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      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Experimental Determinations of Coherent Multidimensional Vibrational Spectroscopy

        Besemann, Daniel,Condon, Nicholas,Meyer, Kent,Zhao, Wei,Wright, John C. Korean Chemical Society 2003 Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society Vol.24 No.8

        Coherent multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy is a new technique for establishing correlations between features in vibrational spectra that are caused by intra- and intermolecular interactions. These interactions cause cross-peaks between vibrational transitions that reflect the coupling. In this paper, we use Doubly Vibrationally Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy (DOVE-IR) and DOVE-Raman processes to obtain coherent two dimensional vibrational spectra. The spectra are fitted to obtain the dephasing rates and third order susceptibilities $(χ^{(3)})$ for the nonlinear processes. We show that the DOVE $χ^{(3)}$ values are directly related to the molar absorptivities and Raman $χ^{(3)}$. We then use these relationships to obtain estimates for the $χ^{(3)}$ of the stimulated photon echo and $χ^{(5)}$ of the six wave mixing spectroscopies, respectively. We also predict the ratio of the cascaded four wave mixing signal to the six wave mixing signal.

      • KCI등재

        Flame Resistant Cotton Fabric Containing Casein and Inorganic Materials Using an Environmentally-Friendly Microwave Assisted Technique

        SeChin Chang,Brian Condon,Jade Smith,Sunghyun Nam 한국섬유공학회 2020 Fibers and polymers Vol.21 No.10

        New methods for formulating flame retardant cotton fabrics have been achieved by applying a microwave-assistedtechnique with low amounts of solvent. Trials using cotton fabrics treated with casein from bovine milk and eco-friendlyinorganic materials, urea and diammonium phosphate, were completed successfully. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 45 oangle (clothing textiles test), and limiting oxygen index (LOI) tests were carried out for the treated cotton fabrics. When thetreated fabrics were tested using the 45 o angle flame, the ignited fabrics self-extinguished and left behind a streak of char. Treated higher add-on fabrics were neither consumed by flame, nor produced glowing embers upon self-extinguishing. Alluntreated cotton fabrics showed limiting oxygen index (LOI) values of about 18 % oxygen in nitrogen. For formulations withcasein, urea and diammonium phosphate, LOI values of treated fabrics were 32.0-44.0 % oxygen in nitrogen when add-onvalues for the formulation were 9.71-23.5 wt%. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed tocharacterize the chemical structure on the treated fabrics, as well as, the surface morphology of char areas of treated anduntreated fabrics.

      • KCI등재

        Letting Students Choose: How Culture Influences Text Selection in EFL Reading Courses

        Robert Sheridan,Barry Condon 아시아영어교육학회 2020 The Journal of Asia TEFL Vol.17 No.2

        Past research has suggested the use of culturally familiar reading texts increases language acquisition and student interest in the EFL classroom. The present study was conducted to investigate whether L2 learners prefer reading culturally familiar texts over culturally unfamiliar ones. A second prong of this study clarified which topics students are most interested in studying. As part of an elective EFL course, 43 Japanese university students were asked to select and read one simplified English newspaper article each week over a 12-week period from six topic categories: environmental issues, pop culture, tourism, sports, crime, and food. Each topic category consisted of 13 culturally familiar and 13 culturally unfamiliar simplified newspaper articles. Results revealed participants preferred culturally familiar texts to a statistically significant degree, and selected “lighter” topics more frequently than “heavier” topics. Further analyses revealed L2 proficiency had a significant effect on the cultural context that learners selected, and gender had a significant effect on the topics they chose. These findings provide important insights to EFL educators and material designers as they show learners strongly prefer culturally familiar materials, and the results further indicate broadly the kinds of cultural topics students find most interesting.

      • KCI등재

        DUST-OBSCURED RADIO AGNS FROM THE WISE SURVEY

        Kim, Minjin,Lonsdale, Carol J.,Lacy, Mark,Kimball, Amy,Condon, Jim The Korean Astronomical Society 2012 天文學論叢 Vol.27 No.4

        Feedback from accreting BH (AGN) is thought to be responsible for the co-evolution of BHs and galaxies. It is likely to be prominent in the most luminous dust-obscured quasars, particularly those containing radio sources too luminous to be powered by starbursts. In order to investigate the feedback mechanism in detail, we select a unique sample containing ~ 200 of the most luminous obscured QSOs by cross-matching the WISE catalog with the FIRST and NVSS radio surveys. We present overall statistics for the observed range of colors and radio/mid-IR flux density ratio. We also present our efforts to understand the physical and evolutionary nature of these extreme feedback candidates using various telescopes such as Magellan, SOAR, Herschel, and ALMA.

