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        인성교육 콘텐츠로서의 천자문

        최경춘(Choi, Kyeng-Chun) 한국문화융합학회 2017 문화와 융합 Vol.39 No.5

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        본 연구의 목적은 천자문 소재 한자(漢字)를 인성교육 콘텐츠라는 측면에서 탐색하는데 있다. 천자문은 인성교육 콘텐츠의 다양한 내용을 갖추고 있다. 여기에는 인성교육 콘텐츠로서 활용 가능한 역사적인 사건을 비롯하여 단순한 자연현상, 정치제도, 인간생활, 인류도덕, 충효, 처신, 예악 등이 골고루 갖추어져 있다. 따라서 이 한 권만 읽으면 인성을 중시하는 현시점에서 우리 대학생들이 지녀야할 기본 소양이 다 갖추어질 수 있다는 장점을 지닌다. 본 연구의 방법으로 인성과 한자학을 정의하고, 관련된 선행연구를 종합하여 천자문의 내용을 1.자연, 역사, 생활, 제도. 2.인물, 정치, 인륜, 인성. 3.충효, 교화, 지리, 농사, 4.지혜, 처신, 학문, 예악, 송덕, 행동으로 분류하고, 인성영역에 해당하는 한자를 형성원리, 한자자원학, 한자자체학, 한자문화학적인 측면에서 그 의미를 분석하였다. 그 결과 천자문 소재 인성교육 관련 한자에서 ‘①누구나 허물이 있는 것이니 허물을 알면 반드시 고쳐야 하고, 사람으로서 알아야 할 것을 배운 후에는 잊지 않도록 노력하여야 한다. ② 다른 사람의 단점을 말하지 말고, 자신의 장점을 믿고 자랑하지 말라. ③ 덕을 세상에 세우면 명예도 서게 되고, 몸가짐이 단정하고 깨끗하면 마음도 바르며 겉모습도 바르게 된다'는 의미의 배경을 밝혔다. The purpose of this research is to explore chinese characters in Chun ja mun in terms of personality education contents. Chun ja mun contains various of contents personality education. These include natural phenomenon, political institutions, human life, human rights, loyalty and filial duty, behavior, manners and vice, as well as historical events that can be used as personality educational contents. Therefore, at the time of the present of put emphasis on personality, It have the advantage of establishing a basic culture that our university students should possess. As a method of study, we define personality and chinese character study and integrated a previous study of related to. we classified the contents of the Chun ja mun into four categories 1.nature, history, life, system 2.person, politics, humanity, personality 3.loyalty and filial piety, education, geography, agriculture 4.wisdom, conduct, study, manners and vice, virtue, behavior At the same time, we analyzed chinese character that have meaning of personality in the side that formative principle, resources, its own, culture The result, we expressed background of these meaning in chinese character related to personality education Chun ja mun. The meaning is as follows. ①Everyone have faults, if we find ours, we must correct our faults and after learn humans duty, we must not forget to learned thing ②Don't talk about people s faults, nor do say your own merits ③virtue leads to fame, right behavior make right mind and right one s appearance

      • 光州川의 水質管理에 의한 榮山江水質의 改善效果

        朴成天,李相俊 東新大學校 工業技術硏究所 1997 工業技術硏究 Vol.3 No.-

        This paper purpose of presenting the improvable effect of the Youngsan River water quality according to management of the Kwangju Chun water quality. QUAL2E model, the estimate model of the water quality is used in this paper. The river length of study-basin is 60.0km in middle channel of the Youngsan River. The river length is divided into 60 elements, and those are divided into 6 reaches. This paper focused on the improvement effect of the Youngsan River-water- quality, with water quality management degree of the Gwangju Chun and clean water inflow degree of the Youngsan River. As a result of estimate, the Youngsan River BOD concentration-regression equations that were based on BOD concentration of the Gwangju Chun and inflow clean water of the Youngsan River considerating the Gwangju Chun BOD concentration.

