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This study aimed to identify the macroeconomic factors impacting current account in Southeast Asian countries, namely, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, from Q1/2005 - Q2/2016. The results of the study show that the determinants of current account are net foreign assets, trade openness, relative income, real multilateral exchange rates. Depending on the economic conditions in each country, the determinants of current account are in different directions. In this study, the author uses Johansen-Juselius cointegration test method with VECM (vector error correction model) in Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand to determine the relationship between the current account and the macroeconomic variables mentioned above in the short term and long-term.
A review on the joining of SiC is given in response to the interest surge on this material for a number of applications. Because the engineering design for the majority of applications requires complicated shapes, there has been a strong demand for the development of reliable joining techniques for SiC, especially for high-temperature applications. However, the joining of SiC-based materials is inherently difficult because of the high degree of covalent bonding in SiC and the low self-diffusivity. This review discusses basic mechanisms and properties of the SiC joining techniques developed to date; they are divided into eight different categories. In addition, critical assessment is given for each technique in the context of high-temperature application (≥ 1000 °C). Finally, comments are provided for the use of these techniques in advanced nuclear reactors where stringent irradiation stability under neutron irradiation as well as hermeticity and joint strength are required.
It is fun to play a game, But we sometimes make it mistakes to draw up list of matches, to cause troubles owing to approaching the different ways of drawing up matches in each athletic organization. Accordingly, it is quite reasonable that, if we make sure to understand the way of drawing up the list of matches and to show it coherently, all events would proceed impartially, and the social athletics as Well as school athletics would be benefited. The followings sre summed up among the important parts described above: 1. On playing the games, the formula of counting the number of all games is “the number of game = N-1” in tournament, and “the number of game = N(N-1)/2” league maches. 2. The list of matchs in tournament should be based on the same number of both teams in case of odd number. 3. when the number of participating team is not equal to the involution of to in case of diagramming tournament, the unearned win will be resulted, and the number of team of the unearned win is “2^(n)-N”, the team corresponding to the unearned win is as the equal number of seed as the same number of team f the unearned win. In this case, the unearned win is allowed only in the first game. 4. The winner will be as much high score as the involution of two tournament. 5. The total sum of seed number of playing the maches should be equal to number of “2^(n)-1” 6. As the preventive measures of the drop-out of powerful teams in the first game which is on of the most defective in tournament, “the seed system” or “repechage” can be introduced.
The value added on tax system was origined in France during 1954 for the first time in its history. Later this tax system was adopted by EEC, which was formed and commenced its organizational function in 1958, for the purpose of supporting European Tax League. Especially in the year of 1980, The European Community established a plan to foster monetary league of its member countries, and the success of the execution of the said plan shall largely depend on operation of value added on tax system in its member countries. The characteristics of value added on tax is chiefly the point of simple tax rate. By this merits, especially in the case of France, they issues national bond for the adjustment of supplements along with the coordination of amount of national revenue. Furthermore, on the otherhand, they have adopted the four-step tax rate. But, the adoption of four-step tax rate embraces itself the following two problems: The one is complicate tax administration, while the other is a matter to solve reasonable coordination of tax impositions among the member countries of European Community. In order to cover up the feasible points of the small business enterprises, France adopted the Forfait System. This is a system administratively simplified, including book recordings, in a consideration on pecularity of the small business enterprises. The tax assessment, especially in the case in France, is held once every four years, and for the small enterprises the tax assessment is held once nearly ten years, or so. A great contrast is seen in the tax administration aspect between France and Korea. The advanced countries as France, there also were not a little number of retailer who committed tax evasions, and the government of France, For measures against this matters, had taken an action to strengthening tax imposition to supplement the deficiency. However, in the course of execution of the measures, there was a considerable friction between the government and the small handicrafts bodies, and therefrom, the situation was improved to Puzard Movement. In West Germany the value added on tax system was adopted by its sales tax provisions in 1967. West Germany's standard tax rate is 11 per cent, adjustable rate is 5.5 per cent, and that of France is 20 per cent and 7 per cent respectively. Therefore, France has lower rate than that of Germany. In 1973, Engalnd adopted value added on tax system in their tax administration. In the case as in Engalnd, as they do not have consumption tax, the tax value added was induced through amendment of their indirect tax. By the public notice of Green Paper and White Paper, which was the outlines of value added on tax system, in 1971, the study on this tax system was formally commenced. The selective employment tax of England is a significant tax system for the development of industries. Among the countries in Europe, England is the only country applied value added on tax system to their political affairs. That is, the conservative party of the country, in 1970, had induced value added on tax system through amendment of indirect tax upon their winning in the election. In Korea, as in the time shortly ahead to Presidential election and amendment of the constitution, the comment of leader of Democratic Republican Party to abolish value added on tax system in this early time is also regarded as a fact severely revealing a contrast between the election promises of Korean and England. As mentioned above, the countries in European Community are making an effort to improving their value added on tax system further in their tax administration by covering the feasible aspects. Through value added on tax system, EC is marching toward the achievements of world's greatest goal, unified monetary system, during 1980s, by increasing trading volume within the territories and expanding employments. In Korea, we have finally adopted value added on tax system along with the pattern of taxation of the advanced countries. However, recently there has been arisen much arguments for and against this tax system, and the situation is so far at last improved to the extent that the leader of Democratic Republican Party made a public comment to abolish this system in his campaign promise. As in the case in EC, we have to make a strenuous effort concentrated in the study of this tax system for the unified economic system possibly including Taiwan, Japan, Philippines, and Korea, and through out of the countries in Southeast Asia. (Therefore, the writer will publisize the result of writer's own study on Korea's value added on tax system in forthcoming time.)