      • KCI등재

        밀과 보리에 있어서 탄소동위원소차별, 수분이용효율, 질소영양간의 상호작용

        Young Kil Kang,Richard A. Richards,Anthony G. Condon 韓國作物學會 1996 Korean journal of crop science Vol.41 No.3

        밀과 보리에 있어서 종자크기와 질소영양이 수분리용효율과 탄소동위원소차별에 미치는 영 향을 조사하여 탄소동위원소차별, 수분이용효율, 질소영양간의 상호작용를 구명하고저 종자크기가 영과당 각각 44mg과 22mg인 춘파형 밀과 보리 한 품종을 직경이 15.3cm인 폿트에서 2본씩 재식, m2 당 질소 10g과 32g 비율로 시용하여 수분이용효율에 관련된 형질과 탄소동위원소차별을 조사하였다. 두 종자크기와 두 질소 시비량을 평균한 건물중은 절간신장기에는 보리가 밀보다 105% 컸던 반면 개화기에는 보리보다 출수가 3일 늦은 밀이 보리보다 16% 많았다. 절간신장기과 개화기에 있어서 보리에 비하여 밀에서 건물중에 미치는 대립종자의 영향이 컸었다. 다질소구가 소질소구에 비하여 개화기에 있어서 밀과 보리의 건물중이 각각 40%와 31% 높았다. 절간신장기와 개화기에 있어서 수분이용효율은 보리가 밀보다 각각 35%와 20% 많았고, 지상부의 탄소동위원소차별은 밀보다 보리가 생육기와 식물체 부위에 따라 2.0~3.6% 적었다. 종자크기가 수분이용효율에 미치는 영향은 뚜렷한 경향이 없었고 탄소동위원소차별에도 유의한 영향을 주지 않았다. 절간신장기에 있어서 수분이용효율은 질소영양에 의하여 영향을 받지 않았으나 개화기에 있어서는 소질소구에 비하여 다질소구에서 밀과 보리가 각각 2%와 7% 컸었다. 두 맥종과 두 종자크기를 평균한 탄소동위원소차별은 생육시기에 관계없이 다질소구에서 소질소구보다 약 2.5% 낮았다. 탄소동위원소차별은 절간신장기에는 수분이용효율과 유의한 상관관계가 없었으나 개화기에 있어서는 부의 상관이 있었다.리고 질소시용량이 적을수록 높은 경향이었으며 아밀로스함량은 재배유형과 비종간에는 큰 차가 없었으나, 시비량간에 있어서는 질소시용량과 비례하여 증감하는 경향을 보였다. 5. 쌀의 N, K함량은 완효성 비료가 속효성 비료보다 높고 질소시용률이 많을수록 높았으나, Mg함량은 질소시용량이 많을수록 높았으며 기계이앙에서는 속효성 비료가, 그리고 건답직파에서는 완효성 비료가 높게 함유하였고, Na함량은 완효성 비료의 시용에서 보다 높게 함유하였다. 또한 Mg/K비을은 속효성 비료가 완효성 비료보다 높았고 기계 이앙보다는 건답직파에서 높게 나타났다. 그러나 N/K비율은 완효성 비료가 높았다. 6. 쌀의 외관상 미질은 완효성 비료보다는 속효성 비료 시용에서 그리고 질소시용량이 적을수록 우수하였으나, 밥맛 검정은 재배유형간에는 기계이앙이 건답직파보다 우수하였고, 비종간에는 속효성 비료보다는 완효성 비료에서, 그리고 질소의 감비보다는 100%시용구에서 보다 우수한 경향을 보였다. 따른 분얼체계와 동신엽, 동신분얼의 수량성은 표준구와 50%증비구는 0, 1, 2, 11, 3, 21, 12, 22, 4, C의 순위였으나 100%증비구에서는 주간보다 1차분얼의 1이 무겁고 3보다 11이 무거웠다.섭취하였고, 탄수화물은 농촌지역 여고생이 대도시 지역 여고생에 비하여 유의적으로 많이 섭취하였다. 지역별 여고생의 에너지섭취 비율은 탄수화물 : 단백질 : 지방의 섭취 비율이 대도시 60.75% : 16.4% 22.9%이며, 중소도시가 62.7% : 15.7% : 21.5%,농촌이66.8% : 14. l% : 19.1%이었다. 영양지식의 정확도나 인지도는 영양소 섭취와 Large and small seeds (44 and 22 mg per caryopsis) of a spring wheat (cv. Kulin) and a spring barley (cv. Skiff) were sown at two nitrogen rates (equivalent to 10 and 32 g m-2 ) in well-watered pots under outdoor conditions to determine the effects of seed size and nitrogen (N) nutrition on water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon isotope discrimination (δ ) and to evaluate interaction among δ , WUE and N nutrition in wheat and barley. Barley produced, on average, 105% more biomass (root+shoot dry weight) than wheat at stem elongation because of early vigor. By anthesis this difference had disappeared as wheat had 16% more biomass than barley which headed 3 days earlier. Compared to plants grown from small seed, plants grown from large seed had much greater biomass in wheat than in barley at stem elongation and anthesis. Higher N nutrition increased average biomass of wheat and barley by 40 and 31%, respectively, at anthesis. Barley had 35 and 20% greater WUE (biomass gained/transpiration) than wheat at stem elongation and anthesis, respectively, and 2.0 to 3.6% lower δ in aboveground shoots depending on growth stages and plant parts than wheat which had a greater stomatal conductance than barley. Seed size had a variable effect on WUE and did not affected δ values. Water use efficiency was not affected by N rate at stem elongation in wheat and barley whereas WUE was increased 2 and 7%, respectively, in wheat and barley at anthesis with increasing N from 10 to 32 g m-2 . High N plants had about 2.5% lower δ values regardless of growth stages than low N plants across species and seed sizes. Carbon isotope discrimination was negatively correlated with WUE at anthesis but not at stem elongation.