      • 기업의 이익목표 달성을 위한 이익조정과 한국 재무분석가의 인식

        전성빈(Sungbin, Chun), 김성혜(Sunghye, Kim), 이아영(Ayoung Lee) 한국회계정보학회 2013 한국회계정보학회 학술대회발표집 Vol.2013 No.1

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        본 연구에서는 경영자의 기업의 이익목표 달성을 위한 이익조정에 대하여 재무분석가가 어떠한 인식을 가지고 있는지에 대해 알아보기 위해 185명의 한국 재무분석가를 대상으로 설문조사 및 실증분석을 병행하여 분석한 연구이다. 설문조사결과, 재무분석가는 분석기업이 자신의 이익예측치를 정확히 달성(meet)하였을 때 가장 만족도가 높았으며, 분석기업이 자신의 이익예측치를 달성하였을 경우 기업의 성장전망이 밝고 미래성과가 안정적이며 경영진에 대한 신뢰가 증가한다고 답변하였다. 또한 재무분석가는 분석기업이 자신의 이익예측치를 달성하는 것이 분석기업과의 우호적인 관계를 유지하는 데 도움이 된다고 응답하였다. 한편, 재무분석가는 분석기업이 본인의 이익예측치를 달성하지 못할 경우, 해당기업의 미래성과에 대한 불확실성이 증가하여 기업의 성과를 예측하기 어렵고, 분석기업이 밝히지 않은 문제가 있다고 생각하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 대다수의 재무분석가는 이익목표달성을 위한 이익조정이 약간 혹은 많이 있는 것으로 인식하고 있으며 분석기업이 이익조정을 했을 경우 이를 이익예측에 반영한다고 응답하였다. 기업들이 발생액을 통한 이익조정 뿐 아니라 다양한 실물활동의 조정을 통하여 이익을 조정한다고 생각하는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 설문조사를 통해 본 연구는 이익목표 달성을 위한 이익조정 현상을 바라보는 경영자와 재무분석가 간 인식에 상당한 차이가 있다는 것을 발견하였다. 마지막으로 이익조정과 설문조사를 통해 수집한 재무분석가가 평가한 공시품질을 이용한 실증분석결과, 발생액과 실물활동을 통한 이익조정은 재무분석가가 평가하는 기업의 공시품질과 유의한 음(-)의 관계에 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 기업이 발생액과 실물활동을 조정하여 이익을 과대보고 할 때 정보이용자인 재무분석가는 해당재무정보의 품질이 낮다고 인식하게 된다는 것을 의미한다. In a survey conducted U.S and Korean financial executives about their financial reporting behavior, managers consider accounting earnings as the most important performance measure, and are willing to sacrifice economic value on the motivations for meeting or beating earnings benchmarks (Graham et al. 2005; Chun et al. 2012). Given the increasing research and the related concerns about managers earnings management, a natural question arises as to the perception of financial analysts, who are the primary users of financial accounting information. Therefore, we seeks to assess the perception of analysts of such managers financial reporting behavior using a combination of a survey instrument and empirical study. To do this, we first conduct a survey that asks 185 Korean analysts of 15 brokerage firms to describe their views related to the firm s financial reporting behavior, specifically earnings management using discretionary accruals and real actions to meet earnings targets. Then, we compare the result of our survey with the one of Chun et al.(2012) s survey to investigate the gaps in opinion between analysts and CFOs on the firms earnings management to meet financial reporting goals. Lastly, we empirically examine whether earnings management via accruals and real decisions directly affects disclosure quality that analysts assess by OLS regression. I employ a modified Jones (1991) model to measure the discretionary accruals, and meature the extent of real earnings management by the sum of abnormal cash flow from operations, discretionary expenditures, and production costs using Roychowdhury (2006)'s models. We collect disclosure quality data from our survey by asking analysts to select the firms with high and low disclosure quality. The main results are as follows. First, our survey results indicate that analysts are mostly satisfied when the firms report the exactly the same earnings as their forecast numbers since forecast accuracy impacts on analysts career concerns and external reputation. This contrasts with the results in a Chun et al.(2012) s survey that CFOs prefer to report slightly beaten earings to signal higher future growth prospects to the external investors. Second, analysts believe that meeting earnings benchmarks relates to firm s better growth prospects, management credibility and stable operating performance in the future. Also, analysts thinks that meeting analysts forecasts help to maintain good relationships between analysts and managements, even though CFOs do not agree with relationship incentives. Third, analysts reply that the majority of firms are engaging in earnings management to meet or beat market expectations. In contrast, only a few of CFOs admit that they would sacrifice economic value to achieve earnings targets in Chun et al.(2012) s survey. Also analysts state that they reflect the implication of earnings management into their earnings forecast. Forth, analysts think that managers use a large set of earnings management methods to achieve a earnings targets, which involve not only pure accounting discretion such as changing accounting principles or estimation, but also real decisions such as decreasing discretionary spending, delaying starting a new projects, accelerating sales, selling of fixed assets, etc. However, CFO s reply that they would not take any accounting actions to meet earnings benchmarks, nor would they take real actions except for decreasing discretionary expenses. Lastly, the results of empirical test using OLS regression suggest that disclosure quality perceived by analyst is higher for firms with low level of accrual and real earnings management. This means that earnings management This study contributes to the literature in several ways. This is the first study to ask directly analysts perceptions and views on managers earnings management behavior by survey instrument.

