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본 단보에서는 단층감시에 대한 해외사례와 국내에서 유일하게 한국수력원자력(주) 중앙연구원이 운영 중인 단층 감시시스템의 운영현황 및 관측자료 특성을 소개하고자 한다. 해외의 경우 단층운동, 지진, 화산활동 등 활발한 지각운동에 기인한 자연재해의 피해가 많은 미국, 대만, 일본 등지에서 재해에 대한 사전대비를 목적으로 이미 1960년대 초반부터 다양한 종류의 단층 감시시스템을 구축·운영하여 지진예측 연구에 활용하고 있다. 국내에서는 경주시 양남면 일대에 분포하는 읍천단층 인근에 단층 감시시스템이 설치·운영 중이며, 변형계, 지표변위계, GPS, 지진계, 지하수위계의 현장 계측기와 자료전송 시스템, 자료저장 서버 및 통합감시 프로그램을 통해 단층거동 특성을 실시간으로 매우 정밀하게 관측한다. 2011년 한 해 동안 관측된 자료 분석결과, 읍천 단층 인근 지진이벤트로 인한 지중응력 및 변위변화 양상은 관찰되지 않았으나, 2011년 3월 동일본 대지진으로 인하여 지중응력 및 지진파 이상변화가 감지되었으며, 조석이나 온도 등의 외부영향을 받고 있어 보정을 통한 실제 변형자료 해석이 요구됨을 확인하였다. 한수원(주) 중앙연구원에서는 신규 연구과제를 통하여 단층 감시시스템 관측자료에 대한 자료보정 방법과 단층 장기 거동특성을 평가할 수 있는 기술을 개발할 예정이며, 향후 원전이나 국가 주요 시설물의 지진 안전성 확보에 기여할 것으로 기대된다. Sung-Il Cho, Weon-Hack Choi, Jong Sun Hwang, Jae-Won Choi and Chun-Joong Chang, 2012, Introduction of Eupcheon Fault Monitoring System. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea. v. 48, no. 6, p. 533-542 ABSTRACT: This short paper introduces the only Fault Monitoring System (FMS) of Korea managed by Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. (KHNP) ? Central Research Institute (CRI) as well as such cases of the United States of America (USA), Japan and Taiwan. Those foreign countries employed the FMS from early 1960s as geo-tectonic induced disasters are common in the countries. The first Eupcheon Fault Monitoring System (EFMS) of Korea is installed around the Eupcheon fault located in Gyeoungju city. The system is equipped with in-situ measuring units including strain meter, creepmeter, Global Positioning System (GPS), seismometer, and groundwater level meter. The high accuracy in-situ data is served to the central controlling researchers units in real time by data transfer system, storage servers and integral monitoring program. The observation data from EFMS in 2011 reveals that the earthquakes near Eupcheon fault did not show considerable changes in underground stress and displacement while the Tohoku earthquake occurred in March 2011 recorded abnormal strains and seismic wave patterns. However, it is required to employ a calibration system to serve more reliable data because the system is very sensitive to external parameters such as tides and temperature variations. The KHNP-CRI is planned to develop technical systems for data correction and analysis to predict the long-term characteristics and behavior of fault systems near the Eupcheon fault. We expect that the enhanced monitoring system will contribute significantly in geo-tectonic safety assessment of nuclear plants and other critical facilities related to the national security.
Traditionally, enbloc resection of the primary tumor with its lymphatics is the surgical procedure of choice for many oral and oropharyngeal malignancies. However, the operative fields reached by conventional approaches are too limited and narrow to remove extensive tumors, especially posterior pharyngeal tumor. The mandibular swing approach has greatly assisted tumor ablation and reconstruction of these areas. The authors essayed a mandibular swing approach for the ablation of a huge posterior pharyngeal wall carcinoma.
The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been applied to the analysis of microstrip discontinuities comprised of junctions of two substrates having different dielectric constants. The discontinuities treated in this paper include microstrip step-in-width on a single substrate for the validation of analysis method, and microstrip junctions of two different substrates where strip widths are varied to analyze the reflection characteristics numerically. It is noted that the result for the junction having a uniform strip width but different dielectric constants shows a similar characteristic with a conventional step-in-width discontinuity. The importance of this result is the implication that the junctions treated in this paper can be applied to the design of microwave passive circuits such as filters and matching networks.
The results which are comparing and analy reaction time of moving four directions at the whole body reaction time by light signal to sbject 9 schoolboys and seven school girls of hearing handicapped group, and 10 boystudeuts and 9 girl students of general group children(high school students) are as follow: ① No difference is choice reaction time in the four directions (forward, back ward, right, left) of hearing handicapped group children and general groups children. ② Simple reaction time is that the boy students of the hearing handicapped group are carefully faster than general children at the forward direction and there is no difference in the direction of back, right and left. Girlstudents is not different in simple reaction time between two groups. ③ All the boy and girl of the hearing handicapped group and general group children are faster simple reaction time than choice reaction time. For more than it, between hearing handicapped group and general children there is no difference in the whole body reaction time. It is worth our while to notice that reaction time of boy students of hearing handicapped group is faster than that of general students at the front direction, simple reaction time.
In this paper, we have analyzed a new type of microstip discontinuity, which has a З-dimensional dent in the substrate, using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The accuracy of the FDTD application is validated by the compatison between FDTD results and HFSS software results. For the purpose of using in the microwave CAD applications, an equivalent circuit for the discontinuity is developed based on the numerical results. The equivalent circuits are accurate within 4.2% comparing with the original data. The equivalent circuits show a potential use for filter applications.
