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To infer the monophyletic origin and phylogenetic relationships of the order Desmoscolecida, a unique and puzzling group of mainly free-living marine nematodes, we newly determined nearly complete 18S rDNA sequences for six marine desmoscolecid nematodes belonging to four genera (Desmoscolex, Greeffiella, Tricoma and Paratricoma). Based on the present data and those of 72 nematode species previously reported, the first molecular phylogenetic analysis focusing on Desmoscolecida was done by using neighbor joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. All four resultant trees consistently and strongly supported that the family Desmoscolecidae forms a monophyletic group with very high node confidence values. The monophyletic clade of desmocolecid nematodes was placed as a sister group of the clade including some members of Monhysterida and Araeolaimida, Cyartonema elegans (Cyartonematidae) and Terschellingia longicaudata (Linhomoeidae) in all the analyses. However, the present phylogenetic trees do not show any direct attraction between the families Desmoscolecidae and Cyartonematidae. Within the monophyletic clade of the family Desmoscolecidae in all of the present phylogenetic trees, there were consistently observed two distinct subgroups which correspond to the subfamilies Desmoscolecinae [Greeffiella sp. + Desmoscolex sp.] and Tricominae [Paratricoma sp. + Tricoma sp].
A new species of free-living marine draconematid nematode, Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov., is described based on the specimens collected from the sediments of a intertidal seagrass bed from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia. Dracograllus trukensis sp. nov. differs from other species of the genus by the combination of the following characteristics: the presence of numerous minute spiny ornamented body cuticular annules in both sexes, eight cephalic adhesion tubes inserted on the head capsule in both sexes, the presence of stiff posteriorly directed setae anterior to posterior adhesion tubes in both sexes, the shape (large, elongated, open loopshaped in male and large, elongated, closed loop-shaped in female) and position (longer ventral arm extending to the first body annule in male) of amphideal fovea, shorter spicule length (34−42 μm), the presence of sexual dimorphism in shape and length of the non-annulated tail terminus, and number of posterior sublateral adhesion tubes (10 in male and 13−15 in female) and posterior subventral adhesion tubes (8−10 in male and 9−11 in female). A comparative table on the biogeographical and ecological characteristics of the species of Dracograllus is presented. This is the first taxonomic report on the genus Dracograllus from Chuuk Islands, Micronesia, central western Pacific Ocean.