      • KCI등재

        논문(論文) : 춘추시대(春秋時代) 축성(築城) 작업에 나타난 민(民)의 개체성 연구

        천영미 ( Young Mi Chun ) 한국한문고전학회(구.성신한문학회) 2008 漢文古典硏究 Vol.17 No.1

        고대 중국에서 民은 有德者의 통치로 보호받아야 될 수동적인 존재로서 여겨져 왔다. 그러나 『좌전』이나 『논어』에는 民의 또 다른 면모가 보인다. 民은 통치자의 교화를 기다리는 수동적인 존재가 아니라, 자신의 욕구를 충족시켜 줄 군주를 찾아 나서기도 하고, 불합리한 정책에 적극적으로 대응하기도 하며, 통치자의 다스림을 공고하게 할 수 있는 결정적인 요소인 `신뢰`를 제공하는 존재로서 나타나 있다. 그러므로 본고에서는 수동적 존재로서만 부각되어 왔던 民이 개체적 존재로서 결단을 내리기도 하고, 부당한 정책에 대해서는 적극적으로 대응하는 면모를 밝히고자 하였다. 民의 개체성 양상은 욕구 충족적인 특징을 지녔다. 民은 기본적인 욕구를 충족시켜줄 군주를 찾아 `떠남`으로써 개체성을 표출하였다. 民의 개체성은 春秋時代까지 이어져서 사회전반의 현상에서 불합리한 정책에 직면하였을 때, 民은 일탈하는 행동을 통해 개체성을 표출하게 되었다. 춘추시대는 각 제후국들 간의 전쟁으로 인하여 축성작업이 자주 진행되었고, 民으로부터의 부역을 부과하는 일이 비일비재하였다. 지배층의 과도한 축성작업은 民의 일탈현상을 초래하였다. 民은 과도한 축성작업을 견디지 못하고 도주하기도 하였고, 과도한 부역으로 지친 民은 축성작업을 중단시키기도 하였다. 또한 民은 고된 부역에 자신들을 징발하는 위정자를 풍자하는 노래를 지어 부르기도 하였고, 축성작업 중에 民을 부당하게 대우한 감독관을 죽이기도 하였다. 이로써 보면 축성작업에 동원된 民은 위정자의 부당한 처사에 대해 적극적으로 대응함으로써 개체성을 표출하였음을 알 수 있다. 본고는 西周時代에 태동한 욕구충족적인 民의 개체성이 春秋時代로 이어지면서 부당한 정책에 대응하는 적극적인 양상으로 발전하고, 이러한 民의 개체성 표출은 戰國時代에 이르러 여러 사상가들이 `民`을 국가의 근본으로 인식할 수 있는 계기를 마련해 준 것으로 보고, 그 과정을 밝히는 것을 목적으로 한다. The people in the Ancient China were considered as passive beings to be protected by the rule of a virtuous man. However, we can see another aspect of the people in "Joajun" and "The Analects of Confucius". The people were not passive any more in here. They tried to look for a monarch who could satisfy their desires and rise to unreasonable policies actively rather than wait for edification of the ruler. They were the people providing `confidence` which must be the decisive factor of solid rule of the ruler. Therefore, in this study I tried to clarify another phase of the people who came to a definite decision as individuals and rose to unjust policies actively rather than were passive beings. The aspect of `the individuality` had a characteristic of satisfying their desires. The people expressed the individuality by `leaving` to look for a monarch who could satisfy their basic desires. `The individuality` of the people continued until Chun-chu era and they expressed the individuality through deviation movements when they faced unjust policies throughout the society. In Chun-chu era there were lots of work of building castles due to wars between feudal lords, and therefore the people were forced to work hard very often. Too much work of building castles caused the people to depart from their works. Some people fled from excessive work and others who were bone tired of overwork made the work stopped. Furthermore, the people made songs to satirize statesmen who put in requisition for excessive work and they sometimes killed supervisors who treated them unjustly during the work. Through this fact we can see that the people who were forced to work expressed the individuality by coping with the raw deal of the statesmen actively. Therefore, the individuality of the people satisfying their desires in Suh-Ju era was revealed in Chun-chu era in a way that they were against the unreasonable policies. And the expression of the individuality by the people made many philosophers recognize that `the people` are the foundation of a nation in the age of civil wars.

