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Honeybee products (honey, royal jelly, pollen, and propolis) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of 40 yeast strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Trichosporon spp. The broth microdilution method was used to assess the antifungal activity of honeybee products against yeasts. Fluconazole was selected as the antifungal control agent. Using the broth microdilution method, minimal inhibitory concentration ranges with regard to all isolates were 5–80% (vol/vol), 0.06–1μg/mL, 0.002–0.25μg/mL, 0.006–0.1μg/mL, and 0.02–96μg/mL for honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and fluconazole, respectively. The antifungal activities of each product decreased in the following order: propolis >pollen>royal jelly>>honey. This study demonstrated that honeybee products, particularly propolis and pollen, can help to control some fluconazole-resistant fungal strains.
Objective: Schizophrenia is a severe, debilitating mental disorder characterized by behavioral abnormalities. Although several studies have investigated the role of oxidative stress and the effects of antipsychotic drugs on oxidative markers in schizophrenia, adequate information is not available on these issues. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in oxidative status and thiol disulfide homeostasis in schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs. Methods: Thirteen schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs and 30 healthy controls were included this study. The concentrations of total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), native thiol, total thiol, and disulfide levels were determined in the study population. Results: The TAS (p=0.001), total thiol, and native thiol levels (p<0.001) were higher in the patients compared to the controls, whereas the TOS and disulfide levels were lower in the patients than in the controls (p<0.001). Conclusion: These results may suggest that atypical antipsychotic drugs have a useful therapeutic effect by reducing oxidative stress via the inhibition of the formation of disulfide bonds. The study population number was one of the limitations of this study. Therefore, further studies are needed to establish the association between thiol disulfide homeostasis in schizophrenic patients using atypical antipsychotic drugs