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The purpose of this study was to prepare microcapsules encapsulating vitamin U (VU, S-methylmethionine) by complex coacervation. Multiple emulsion method was applied for encapsulating highly water-soluble VU. The composition of microcapsules was optimized using central composite design (CCD). The weight ratio of gelatin to gum arabic (X1) and the volume of oil phase (X2) were set as two independent variables to obtain the maximum weight of microcapsules (Y1) and the content of VU (Y2) in microcapsules higher than 2.5%. When the microcapsules were prepared based on the optimized composition, its actual Y1 and Y2 values were 95% of the predicted values. Morphology of microcapsules observed by the optical and the fluorescence microscopes was round shape. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of internal particles also confirmed that the multiple emulsions were encapsulated in the microcapules. Mean particle size of microcapsules measured by the laser diffraction particle size analyzer was 79.17 μm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that VU exists in an amorphous state in the coacervate microcapsules. Thus, it can be concluded that hydrophilic VU was successfully encapsulated in the coacervate microcapsules using the multiple emulsion method, and the design of experiment (DoE) technique was useful to optimize the formulation.
Background: Propofol has an antioxidant capacity and can be used for ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver. However, the effects of propofol on the Kupffer cells have not been establisked. Methods: Kupffer cells were isolated and cultured from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of propofol on the Kupffer cells were evaluated by a phagocytosis assay, TNF-α gene expression, and superoxide anion release after administering propofol in different concentrations on the cultured Kuprrer cells. Results: The latex bead phagocytosis by the Kupffer cells was suppressed when the Kupffer cells were exposed to propofol irrespective of concentrations. Higher propofol concentrations decreased the loss of Kupffer cells after latex bead phagocytosis. Propofol induced TNF-α mRNA expression in the Kupffer cells, but the mRNA expression level after 50㎍/ml of propofol decreased. The pattern of TNF-α mRNA expression induced by propofol was different to that induced by LPS: TNF-α mRNA was expressed continuously in the propofol-treated cells until 16 hours after exposure to propofol, whereas the level of TNF-α mRNA expression induced by LPS was evident after 2 hours and was not found thereafter. TNF-α production after propofol treatment was not higher than that of the control. Formazan presipitation did not show any qualitative differences between cells untreated or treated with propofol concentrations of 0.5, 5.0, and 50 ㎍/ml. Conclusions: These results showed that propofol might inhibit Kupffer cells. This suggests that propofol and be used for patients with ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver. (Korean J Anesthesiol 2002; 43: 475~484)
Owing to the complexity of the deviated structures and the septal deformities accompanying the external nasal deformities, the complete correction of the deviated nose is regarded as a difficult one. The approach to the nasal bone and osteotomy in classic corrective rhinoplasty is almost blind technique, where the results depends on the feeling by surgeon's hand. To overcome these drawback, endoscopic-assisted corrective rhinoplasty and septoplasty performed for 8 cases of deviated nose between January 1996 and May 1997. Average follow-up period was 10 months. All patients were evaluated by symmetrical nasal pyramid, recurrence of the bony deflection and septal deviation. The postoperative courses were satisfactory in most of cases with few complications. It appears that endoscopic control during corrective rhinoplasty and septoplasty is a big step toward obtaining better results in bony and cartilage resection with extreme precision under monitor control and magnification. This technique is not an open approach but permits one to see more of the nasal skeleton and bony septum what is causing deformity, and the immediate effect of the corrective measures used. The use of endoscope in corrective rhinoplasty will provide expanded field of vision, direct manipulation of lesions, and better aesthetic an6 functional results.