본 연구의 목적은 부적응 중고등학생들의 학교생활 적응을 돕기 위한 심리지원 프로그램을 개발하고, 프로그램이 학생들의 적응행동의 변화에 미치는 영향을 조사하는 것이다. 학교부적응 중고생 19명을 대상으로 5일간 집단상담 형식의 프로그램을 진행하고, 사전과 사후에 청소년 자기행동평가척도(K-YSR)와 부모가 실시하는 아동․청소년 행동평가척도(K-CBCL)을 실시하였다. 프로그램 사전-사후 비교 결과, 청소년 자기행동평가척도에서 총점과 공격성 하위척도에서 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 부모에 의한 아동․청소년 행동평가척도에서는 사회성 척도에서 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 단기간의 집중적 개입을 통해 참가자의 자기행동 평정에서 감소된 문제행동 및 보호자 평정에서의 사회성 증진 결과는 개입프로그램의 효과를 입증하는 것이었다. 끝으로 본 연구의 한계와 제안점을 논의하였다. In this study, we try to investigate the effects of psychological support-based group counseling on decreasing problematic behaviors of juvenile delinquency. The participants were 19 students(male=6 and female=13) who were treated as juvenile delinquency. The program is consisted of scoiodrama, self-growth group counseling, sex education, career exploring, parental training, and mentoring. The length of program is 35 hours in the five-days workshop. Measures are K-YSR(Korean version of Youth Self Report, Achenbach, 1991) and K-CBCL(Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist, Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983). The major results of this study were as follows. First, there was significant difference between pre-test and post-test in overall scores of K-YSR particularly on aggression subscale. Second, there was significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores on sociality in K-CBCL. In conclusion, this program showed partial effects of decreasing problematic behaviors of juvenile delinquency.
51 male subjects aged 12years were devided into normal group(17), hearing handicapped group(17), and crippled group(17). After running 60m the cardiopulmonary response of the heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were measured and analyzed in order to find out the physiological differences among the three groups. The result were summarized as follows. <In resting stage> 1. Hearing handicapped group showed a little higher blood pressure than cripped group, and almost the same as normal group. 2. Hearing handicapped group showed almost the same respiratory rateas normal group and noticeably higher than crippled group. <After running bom> 3. Hearing heandicapped group showed 146.25% increase of the systolic pressure than in vesting state, crippled group 153.13% increase, and normal group, 133.03% increase. In short hearing handicapped group's systolic pressure after exersise was noticeably higher than crippled group's and almost the same as normal group's. Hearing handicapped group's diastolic pressure also increased 112.74% and normal group's increased 129.40%, and normal group's increased 104.65%, that is, hearing handicapped group's diastolic pressure was remarkably higher than crippled group's and almost the same as normal groups. 4. In heart rate, hearing handicapped group showed 142.03% increase than in resting state crippled group, 142.06%, and normal group 140.66%. In short, hearing handicapped group and cripped group a little higher increase of heart rate than normal group. 5. In respiratory rate, hearing handicapped group showed 166.46% increase than in resting state, crippled group, 159.68%, and normal group 134.93% that is, hearing handicapped group's and crippled group's respiratory rate was significantly higher than normal groups. We need to pay attention to the result of this research that in cardiopulmonary response in resting state, respiratory rate was noticeably lower in crippled group than in hearing handicapped group, and normal group, and in cardiopulmonary response after exercise, hearing handicapped group's heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were higher than crippled group's and lower than normal group's. It is necessary to mak deeper research on psychological, analytical, and physiological aspects, based on the this research.
As the wireless services are popular for convenience, antennas having wider bandwidth are required more often. In this paper, a new type of monopole antenna is invented for multiple band applications. Multiple band property for the proposed antenna is achieved by adjusting the coupling structure of the antenna base. -10 dB impedance bandwidths are 1.74-3.06 GHz and 5.59-10.62 GHz, which can cover various kinds of wireless services, such as PCS(1.75-1.87 GHz), IMT-2000(1.92-2.17 GHz), WiBro(2.3-2.39 GHz), WLAN (2.412-2.483 GHz, 5.725-5.825 GHz), DMB(2.63-2.655 GHz), High-band UWB(7.2-10.2 GHz).
본 논문에서는 FM-CW 레이더의 원리를 이용한 마이크로파 거리계에서 비트 신호(beat signal)의 스펙트럼 상관도(correlation)를 해석한다. 산업 자동화용과 같이 정밀도가 높아야하는 경우, 거리계에 사용되는 VCO의 주파수 선형도가 매우 좋아야한다. 그러나, 실제 VCO의 선형도를 높이는 일은 매우 어려우며, 장비의 고가화를 초래하게 된다. 거리 차가 충분히 작은 경우, 두 비트 신호의 주파수 스펙트럼간에 상관도가 peak를 나타내는 주파수 offset이 존재하게 되며, 본 논문에서는 이를 바탕으로 일반적 VCO를 사용하여도 정밀한 측정을 할 수 있는 상관 알고리듬을 제안한다. 상관도에 대한 배경 이론을 유도하고, 제안된 알고리듬을 적용한 측정 결과를 제시하였다. In this paper, we analyze spectrum correlation of beat signals in the microwave level meter based on the FM-CW radar. For industrial applications, level meters must have high precision, which requires a good linearity of VCO. But, in practice, it is very complicated or very expensive to make VCO linear enough to be acceptable in the industrial field. We propose a measurement algorithm using the fact that there exists a peak in the spectrum correlation of beat signals when range difference is adequately small. This makes it possible to determine the range difference in a precise manner even using a practical VCO. We develop the background theory of correlation and show some results using this algorithm.