      • KCI등재

        조기천 『백두산』 연구의 선결문제

        고현철(Several Previous Problems of the Study on Jo Gi-Chun" s Baekdusan) 한국문학회 2005 韓國文學論叢 Vol.39 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This essay aims to investigate several previous problems of the study on Jo Gi-Chun's Baekdusan. The results of this essay are summarized as the following: First, this essay investigates differences between several Baekdusan Texts, that is, 1955 Text, 1986 Text(1987 Text, 1989 Text) and 1995 Text(2004 Text). And, it examines we should practical use 1955 Text in order to study Jo Gi-Chun's Baekdusan. Second, it investigates the fact that Kim Il-Sung intervened in the process of creating Jo Gi-Chun's Baekdusan, holding political intention in his bosom. Third, it investigates that several perspectives ― external, internal, and internal-critical ― of the study on North Korean Literature. And, it investigates internal-critical perspective is most suitable for the study on Jo Gi-Chun's Baekdusan among three perspectives. In conclusion, it is claimed that we should read Baekdusan(before-1955 Text) by focusing on the political history of North Korea in terms of the internal-critical perspective for the study on Jo Gi-Chun's Baekdusan.

      • KCI등재

        남대천 양양 양수발전소의 환경영향과 대책

        전상기 한국환경영향평가학회 1997 환경영향평가 Vol.6 No.1

        The Yangyang Pumped Storage Power Plant is being constructed by Korea Electric Power Corporation in Namdae-Chun River, Korea. The Yangyang Pumped Storage Power Plant has 1000MW capacity with upper reservior, lower reservior, hydrauric tunnel arid underground power plant facilities. But NGO(Non Governmental Groups) and residents are worried about the power plant construction because of some problems, as follows. (l) Namdae-Chun River is principal salmon retrmning river in Korea. (2) Namdae-Chun River is main water supply source of the Yangyang country. So, brief explanation of Environmental Impacts Assessment executed by Korea Electric Power Corporation, main environmental impacts and countermeasures will be introduced.

      • KCI등재

        Chitin deacetylase from Absidia coerulea CHK-1 : Mycerial chitin deacetylase of a chitin deacelylase-hyperproducuing fungus, Absidia coerulea CHK-1

        Park,,Chun,Kim,,Jung,Ran,Shin,,Jae,Kyoung,Kim,,June,Ki,Lee,,Tae,Kyun,Chung,,Ji,Chun,Park,,Weon,Hwan,Park,,Sun,Dong,Nam,,Kyung,Soo,Lee,,Young,Choon,Kim,,Cheorl,Ho 한국키틴키토산학회 1997 한국키틴키토산학회지 Vol.2 No.2

        A mycelial chitin deacetylase has been purified from a chitin deacetylase-hyperproducing fungus, Absidiα coerulea CHK-1. The purified enzyme had a molecular mass of about 62 kDa on denaturated and natural conditions. The pI was 5.5. The chitin deacetylase, when resolved by SDS-PAGE, was positive for Schiff staining, suggesting that the enzyme is a glycoprotein. When O-hydroxylated chitin (glycolchitin) was used as a substrate, the enzyme displayed a temperature optimum of around 50℃ and a pH optimum of around PH 5,5. The enzyme was stable to incubation from pH 3.0 to pH 6.5 at 4℃ for 24 hr. The presence of chitin protected the enzyme from heat inactivation, the extent depending upon the substrate concentration. The activity of the enzyme was stimulated by Mn2+ ion. The enzyme is active on chitooligosaccharides with more than two N-acetylglucosamine residues (M-acetylchitobiose). However, the enzyme is not active on N-acetylglucosamine. The enzyme had an apparent Km of 12.4 mM and Kcat of 32.4 /sec for glycol chitin, respectively.

