민속놀이는 시대적 환경에 따라 변화되고 있다. 그러나 일제강점기 동안 우리의 정신이 담긴 전통민속놀이는 단절이 되어 사라지게 되었다. 그 이후 지속적인 발굴과 복원을 통해 우리의 공동체 놀이가 재현되고 있다. 이러한 변화는 전통민속놀이가 교육, 산업, 여가, 문화 등의 측면에서 연구가 증가로 나타나고 있다. 그러나 경상남도의 경우 전통민속놀이와 관련된 연구는 부족하고 활용적 측면에서는 사례를 찾기 어려운 실정이다. 이에 본 연구는 경상남도의 전통민속놀이에 대한 기초 연구를 수행하였다. 연구의 결과 경남의 전통민속놀이는 세시풍속, 국가지정 무형문화재, 경상남도지정 무형문화재와 관련된 전통민속놀이로 구분된다. 경남은 정월 설날에서 보름까지 가장 많은 공동체 전통민속놀이가 진행되었다. 다음은 추석, 7월 백중 순서로 이루어졌다. 이에 전통민속놀이의 관련 연구, 경남의 전통민속 놀이의 조사와 분석을 통해 지속적인 전승 방안과 활용방안을 연구결과로 제시하였다. 첫째, 경남의 권역별(남부, 동부, 서부, 중부) 전통민속놀이 복합문화공간 조성이 필요하다. 둘째, 경남 소재 스포츠 구단 전국체육대회 등의 경남 시·군 화합의 기회를 확대 하여야 한다. 셋째, 전통시장·공원에서의 정기적인 전통민속놀이 행사를 시행하여 지역민이 중심이 되는 전통민속놀이를 지속적으로 추진하여야 한다. 우리가 즐기는 여가 및 관광 그리고 교육의 콘텐츠로 활용할 수 있는 전통민속놀이와 관련된 문화를 계승 발전시켜, 사라지고 있는 경남의 전통민속놀이를 우리의 것으로 찾아내는 정책을 만들어야 한다. The traditional folk play has changed over times. Even through the traditional folk plays with our spirit had cut off and disappeared during the Japanese colonial period, after that time, the community plays has been reproduced through continuous excavation and restoration work. This changes have led to an increase in research on traditional folk plays in terms of education, industry, leisure and culture. However, in the case of Gyeong-sang-nam-do, there are a lack of research related to the plays and also it is difficult to find a case of utilization. Thus, this paper probes a basic study of the traditional folk plays in Gyeong-sang-nam-do. The results of the investigation revealed that, the traditional folk plays in Gyeong-sang-nam-do are classified into traditional seasonal customs, state-designated intangible cultural assets, and the folk plays related to the intangible cultural assets designated by Gyeong-sang-nam-do. In the area, most traditional community folk plays are held on Lunar New Year"s day to fifteenth day of the lunar month. Then those are hosted on the Korean Thanksgiving Day(Chuseok) and the mid July by the lunar calendar(Baekjung) in that order. So, continuous methods of transmission and utility are suggested based on the research and analysis with traditional folk plays in Gyeong-sang-nam-do. First of all, it is necessary to plan a complex cultural space for traditional folk plays by area(southern, eastern, western, and central) in Gyeong-sang-nam-do. Second, opportunities for harmony between cities and counties in opportunities, such as sports festival from national sports clubs, should be expanded. Third, regular traditional folk plays events that the local residents centered on need to be conducted at traditional markets and parks. This study proffers that we have to pass on and develop the cultures related with the traditional folk plays like leisure, tourism and education that we enjoy. Additionally It is required to make some policies that make the disappearing traditional folk plays of Gyeong-sang-nam-do preserve.

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