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The purpose this study was to estimate effects of EPOC and TG/fatty acid cycling on warm water immersion of immediately after exercise. To elucidate the role of fatty metabolism, a sequence of five experiments was performed. Seven physically active, male subjects volunteered to participate in the presented study. The mean values for age, body mass and hight were 25±1.52 yr, 79.2±9.52kg, 177.2±4.62cm, respectively. After giving consent, participant visited the laboratory on six occasion: 1) 30min of treadmill exercise VO2max 55% and a further 60min recovery, 2) 30min partial body warm water immersion in a 39℃ and a further 60min recovery, 3) 30min whole body warm water immersion in a 39℃ and a further 60min recovery, 4) 30min of treadmill exercise VO2mas 55% and in 30min partial body warm water immersion in a 39℃, 5) 30min of treadmill exercise VO2max 55% and in 30min whole body warm water immersion in a 39℃. When compared by recover period within repeat on the base of changes of subjects average body temperature, not effective interactions among repeat. However, partial and whole body warm water immersion immediately after exercise shows it as the best effective exercise for VO2max 55%, partial and whole body warm water immersion. When compared by recover period within repeat on the base of changes of subjects EPOC, effective interactions among repeat(p<.05). Partial and whole body warm water immersion immediately after exercise shows it as the best effective exercise for VO2mas 55%, partial and whole body warm water immersion. The catecholamines concentration was significantly higher partial and whole body warm water immersion than exercise of VO2max 55%(p<.05). The TG concentration and free fatty acid was significantly higher partial and whole body warm water immersion immediately after exercise than exercise of VO2max 55% than Partial and whole body warm water immersion(p<.05). Based on the facts that we have discussed above, human metabolism is increased by both exercise and conditions of immersion and partial and whole body warm water immersion immediately after exercise than exercise of VO2maw 55% shows it as better effective treatment for increasing TG/Fatty acid cycling activation. Due to extremely heavy stress complained by subjects during whole body immersion, it is thought that more researches on it should be required.
This paper proposed two Multi-statge Interconnection Network(MIN) that had multiple outlet to improve throughput. These proposed MINS were made of Clos MIN, well known Non-blocking MIN. These proposed MINs were called ECFS(Expanded Clos Switch Fabric) adn TCSF(Tandem Clos Switch Fabric). ECFS was consist of expanded number of switchs for multiple oulet. TCSF was consist of serial Clos MIN for multiple outlet. Performance evaluation of these proposed MINs was calculated arrival probability of packet through the MIN. In teh result, these proposed MINs with multiple outlet had higher throughput than existed MIN with single outlet. We know the fact that as the outlet of MIN increase, throughput of MIN increase.
The MAG₃ is a tubular excreting radiopharmaceutical for renal image.We synthe-sized benzoyl MAG₃ (Bz-MAG₃) and made a kit for labeling with Tc-99m. We checked the labeling effeciency of Tc-99m labeled MAG₃ and biodistribution. Labeling efficiency was checked by TLC- SG (acetonitrile/H₂O=2/1). After injecting of 1 mCi of Tc-99M-MAG3 to ICR-mice, Tmax(min), T1/2(min) were obtained in the renogram. Sequencial images (30sec, 2min, 5min, 10min, 15min, 20min) of TC-99m-MAG₃ were compared with those of commercial Tc-99m-DTPA (Du Pont Merck Pharmaceutical Co.) kit. 1) The Rf value of synthesized Tc-99m-MAG₃ was 0.78 and labeling efficiency was 97.5±1.9% (n=10). 