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After over a decade of sluggish economic growth accompanied by massive fiscal stimulus in the 1990s, it remains an open question whether and how Japanese firms have restructured their operations, and whether these efforts have borne any fruit. Using a randomly selected sample of 300 firms from the Tokyo Stock Exchange, we collect all restructuring announcement in the FY 2000-2001 (April 2000-March 2002) period. Our results are striking in that while we find that firms engaging in restructuring of various sorts display improved earnings in the period following the restructuring announcement, shareholders do not appear to benefit at the time of the restructuring announcements.
Korean exports to Japan are highly correlated to Japanese GDP growth. Given Japan's large fiscal deficit and debt, there is concern that future government austerity measures may cause a collapse in Korean exports to that country. After summarizing the magnitude of Japan's fiscal woes, we investigate whether austerity measures are likely to cause a collapse in such exports. We find no statistically significant relationship between Japanese fiscal policy and Korean exports to Japan, as well as no evidence that past fiscal policy in Japan has had significant impact on Japanese GDP growth. We conclude that future Japanese austerity measures are unlikely to cause a collapse in Korean exports to Japan.
After the collapse of Japanese asset markets at the end of 1989 many observers expected dramatic transformation of the Japanese labor market, especially in terms of the system of permanent employment. During the ‘lost decade' of the 1990's, however, there was a growing consensus that Japanese firms were unwilling to restructure. From the end of the 1990's to the present, however, Japanese firms have undertaken changes in order to adapt, among these has been a steady increase in the utilization of temporary employees. Despite this trend, we find that permanent employment continues to be important for research intensive firms.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of multiple tiny and power constrained sensors which use radio frequencies to carry out sensing in a designated sensor area. To effectively design and implement reliable WSN, it is critical to consider models, protocols, and algorithms that can optimize energy consumption of all the sensor nodes with optimal amount of packet delivery. It has been observed that deploying a single sink node comes with numerous challenges especially in a situation with high node density and congestion. Sensor nodes close to a single sink node receive more transmission traffic load compared to other sensors, thus causing quick depletion of energy which finally leads to an energy hole and sink hole problems. In this paper, we proposed the use of multiple energy efficient sink nodes with brute force technique under optimized parameters to improve on the number of packets delivered within a given time. Simulation results not only depict that, deploying N sink nodes in a sensor area has a maximum limit to offer a justifiable improvement in terms of packet delivery ratio but also offers a reduction in End to End delay and reliability in case of failure of a single sink node, and an improvement in the network lifetime rather than deploying a single static sink node.