      • KCI등재

        기업의 이익목표 달성을 위한 이익조정과 한국 재무분석가의 인식

        김성혜(Sung Hye Kim), 이아영(A Young Lee), 전성빈(Sung Bin Chun) 한국경영학회 2014 Korea Business Review Vol.18 No.1

        본 연구에서는 경영자의 기업의 이익목표 달성을 위한 이익조정에 대하여 재무분석가가 어떠한 인식을 가지고 있는지에 대해 알아보기 위해 185명의 한국 재무분석가를 대상으로 설문조사 및 실증분석을 병행하여 분석한 연구이다. 설문조사결과, 우리나라 재무분석가는 분석기업이 자신의 이익예측치를 정확히 달성(meet)하였을 때 가장 만족도가 높았으며, 분석기업이 자신의 이익예측치를 달성하였을 경우 기업의 성장전망이 밝고 미래성과가 안정적이며 경영진에 대한 신뢰가 증가한다고 답변하였다. 또한 재무분석가는 분석기업이 자신의 이익예측치를 달성하는 것이 분석기업과의 우호적인 관계를 유지하는 데 도움이 된다고 응답하였다. 한편, 재무분석가는 분석기업이 본인의 이익예측치를 달성하지 못할 경우, 해당기업의 미래성과에 대한 불확실성이 증가하여 기업의 성과를 예측하기 어렵고, 분석기업이 밝히지 않은 문제가 있다고 생각하는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 대다수의 재무분석가는 이익목표달성을 위한 이익 조정이 약간 혹은 많이 있는 것으로 인식하고 있으며 분석기업이 이익조정을 했을 경우 이를 이익예측에 반영하고, 기업이 발생액을 통한 이익조정뿐 아니라 다양한 실물활동의 조정을 통하여 이익을 조정한다고 생각하는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 설문조사를 통해 본 연구는 이익목표 달성을 위한 이익조정 현상을 바라보는 경영자와 재무분석가 간 인식에 상당한 차이가 있다는 것을 발견하였다. 마지막으로 경영자의 이익조정과 재무분석가가 인식하는 재무정보의 품질과의 관계를 분석한결과, 발생액과 실물활동을 통한 이익조정은 재무분석가가 평가하는 기업의 공시품질과 유의한 음(-)의 관계에 있는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 기업이 발생액과 실물활동을 조정하여 이익을 과대보고 할 때 이러한 이익정보를 이용하는 재무분석가가 해당재무정보의 품질이 낮다고 인식하게 된다는 것을 의미한다. In a survey conducted for U.S and Korean chief financial officers about their financial reporting behavior, managers consider accounting earnings as on of the most important performance measure, and are willing to sacrifice economic value for meeting or beating earnings benchmarks (Graham et al. 2005; Chun et al. 2012). Given the increasing research and the related concerns about managers` earnings management, a natural question arises as to the perception of financial analysts, who are the primary users of financial accounting information. Therefore, we seek to assess the perception of analysts of such managers` financial reporting behavior using a combination of a survey instrument and empirical study. To do this, we first conduct a survey that asks 185 Korean analysts of 15 brokerage firms to describe their views related to the firm`s financial reporting behavior, specifically earnings management using discretionary accruals and real actions to meet earnings targets. Then, we compare the result of our survey with the one of Chun et al.(2012)`s survey to investigate the gaps in opinion between analysts and CFOs on the firms` earnings management to meet financial reporting goals. Lastly, we empirically examine whether earnings management via accruals and real decisions directly affects quality of financial reporting that analysts assess by OLS regression. We employ discretionary accruals as our proxy for accrual-based earnings management. Following Kothari et al.(2005), we include return on assets(ROA) as a regressor in the estimation model to control for the effect of performance on discretionary accruals. We also measure the extent of real earnings management by the sum of abnormal cash flow from operations, discretionary expenditures, and production costs using Roychowdhury (2006)`s models. We use disclosure quality as a proxy of financial reporting quality data from our survey by asking analysts to select the firms with high and low disclosure quality. The main results are as follows. First, our survey results indicate that analysts are mostly satisfied when the firms report the exactly the same earnings as their forecast numbers since forecast accuracy impacts on analysts` career concerns and external reputation. This contrasts with the results in a Chun et al.(2012)`s survey that CFOs prefer to report slightly beaten earings to signal higher future growth prospects to the external investors. Second, analysts believe that meeting earnings benchmarks relates to firm`s better growth prospects, management credibility and stable operating performance in the future. Also, analysts thinks that meeting analysts forecasts helps to maintain good relationship between analysts and managements, even though CFOs do not agree with relationship incentives. Third, analysts reply that the majority of firms are engaging in earnings management to meet or beat market expectations. In contrast, only a few of CFOs admit that they would sacrifice economic value to achieve earnings targets in Chun et al.(2012)`s survey. Also analysts state that they reflect the implication of earnings management into their earnings forecast. Fourth, analysts think that managers use a large set of earnings management methods to achieve a earnings targets, which involve not only pure accounting discretion such as changing accounting principles or estimation, but also real decisions such as decreasing discretionary spending, delaying starting a new projects, accelerating sales, selling of fixed assets, etc. However, CFOs reply that they would not take any accounting actions to meet earnings benchmarks, nor would they take real actions except for decreasing discretionary expenses. Lastly, the results of empirical test using OLS regression suggest that disclosure quality perceived by analyst is higher for firms with low level of accrual and real earnings management. This study contributes to the literature in several ways. This is the first study to ask directly ana

