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Prisoners' dilemma is a typical game theory issue. In this study, it was treated as an incomplete information game to establish a related machine learning model using a naive Bayesian classification method. The model established was referred to as the Bayes model. Using this model, the incomplete information game was soluble with the assistance of statistical machine learning. This study proceeded as follows: firstly, four typical models were run against the Bayes model some 10,000 times. The total incomes of the models recorded suggested that Bayes model was more advantageous than other models. Even in a multi-player prisoners' game, Bayes model also presented the desired level of performance and accrued a higher income than other models. Further statistical analysis implied that the Bayes model and the widely accepted optimum strategy tit-for-tat (TFT) model showed a tendency to be prone to defection. Secondly, according to the games run on the natural Bayes model, as well as the natural TFT model, it was found that the Bayes model accrued more benefits than the TFT model on average. Finally, comparison of the Bayes model with the TFT model revealed that the Bayes model was better. This demonstrated the efficacy of the Bayes model constructed in this study and moreover, provided a novel idea for solving the problem of an incomplete information game.
The Chinese government has realized that the spread of HIV/AIDS will finally set off the fruits of economic development. The disease begins from the weak, and then spreads quickly to every stratum of the population, which leads to irremediable shortage of human resources and eventually the stagnation and even retrogression of economic growth. The difficulty to control it is that this incurable disease will go into human social behavior, grow in the weak links of the society and entangle many other problems into a complicated vicious circle. Poverty, ignorance and indifference upon the weak have become the main reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS. Therefore, AIDS is regarded as the adjunct of social injustice, and consequently the protection of the weak has been attached unprecedented importance. At present, the spread of AIDS in China is wide spread in some places and among special groups. The AIDS patients are mainly from the rural areas, since drug abusers, prostitutes and those who sell blood are also mainly concentrated in the rural areas. Women, the most vulnerable group, are at the beginning of the vicious circle. The vulnerable position of rural women makes them the group most easily infected by AIDS and then the new source of infection. To effectively control the spread of the disease, it is necessary to attach great attention to this vulnerable group and provide them with effective help. This paper, after analyzing the vulnerability of Chinese rural women, points out the importance of maintaining social justice and protecting the vulnerable groups in preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS in China.
This study records for the first time three mammal species as nectar robbers on the ginger Alpinia roxburghii Sweet. We examined the behavior of nectar robbers and compared with earlier studies on a single plant species. We recorded seven species of nectar robbers: three squirrels, one bird, and three bees. Timing of robbing nectars were similar; however, robbing behavior differed among robbers. In particular, squirrels damaged the flower parts while robbing the nectar.
To gain a further understanding of Freeze-Thaw weathering effect on the damage of sandstone from the perspective of energy analysis, uniaxial static compression tests were conducted on sandstone samples that suffered 0, 20, 60, 100 and 140 freezingthawing cycles. Then total input strain energy, releasable elastic strain energy, dissipated energy and freezing-thawing induced damage of samples under uniaxial static compression tests were calculated and analyzed. In the mean time, the energy absorption of sandstone under dynamic loading tests (SHPB (Split-Hopkinson pressure bar) experiments) were cited and made a contrast with the dissipated energy of samples under uniaxial static compression tests. The results show that the tangent modulus, total input strain energy, releasable elastic strain energy and dissipated energy of samples decrease with Freezing-Thawing cycles go on, while the freezing-thawing induced damage grow with freezing-thawing cycles increase. In term of energy used for destroying rock samples in different test modes, less energy is needed for destroying samples in uniaxial static compression tests and it decreases with F-T cycles increase, while more energy is needed for destroying samples in dynamic impact loading and it increases with F-T cycles increase. In addition, the number of fragments of broken sample increase with the F-T cycles both in uniaxial static compression tests and dynamic loading tests, and sample under dynamic loading tests is more broken than sample under uniaxial static compression tests.
In the past few years, the bone field has witnessed great advances in genome-wide as-sociation studies (GWASs) of osteoporosis, with a number of promising genes identified. In particular, meta-analysis of GWASs, aimed at increasing the power of studies by com-bining the results from different study populations, have led to the identification of nov-el associations that would not otherwise have been identified in individual GWASs. Re-cently, the first whole genome sequencing study for osteoporosis and fractures waspublished, reporting a novel rare nonsense mutation. This review summarizes the im-portant and representative findings published by December 2013. Comments are madeon the notable findings and representative studies for their potential influence and im-plications on our present understanding of the genetics of osteoporosis. Potential limi-tations of GWASs and their meta-analyses are evaluated, with an emphasis on under-standing the reasons for inconsistent results between different studies and clarificationof misinterpretation of GWAS meta-analysis results. Implications and challenges ofGWAS are also discussed, including the need for multi- and inter-disciplinary studies.