2) The dynamic images of the Tc-99m-MAG₃ were better than those of the Tc-99m-DTPA. 3) The Tmax(min.) and T1/2(min.) of Tc-99m-MAG₃ (n=10) were 1.5±0.5 (left), 1.4±0.4(right), and 4.3±1.4 (left), 4.8±2.0 (right), respectivel. The Tmax(min.) and T1/2(min.) of Tc-99m-DTPA (n=7) were 2.7±1.6 (left), 2.7±1.6 right), and 3.8±1.7 (left), 4.5±2.7 (right), rly. The quaility of image and labeling efficiency of the synthesized Bz-MAG3 kit were excellent, that it was supposed to be used in routine clinical work.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of Cordyceps militaris on fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. Fifteen healthy male collegiate students(ingestion group, N=7; control group, N=8) participated as subjects after signing an informed consent following overnight, subjects completed maximal graded execise test on treadmill to determine exercise intensity(50%VO2max). To evaluate the fat oxidation using indirect calorimeter, it was performed submaximal treadmill to determine exercise lasting. 40min at 50%VO2max after 5day and consumed Cordyceps militaris on separate days. This study was used 2×4 two way repeated ANOVA to analyze physiological and metabolic variables between two groups and metabolic variables between two groups and four exercise periods(l0min, 20min, 30min 40min), and used Scheffe to post-hoc test. Significance was set at α=.05. The results of this study were as followed: First, there were significantly highest in ingestion group for V02, percentage of fat oxidetion(%fat), fat per kilocarolies(Fkcal), and total per kilocarolies(Tkcal)(p<.05), but respiratory exchange ration(RER) and heart rete(HR) were significantly lower in ingestion group(p<.05). Second, RER, %fat, Fkcal were significantly difference in 10, 20, 30, 40min of exercise period(p<.05). This results suggest that there is the effect of Cordyceps militaris on fat oxidation submaximal exercise. Additionally, to evaluate effect of Cordyceps militaris as ergogenic aid, it should be required the future study that included extend subjects, various dosage, and chronic consumption.
본 연구에서는 부영양화의 원인이 되는 질소와 인의 제거 효율을 향상시킬 목적으로 광물질을 활용한 여재를 이용하여 호기, 혐기의 흐름조건을 만들어주기 위한 수직·수평 흐름 인공습지를 고안하여 아크릴 반응조로 제작한 후 성능평가를 진행하였다. 수직·수평 흐름형 인공습지의 경우 호기 및 혐기조건을 평가하기 위해서 반응조 내 용존산소(DO) 농도를 측정해본 결과 호기상태에서는 2.7 ㎎/L, 혐기상태에서는 N.D로 확인되어 목적에 부합된 결과가 확인되었다. 실험결과에서는 SS 저감효과가 140 min, 80 min, 60 min의 운전시간에서 각각 94%, 91%, 61%의 효율을 보였고, T-P의 경우 각각의 운전시간에 따라 84%, 71%, 63%의 저감효율을 보였다. 또한 T-N의 경우 각각의 운전시간에 따라 63%, 49%, 42%의 저감효율을 보여 기존의 습지가 12~24 hr 체류시간을 가지는 것에 비하여 짧은 운전시간에도 높은 처리효율을 보이는 것으로 확인되었다. 본 연구에서는 수직·수평 흐름 방식을 복합 적용하여 기존 인공습지의 단점을 보완하기 위해 기술개발을 진행한 것으로 어떠한 기능적 효과를 갖는지 확인하였고, 향후 이에 대한 현장적용을 위한 운영 및 관리적 차원의 메커니즘 연구가 추가로 진행 될 필요가 있다. Nitrogen and phosphorus are key factors in causing eutrophication of water body. In this study, ceramics media was selected to increase the removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus. We designed vertical, horizontal flow constructed wetlands to create aerobic and anaerobic flow conditions by using the media, then proceeded to performance evaluations after acrylic reactors were produced. In the case of vertical and horizontal flow constructed wetlands, we measured oxygen concentrations to evaluate aerobic and anaerobic conditions. we got the result of 2.7 ㎎/L in the aerobic condition, N.D in the anaerobic condition respectively, which suited our purpose. The result of the combined vertical and horizontal flow condition showed that the removal efficiency of SS was 94%, 91%, 61% at 140 min, 80 min, 60 min of running times, respectively, and the removal efficiency of T-P was 84%, 71%, 63% during each running time. In case of T-N, the removal efficiency was 63%, 49%, 42% during each running time. We found that the reactor exerted better removal efficiency when in the short time compared to 12 - 24 hr residence time of existing wetlands. In this study, we conducted experiments to explore functional effects after applying combined vertical and horizontal flow methods in the field. Further study will be carried out to identify its mechanism and administrative perspective.