Finger tip injuries are in increasing tendency and the treatment must be focused toward preserving length and providing normal sensitivity. The 61 injured digits distal to DIT joint in 49 patients were managed in various procedures from May, 1990 to June, 1991. The authors classified the injured digits into 6 groups and selected the best surgical procedures according to the extent of the injuries. The 6 groups were : A. Volar skin and pulp loss without exposed bone B. Large volar skin and pulp loss with exposed distal phalanx C. Straight-transecton involving nail bed injury. D. Dorsally directed injury with little remaining nail bed E. Germinal matrix injury F. Injury at DIT joint level Tentatively recomonended surgical procedures by the extent of injury were : 1. Secondary intention or skin graft for level A 2. Local flap coverage for level B 3. Composite graft or Local advancement flap for level C 4. Local flap coverage or primary closure after bone shortening and residual nail ablation for group D 5. Micro-replantation or distant flap or local flap according to the state of the injury for group E and F
Polymer drag reduction can offer a attractive way to utilize ready-made facilities in crude-oil transport system without additional large expenditure. Also, drag reduction in two phase flow can be applied to phase change system such as chemical reactor, pool and pump impeller which occurs cavitation. But the research on drag reduction in two phase flow has not been investigated. Therefore, experimental investigations have been carried out to analyze the drag reduction in the single phase and two phase flow. The objectives of the proposed investigation are primarily to identify and develop high performance polymer additives for fluid transportation. And drag reduction will be evaluated in horizontal flow by measuring void fraction, pressure drop, mean liquid velocity and turbulent intensity
In order to evaluate the status of cold exposure and its health hazards of workers at cold storage workplaces and to provide basic data for effective health care, the author measured core temperature and also observed clinical symptoms and signs, past and present history, and general health examination data on 99 cold exposed workers for exposure group and 96 non-exposed workers for control group working at 2 food refrigerating companies in Pusan area from January 6, 1998 to February 24, 1998. The results were as follows: 1. There was statistically significant difference in water intake between the exposure and control group and increased urine volume, urine frequency in exposure group without statistically significant difference. 2. Past and present illness in exposure group were hypertension (18.2%), hepatopathy (8.1%), gastro-intestinal disease(7.1%), arthritis (4.0%), intervertebral disc herniation(4.0%), and so on, and hypertension, arthritis was statistically significant difference compared to control group. 3. Symptoms in exposure group were fatigue(89.9%), headache (64.6%). drowsy(63.6%), neck stiffness(59.6%), excessive food intake(59.6%). general weakness(58.6%), hunger(58.6%), numbness(54.5%), and so on, and there was statistically significant difference between the exposure and control group except fatigue, drowsy. 4. As results of clinical test abnormality rate of the systolic, diastolic blood pressure and electrocardiogram were significantly higher in exposed group than control. 5. Core temperature in exposure group was statistically significantly lower than control group and the highest statistically significant inverse correlation with the working hours and working frequency of daily mean cold storage. As above results, the author suggested that the further studies should be conducted to evaluate the health status of workers about chronic health effects in cold workplaces and to establish effective health care methods for them.
Although the zygomatic arch can be employed as a key landmark to the accurate alignment of a displaced zygoma fracture, it has been traditionally avoided because of the need for a bicoronal incision. Exposure of the zygomatic arch by means of the conventional bicoronal incision has several possible disadvantages, including an increased risk of blood loss, alopecia, loss of sensation posterior to the incision, and traction palsy of the facial nerve. Endoscopic-assisted exposure of a zygomatic arch can largely obviate the disadvantages of a bicoronal incision and yield this site accessible to reduction and internal fixation in the routine treatment of displaced zygoma fractures. 9 cases of endoscope-assisted open reduction of zygomatic arch fracture and 3 cases of internal fixation of a moderately displaced zygoma fracture are presented. To accomplish this technique, a rigid 4 mm, 30 degree down-angled endoscope, trocar and cannula, endoscopic forehead lift instrument were used. The postoperative courses were satisfactory with few complications. The use of endoscope in the treatment of zygoma reduction provided an expanded field of vision, direct manipulation of lesions, minimal postoperative scar. In particular, exposure and fixation of the zygomatic arch were performed without the need for a bicoronal incision.
In this paper, both circularly polarized patch antenna and modified loop antenna were investigated for ultra high frequency of 908.5MHz-914MHz radio frequency identification systems adopted to reader and transponder, respectively. The CP characteristics for reader antenna was realized by using truncation at the edge of patch and the bandwidth of resonance frequency was also enhanced with longer distance between ground plane and radiating patch. Futhermore, overall patch size was reduced to 1.73 times owing to narrow slit consist of inductance component at the radiating patch on RF-4 substrate with dielectric constant of 4.4 materials. The measurements results of fabricated prototype shows that antenna gain of 7.9dBi, 3dB beam width at radiation pattern of 87° and 105° for vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, with 15dB front-to-back ratio. The results shows that the proposed antenna features a compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, moderate gain, and excellent axial ratio. This antenna is well suitable for the applications in RFID readers.