Every year in a summer season, at least one hundred persons only in Chunnam areas and one thousand through the country loose in the people for about two months, the number of the victims will be reduced to a remarkable rate, and the water sports will be also engaged in a pleasant and safe way. 1. At home parents should teach their children so as to keep the water safe rules thoroughly. 2. The administrative authorities should the swimming in the swimming forbidden areas strictly, and permit the opening of swimming pools furnished with various rescue eqipments as well. 3. Educational institutions should do their bast to equip the facilities of swimming pools so as to compete the swimming educational course involved, and supervise not to take place the dead accident from drowing. 4. The service association of safe instructors of the korean Red cross should prompt the spread of the swimming educational as well as train the water safe instructor and rescue persons. 5. Mass-media such as newspapers and TV should guide to let the people know and abide by the water sate rules, and do their bast to enhance the warn-ing to the scene of it the people as well as by showing vividly the scene of the people as well as by analysing the cause of it.
The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the American aids with The Soviet Bloc Aids to underdeveloped countries from July1, 1945-to June 30, 1960. In Comparison with the America and Soviet aids lack of materials and informations give this study the limitations on development of theory. However following books guided me the success of this work such as H.J.P. Arnold, AID FOR DEVELOPING COONTRIES, LONDUN 1962, JOSEPHS, BERLINER SOVIET ECONOMIC AID, NEW WORK 1958, JOHN D. MONTGOMER, NEW YORK, LONDON 1962. I can have schieved following conclusion: 1. The sum of Soviet economic Aid to less development countries is rather smaler than that of the United States of Ameria but that of Soviet is increasing rapidly year by year. 2. In the definition of aid U.S.A (and The U.N. shares this view) defines it narrowly to mean outrigh grants and net longterm loans for economic purposes. while the Soviet defines it in a mcuh wider sense to embrace everything from grants and loans through short-term exporter credits to straight traiding relations for the ecomomic and political purposes. 3. Generaly, the advantage of Soviet Economic aid is known that in the repayment system their credits and interest can be payed by their local currences or row materials instead of U. S. A. and an other capitelist nations demand dollars, pounds, marks, and francs etc, 4. The Rate of interest of the Soviet Eonomic credits is Lower than in comparison that fo the united States. But recently we canfind that the Russian block productivity in both technicians and invested materials is very lowin comparison with that of United States.
Purpose : The purpose of this study is to investigate temporomandibular joint arthritis that was induced by intra-articular injection of collagenase in rabbits. Material and Methods: In this study, 12 rabbis was used. We injected collagenase on temporomandibular joint of rabbit and observed for six weeks. H-E stain was done. Results : Four weeks later from 2.0 mg collagenase injection, we observe histologic appearance like arthritis. Conclusion : In our study using injection of collagenase in temporomandibular joint of rabbit we produce arthritis on temporomandibular joint of rabbit.
Interest in the L1₂ phase in the Al-Ti-Cr system has increased with respect to the demand for light weight materials at elevated temperature because of its enhanced mechanical properties that arise through the substitution of Cr for Al in Al₃Ti intermetallic compounds. Additionally, recent work has indicated that the application of L1₂- based alloys was extended to oxidation resistance coating materials for γ-based TiAl alloy because the L12 phase could form a protective Al₂O₃ scale under oxidizing environments. However, L1₂ phase decomposes partially or completely to a more brittle phase when exposed to temperatures in the range of 800~1000℃, resulting a serious degradation of the cracking resistance in L1₂-based alloys. In this study, Zr was substituted for Ti in Al-21Ti-23Cr alloys to improve the phase stability around 800℃. As a result of Zr addition in L12-based Al-Ti-Cr alloys, the fraction of L12 phase decomposition at 800℃ was decreased. Furthermore, temperature range, in which L1₂ phase was decomposed to other brittle phase, was shrunken when Zr was added in the Al-Ti-Cr alloys. These phenomena resulted from the fact that the L1₂ phase field was less shifted in the direction of the Al-rich corner at 800oC in the Al-Ti-Cr system and that atomic diffusion for the L1₂ phase decomposition was reduced. Therefore, the addition of Zr is required to increase the possibility for potential usage of L1₂-based Al-Ti-Cr alloys at elevated temperatures around 800℃ because of the improvement of phase stability.
The microstructural evolution of b-NiAl/γ' -Ni3Al two-phase (Ni_(66)Al_(34))_(100-x)X_(X)(X=Ti, Si, Nb) alloys during various heat treatment (quenching and aging) were systematically studied. It was found that the microstructural features of the two-phase NiAl/Ni₃Al alloys could be divided into three types : lamellar, mesh and Widmansttten microstructures. The reason why those three types of microstructure were formed could be explained by the change of austenite start temperature(As temperature) depending on the ternary elements. In case of As>250℃, the lamellar microstructure was formed by following phase transformation: Martensite→Ni5Al3→β+γ' . In this case, the NiAl martensite was quickly transformed into the Ni5Al3 phase at 250℃ by a re-ordering reaction. In case of 20℃ <A_(s)<250℃, two types of mesh microstructure were formed depending on the ternary element. When Ti and Nb were added as a ternary element, the β→Ni_(5)Al3 transformation occurred very quickly, but not in the case of Si addition. Hence, the final mesh microstructures showed somewhat different microstructural features. On the other hand, in case of A_(s)<20℃, the direct β→β+γ' transformation occurred because the martensitic transformation could not occur due to its very low M_(s) temperature, resulting in the Widmanstatten type microstructure.