      • KCI등재

        Interactions among Carbon Isotope Discrimination, Water Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Nutrition in Wheat and Barley

        Young Kil, Kang,Richard A., Richards,Anthony G., Condon The Korean Society of Crop Science 1996 Korean journal of crop science Vol.41 No.3

        밀과 보리에 있어서 종자크기와 질소영양이 수분리용효율과 탄소동위원소차별에 미치는 영 향을 조사하여 탄소동위원소차별, 수분이용효율, 질소영양간의 상호작용를 구명하고저 종자크기가 영과당 각각 44mg과 22mg인 춘파형 밀과 보리 한 품종을 직경이 15.3cm인 폿트에서 2본씩 재식, m$^2$당 질소 10g과 32g 비율로 시용하여 수분이용효율에 관련된 형질과 탄소동위원소차별을 조사하였다. 두 종자크기와 두 질소 시비량을 평균한 건물중은 절간신장기에는 보리가 밀보다 105% 컸던 반면 개화기에는 보리보다 출수가 3일 늦은 밀이 보리보다 16% 많았다. 절간신장기과 개화기에 있어서 보리에 비하여 밀에서 건물중에 미치는 대립종자의 영향이 컸었다. 다질소구가 소질소구에 비하여 개화기에 있어서 밀과 보리의 건물중이 각각 40%와 31% 높았다. 절간신장기와 개화기에 있어서 수분이용효율은 보리가 밀보다 각각 35%와 20% 많았고, 지상부의 탄소동위원소차별은 밀보다 보리가 생육기와 식물체 부위에 따라 2.0~3.6% 적었다. 종자크기가 수분이용효율에 미치는 영향은 뚜렷한 경향이 없었고 탄소동위원소차별에도 유의한 영향을 주지 않았다. 절간신장기에 있어서 수분이용효율은 질소영양에 의하여 영향을 받지 않았으나 개화기에 있어서는 소질소구에 비하여 다질소구에서 밀과 보리가 각각 2%와 7% 컸었다. 두 맥종과 두 종자크기를 평균한 탄소동위원소차별은 생육시기에 관계없이 다질소구에서 소질소구보다 약 2.5% 낮았다. 탄소동위원소차별은 절간신장기에는 수분이용효율과 유의한 상관관계가 없었으나 개화기에 있어서는 부의 상관이 있었다. Large and small seeds (44 and 22 mg per caryopsis) of a spring wheat (cv. Kulin) and a spring barley (cv. Skiff) were sown at two nitrogen rates (equivalent to 10 and 32 g m$^{-2}$ ) in well-watered pots under outdoor conditions to determine the effects of seed size and nitrogen (N) nutrition on water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon isotope discrimination ($\Delta$) and to evaluate interaction among $\Delta$, WUE and N nutrition in wheat and barley. Barley produced, on average, 105% more biomass (root+shoot dry weight) than wheat at stem elongation because of early vigor. By anthesis this difference had disappeared as wheat had 16% more biomass than barley which headed 3 days earlier. Compared to plants grown from small seed, plants grown from large seed had much greater biomass in wheat than in barley at stem elongation and anthesis. Higher N nutrition increased average biomass of wheat and barley by 40 and 31%, respectively, at anthesis. Barley had 35 and 20% greater WUE (biomass gained/transpiration) than wheat at stem elongation and anthesis, respectively, and 2.0 to 3.6% lower $\Delta$ in aboveground shoots depending on growth stages and plant parts than wheat which had a greater stomatal conductance than barley. Seed size had a variable effect on WUE and did not affected $\Delta$ values. Water use efficiency was not affected by N rate at stem elongation in wheat and barley whereas WUE was increased 2 and 7%, respectively, in wheat and barley at anthesis with increasing N from 10 to 32 g m$^{-2}$ . High N plants had about 2.5% lower $\Delta$ values regardless of growth stages than low N plants across species and seed sizes. Carbon isotope discrimination was negatively correlated with WUE at anthesis but not at stem elongation.

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