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Review on the Determination of Frumkin, Langmuir, and Temkin Adsorption Isotherms at Electrode/Solution Interfaces Using the Phase-Shift Method and Correlation Constants

        Chun,,Jinyoung,Chun,,Jang,H. The Korean Institute of Chemical Engineers 2016 Korean Chemical Engineering Research(HWAHAK KONGHA Vol.54 No.6

        This review article described the electrochemical Frumkin, Langmuir, and Temkin adsorption isotherms of over-potentially deposited hydrogen (OPD H) and deuterium (OPD D) for the cathodic $H_2$ and $D_2$ evolution reactions (HER, DER) at Pt, Ir, Pt-Ir alloy, Pd, Au, and Re/normal ($H_2O$) and heavy water ($D_2O$) solution interfaces. The Frumkin, Langmuir, and Temkin adsorption isotherms of intermediates (OPD H, OPD D, etc.) for sequential reactions (HER, DER, etc.) at electrode/solution interfaces are determined using the phase-shift method and correlation constants, which have been suggested and developed by Chun et al. The basic procedure of the phase-shift method, the Frumkin, Langmuir, and Temkin adsorption isotherms of OPD H and OPD D and related electrode kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, i.e., the fractional surface coverage ($0{\leq}{\theta}{\leq}1$) vs. potential (E) behavior (${\theta}$ vs. E), equilibrium constant (K), interaction parameter (g), standard Gibbs energy (${\Delta}G_{\theta}{^{\circ}}$) of adsorption, and rate (r) of change of ${\Delta}G_{\theta}{^{\circ}}$ with ${\theta}$ ($0{\leq}{\theta}{\leq}1$), at the interfaces are briefly interpreted and summarized. The phase-shift method and correlation constants are useful and effective techniques to determine the Frumkin, Langmuir, and Temkin adsorption isotherms and related electrode kinetic and thermodynamic parameters (${\theta}$ vs. E, K, g, ${\Delta}G_{\theta}{^{\circ}}$, r) at electrode/solution interfaces.

      • KCI등재

        The tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib activates SHP-1 and induces apoptosis in triple-negative breast cancer cells

        Chun-Yu,Liu,Tzu-Ting,Huang,Pei-Yi,Chu,Chun-Teng,Huang,Chia-Han,Lee,Wan-Lun,Wang,Ka-Yi,Lau,Wen-Chun,Tsai,Tzu-I,Chao,Jung-Chen,Su,Ming-Huang,Chen,Chung-Wai,Shiau,Ling-Ming,Tseng,Kuen-Feng,Chen 생화학분자생물학회 2017 Experimental and molecular medicine Vol.49 No.-

        Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains difficult to treat and urgently needs new therapeutic options. Nintedanib, a multikinase inhibitor, has exhibited efficacy in early clinical trials for HER2-negative breast cancer. In this study, we examined a new molecular mechanism of nintedanib in TNBC. The results demonstrated that nintedanib enhanced TNBC cell apoptosis, which was accompanied by a reduction of p-STAT3 and its downstream proteins. STAT3 overexpression suppressed nintedanib-mediated apoptosis and further increased the activity of purified SHP-1 protein. Moreover, treatment with either a specific inhibitor of SHP-1 or SHP-1-targeted siRNA reduced the apoptotic effects of nintedanib, which validates the role of SHP-1 in nintedanib-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, nintedanib-induced apoptosis was attenuated in TNBC cells expressing SHP-1 mutants with constantly open conformations, suggesting that the autoinhibitory mechanism of SHP-1 attenuated the effects of nintedanib. Importantly, nintedanib significantly inhibited tumor growth via the SHP-1/p-STAT3 pathway. Clinically, SHP-1 levels were downregulated, whereas p-STAT3 was upregulated in tumor tissues, and SHP-1 transcripts were associated with improved disease-free survival in TNBC patients. Our findings revealed that nintedanib induces TNBC apoptosis by acting as a SHP-1 agonist, suggesting that targeting STAT3 by enhancing SHP-1 expression could be a viable therapeutic strategy against TNBC.

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