This paper studies the radio frequency to direct current (RF-DC) conversion efficiency of rectennas applicable to wireless power transfer systems, where multiple receive antennas are arranged in serial, parallel or cascaded form. To begin with, a 2.45 GHz dual-diode rectifier is designed and its equivalent linear model is applied to analyze its output voltage and current. Then, using Advanced Design System (ADS), it is shown that the rectifying efficiency is as large as 66.2% in case the input power is 15.4 dBm. On the other hand, to boost the DC output, three composite rectennas are designed by inter-connecting two dual-diode rectifiers in serial, parallel and cascade forms; and their output voltage and current are investigated using their respective equivalent linear models. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that all composite rectennas have almost the same RF-DC conversion efficiency as the dual-diode rectifier, yet the output of voltage or current can be significantly increased; in particular, the cascade rectenna obtains the highest rectifying efficiency.
In remote sensing image processing, the traditional fusion algorithm is based on the Intensity-Hue-Saturation (IHS) transformation. This method does not take into account the texture or spectrum information, spatial resolution and statistical information of the photos adequately, which leads to spectrum distortion of the image. Although traditional solutions in such application combine manifold methods, the fusion procedure is rather complicated and not suitable for practical operation. In this paper, an improved IHS transformation fusion algorithm based on the local variance weighting scheme is proposed for remote sensing images. In our proposal, firstly, the local variance of the SPOT (which comes from French "Systeme Probatoire d'Observation dela Tarre" and means "earth observing system") image is calculated by using different sliding windows. The optimal window size is then selected with the images being normalized with the optimal window local variance. Secondly, the power exponent is chosen as the mapping function, and the local variance is used to obtain the weight of the I component and match SPOT images. Then we obtain the I' component with the weight, the I component and the matched SPOT images. Finally, the final fusion image is obtained by the inverse Intensity-Hue-Saturation transformation of the I', H and S components. The proposed algorithm has been tested and compared with some other image fusion methods well known in the literature. Simulation result indicates that the proposed algorithm could obtain a superior fused image based on quantitative fusion evaluation indices.
The full-bridge inverter, widely used for single-phase photovoltaic grid-connected applications, presents a leakage current issue. Therefore, an AC bypass branch is introduced to overcome this challenge. Nevertheless, existing modulation strategies entail drawbacks that should be addressed. One is the zero-crossing distortion (ZCD) of the AC current caused by neglecting the AC filter inductor voltage. Another is that the system cannot deliver reactive power because the AC bypass branch switches at the power frequency. To address these problems, this work proposes an optimized hybrid modulation strategy. To reduce ZCD, the phase angle of the inverter output voltage reference is shifted, thereby compensating for the neglected leading angle. To generate the reactive power, the interval of the negative power output is calculated using the power factor. In addition, the freewheeling switch is kept on when power is flowing into the grid and commutates at a high frequency when power is fed back to the DC side. In this manner, the dead-time insertion in the high-frequency switching area is minimized. Finally, the performances of the proposed modulation strategy and traditional strategies are compared on a universal prototype inverter. Experimental results validate the theoretical analysis.
Certificateless public key cryptography resolves the certificate management problem in traditional public key cryptography and the key escrow problem in identity-based cryptography. In recent years, some good results have been achieved in speeding up the computation of bilinear pairing. However, the computation cost of the pairing is much higher than that of the scalar multiplication over the elliptic curve group. Therefore, it is still significant to design cryptosystem without pairing operations. A multi-signer universal designated multi-verifier signature scheme allows a set of signers to cooperatively generate a public verifiable signature, the signature holder then can propose a new signature such that only the designated set of verifiers can verify it. Multi-signer universal designated multi-verifier signatures are suitable in many different practical applications such as electronic tenders, electronic voting and electronic auctions. In this paper, we propose a certificateless multi-signer universal designated multi-verifier signature scheme and prove the security in the random oracle model. Our scheme does not use pairing operation. To the best of our knowledge, our scheme is the first certificateless multi-signer universal designated multi-verifier signature scheme.