本 實驗은 casein miceile의 크기에 따른 각종 casein의 構成成分을 究明하고자 超遠心分離機를 利用하여 casein micelle을 크기 別로 分類하고 DEAE-cellulose column chromatography를 이용하여 각 casein의 構成比率을 조사하였다. 그 結果를 要約하면 다음과 같다. 1. 脫脂乳를 100,000×g에서 각각 30分, 60分, 90分동안, 200,000×g에서 60分동안 遠心分離하였을 때 沈澱되는 casein micelle 量은 45.00%, 61.43%, 80.00% 및 95.00%였으며 沈澱되지 않는 serum casein量은 55.00%, 38.57%, 20.00% 및 5.00%였다. 2. 脫脂乳를 100,000×g에서 時間 差에 따라서 遠心分離하였을 때 각각 沈澱되는 casein micelle量은 10分間에는 全 casein量의 23.13%, 11∼30分間에는 30.26%, 31∼60分間에는 28.11%였으며, 60分問의 遠心分離에 의해서 沈澱되지 않는 serum casein은 17.79%였다. 3. 時問 差로 遠心分離하여 얻어진 casein micelle중 각 casein의 構成比率을 測定한 結果, α_s-casein, β-casein, κ-casein 및 γ-casein의 상대적인 量은 100,000×g, 10分의 pellet에서 각각 54%, 29%, 11% 및 6%였고, 100,000×g, 11∼30分의 pellet에서는 각각 54%, 28%, 13% 및 5%였고, 100,000×g, 31∼60分의 pellet에서는 각각 51%, 28%, 16% 및 5%로 나타났으며, serum casein은 44%, 29%, 19% 및 8%로 각각 나타났다. This experiment was carried out to study on the protein composition of casein micelles. Three micellar casein pellets and a serum casein were isolated at diferent time of ultracen trifugation. And the composition of individual caseins for the fractions was determined by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The results are summarized as follows: 1. When skimmilk was centrifuged for 30 min, 60 min and 90 min at 100,000g and for 60 min at 200,000g, the values for the sedimented casein micelles were 45.00%, 61.43%, 80.00% and 95.00% respectively and that of serum casein was 55.00%, 38.57%, 20.00% and 5.00% respectively. 2. When skimmilk was centrifuged for different time at 100,000g, the values for the sedimented casein micelles were 23.18% for 10 min.(pellet 1), 30.26% from 11 to 30 min.(pellet 2), 28.11% from 31 to 60 min.(pellet 3) and that of serum casein which was not sedimented at 60 min was 17.79% of the total casin. 3. The relative amounts of α_s-, β-, k- and γ-caseins in casein micelles obtained after different time of centrifugation were 54%, 29%, 11% and 8% in pellet 1, 54%, 28%, 13% and 5% in pellet 2, 51%, 28%, 16% and 5% in pellet 3,44%, 29%, 19% and 8% in serum casein respectively.
Background: Use of antispasmodic medication prior to colonoscopy is controversial but someone believes antispasmodic may improve visualization of colonic mucosa and ease colonoscope insertion. So, we designed a study to assess the effect of premedication with the antispasmodic, hyoscine-N-butyl bromide(Buscopan') on the performance of colonoscopy. Methods: This study was prospective, double blinded, randomized, controlled study, One hundred three consecutive patients were randomized to receive intravenous buscopan lml(n=52) or placebo(n=51) combined with our standard initial medication(me- peridine 50 mg and midazolam 2 mg). Insertion of colonoscopy was timed, and 100 mm visual analogue scales (VAS) were used for asscssing difficulty of procedure, colonic motility, frequency of positional change, frequency of external compression, difficulty of assistance and degree of discomfort experienced by the patients. Results: There were no significant differences of intubation time between buscopan group(mean time, 7.23 min., range 2~15) and placebo group(7.07 min., range 3-25), (p=0.83) and withdrawal time between buscopan group (6.46 min., range 2-22) and placebo group(6.76 min., range 2 25), (p=0.69). Also, there was no significant differences in intubation time between males and females(buscopan; males 7.00 min., females 7.60 min., p=0.34, placebo; males 7.0~5 min., females 7.08 min., p 0.44). The VAS scores checked by endoscopist(p=0.29), assistant(p=0.32) and patient (p=0.15) were not significantly different in both groups. There were no significant differences in intubation time, VAS scores nf endoscopist, assistant, and patients. Conclusion: Premedication with intravenous bu.opan has no advantage on colonoscopy procedure. Use of antispasmodic medication prior to colonoscopy was not considered as recommendable agent.
배경: 기존의 치료에 불응하고 예후가 불량한 자가면역질환 환자들에게 최근 고용량 면역억제 및 조혈모 세포이식이 새로운 치료방법으로 대두되고 있다. 저자들은 다발성 경화증(multiple sclerosis, MS) 및 류마티스 관절염(rheumatoid arthritis, RA) 등 2명의 자가면역질환 환자들에서 자가조혈모세포 이식을 시행하였다. 방법: 말초혈액 조혈모세포 가동화를 위하여 cyclophosphamide (4 g/㎡) 및 granulocyte colony stimulating factor (10 g/kg/day)를 투여하였고, CD34+ 세포를 분리·채집 하였다, 이식 전처치로 MS 환자에서 BEAM 및 antihymocyte globulin (ATG) (3.75 mg/kg), RA 환자에서 fludarabine (180 mg/㎡), ATG (10 mg/kg)와 busulfan (8 mg/kg)을 투여하였다. 결과: 호중구 수가 500/㎕ 이상으로 회복되는 기간은 MS 환자에서 9일, RA 환자에서 15일이었다. 혈소판이 20.000/㎕ 이상으로 회복되는 가간은 RA 환자에서 9일 이었고, MS 환자에서는 혈소판 감소증이 발생하지 않았다. 비혈액학적 독성으로 MS 환자에서 WHO 1도의 오심 및 점막염이 관찰되었다. MS 환자는 이식 6개월 후까지 시력감소가 남아있었으나, 이식전에 관찰되던 감각이상 및 운동장애 등의 신경학적 이상 소견은 더 이상 관찰되지 않았다. RA 환자는 이식 1개월 후 관절 증상 및 검사소견의 호전을 보였다. 결론: 불응성 자가면역질환 환자에서 고용량 면역억제 및 조혈모세포이식은 적은 독성으로 높은 치료효과를 기대할수 있으며, 향후 이 시술의 임상적 의의를 규명하기 위하여 전향적이고 장기적인 연구가 필요할 것으로 사료된다. Background: High-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hemathpoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been proposed as a new approach to treat severe, refractory autoimmune diseases. We describe two patients with refractory autoimmune diseases (one multiple sclerosis 〔MS〕and one rheumatoid arthritis〔RA〕) who underwent T-cell-depleted autologous peripheral bleed stem cell transplantation for the first time in Korea. Methods: We mobilized autologous stem cells with cyclophisphamide (4 g/㎡) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (10 ㎍/kg/day). Stem cells were enriched ex vivo using CD34-positive immunoselection and reinfused after high-dose chemotherapy with BEAM and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (3.75 mg/kg) in MS, or fludarabine (180 mg/㎡), ATG (10 mg/kg) and busulfan (8 mg/kg) in RA. Results: The engraftment with an absolute nerutrophil count greater than 500㎕ occurred on day 9 in MS and 15 in RA, respectively. The time to nontransfused platelet count greater than 2.000/㎕ was 9 day in RA. MS patient did not show ant episode of thrombocytopenia. Regimen-related non-hematopoietic toxicity was minimal. For 6 months since HSCT, them patient with MS had been free from previously existed sensory and motor abnormalities except decreased visual acuity. Then patient with RA and only one tender joint and two mildly swollen joints with improvement in laboratory parameters at one month after HSCT. Conclusion: These results underscore the feasibility and potential efficacy of intensive immunosuppression followed by autologous HSCT for treatment of intractable autoimmune diseases. The durability of remission, however, remains to be clarified.
The present study investigated the effects that different types of forging exert on the deformation heterogeneities developedin AA1100 during multi-axial diagonal forging. To measure the deformation heterogeneities of deformed workpieces, thevalues for hardness and Kernel average misorientation were measured at the center section following each forging process. Type-D forging that consists of diagonal forging and return-diagonal forging was relatively advantageous compared withType-P forging that includes plane forging and return-plane forging for minimizing the non-uniformity of deformationdeveloped in workpieces. The effective strain developed in a workpiece during the 2 types of forging was simulated using3-D FEA. FEA revealed that the positions and degrees of occurrence for soft and hard-zones in workpieces vary greatlydepending on the forging type. Type-D forging was relatively advantageous compared with Type-P forging for minimizingthe non-uniformity of effective strain developed in workpieces.