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Since Ssu-ma Ch'ien eulogized Ch'u¨ Yu¨an as a great patriotic poet and his Li-Sao (Encountering Sorrow) as a song of"loyalty to his king and love to the people," from Wang Yi (Ch'u Tz'uˇ Chang Chu¨楚辭章句) to modern Chinese scholars (Ch'u Tz'uˇYen Chiu Lun Wen Chi 楚辭硏究論文集), most of the scholars have interpreted Li-Sao as a patriotic poem. But lately some scholars, such as Liao P'ing(Ch'u Tz'uˇ Chiang Yi 楚辭講義), Ho T'ian Hsing (Ch'u T'zu¨ Tzo Yu¨ Han Tai K'ao 楚辭作於漢代考), and Chu Tung Jun (Ch'u Ko and Ch'u Tz'uˇ 楚歌與楚辭, Writer of Li-Sao 離騷的作者, etc.), denying the existence of Ch'u¨ Yu¨an, contended that Li-Sao is a song of "fairy excursion."In this paper, I have examined the above mentioned two directions of interpretation of Li-Sao, and analogized it's character through the analysis of the text. For the convenience of quotation of the text, I gave numbers from 1 to 188 to every line (two phrase for one line) of Li-Sao. (2) In the text of Li-Sao, lines 17-20, 40-41, 44 and 188 directly express the poet's loyalty to his king or love to the people (or the country). But most of the general purport arrives at the despair and resentment to this world. Besides, on the lines 13-16, 19, 38-39, 53, 72-87, and 145-149, we can find a description of the conduct of great sages and tyrants. These also show that Li-Sao is a patriotic poem. On the other hand, in most of the text of Li-Sao the poet describes his visionary excursion to the fairyland and heaven. On lines 54-64, we find his desire of the long journey, and on lines 72-185, we find his three-time fairy excursions. Consequently, we can say that Li-Sao is a song of fairy excursion. (3) Of course there are far more lines which support Li-Sao as a patriotic poem or song of fairy excursion. But both of these two interpretations have a good many negative expressions in themselves. We find in them defects not sufficient to assert the character of the poem as such. So I analyzed the text various ways to obtain the clear character of it. As a result, I draw a deduction that this originated from an early shaman of Ch'u. In concluding the character of Li-Sao, most important factor is an interpretation of P'eng Hsien, which is stated in the last paragraph: "Since none is worthwhile to work with in making good government, I will go and join P'eng Hsien in the place where he abides.(旣莫足與爲美政兮, 吾將從彭咸之所居)" Wang Yi commented on P'eng Hsien as a "sage of Shang dynasty, who drowned himself because his king disregarded his advice," and the last line of Li-Sao has been taken as the poet's statement of his intention to drown himself. But it is clear that his explanation has no basis. As Ho T'ien-Hsing (at Ch'u Tz'uˇ Tzo Yi Han Tai K'ao) pointed out, it is very reasonable to explain P'eng Hsien as ancient shamans, Wu P'eng and Wu Hsien, shown in: Shang Hai Ching, and "to join P'eng Hsien" means rather the poet's, intention to devote himself to occult training as a shaman. At the beginning of Li-Sao, the poet described his family lineage because early shamans were handed down from father to son as a profession. And he introduced his name(字) as Ling Chun(靈均). When we think of Wang Yi's commentary "靈, 巫也" and other shaman's name Ling Hsiu, Ling Fen, and Ling Pao of the Ch'u Tz'uˇ, the name Ling Chu¨n bespeaks itself a name of a shaman. Before his first visionary excursion, the poet paid a visit to the spirit of Emperor Shun to get his advice, which means that Shun was one of the spirit enshrined by the poet shaman. This fact also, explains why Li-Sao has so many descriptions of loyalty to the Kingand love of the country. And most of the works of Ch'u Tz'uˇ, which recorded under the, name of Ch'u¨ Yu¨an and his student Sung Yu¨, such as Chiu-Ko, T`ian-Wen, Yuan-You, P'u-Chu¨, Chiu-Pian, Chao-Hun, and Ta-Chao preserve more obvious tinges of shaman than Li-Sao. Consequently, it might be maintained that Li-Sao is a early song of shaman, neither a patriotic poem nor a song of fairy excursion.
In order to make a systematic approach to the study of Kuei-tzu˘ music 龜玆樂, this paper is intended to investigate the outcomes of existing studies on Kuei-tzu˘ music by Korean and Chinese scholars from the 1950s to the present. Most outcomes have been studied by Chinese musicologists including P'an Huai-su 播?素, Ch'ang Jen-hsia 常任俠, Chou Chi 周吉, Ho Ch'ang-lin 何昌林, Ch'iu Ch'iung-lin 丘璟蓀, Li Ping 呂氷 and so on. Also included are such Korean scholars as An Hwak 安廓, Lee Hye-ku [Yi Hye-gu] 李惠求, Song Bang-song [Song Pang-song] 宋芳松, Cho˘n In-p'yo˘ng 全仁平 and Hong Chu-hu˘i 洪周希, and also such Japanese musicologists as Kishibe Shigeo 岸邊成雄 and Hayashi Kenzo― 林謙三. The outcomes of existing studies on Kuei-tzu˘ music can be divided into two groups in a broad sence : the first group is the outcomes related directly with Kuei-tzu˘ music, while the other group, the outcomes related indirectly with Kuei-tzu˘ music. This paper consists of three parts : Ⅰ. Introduction, Ⅱ. The Main Issue : 1. Studies on Kuei-tzu˘ Music : 1) Studies on Kuei-tzu˘ Music in Ancient Period; Modal Theory Called We-tan-ch'i-sheng 五旦七聲 by Su Chih-p'o 蘇祗婆, Historical Change of Musical Scale, Musical Instruments, and General Approach to Kuei-tzu˘ Music, 2) Relation between Ancient Kuei-tzu˘ Music and Current Makam, 2. Studies of Indirectly Related with Kuie-tzu˘ Music : 1) Outcomes by Cultural Approach, 2) Outcomes by Iconographic Materials, 3) General Survey, Ⅲ. Conclusion. In conclusion it is pointed out that the outcomes of existing studies on Kuei-tzu˘ music by Korean scholars are very poor in comparison with those by Japanese and Chinese scholars. Translations of studies on Kuei-tzu˘ music by Kishibe Shigeo and Hayashi Kenzo― made a contribution to the study of Kuei-tzu˘ Music in Korea. The author, therefore, emphasizes that it is necessary to translate works on Kuei-tzu˘ music by Chinese scholars into Korean.
<P><B>Motivation:</B> Genes are typically expressed in modular manners in biological processes. Recent studies reflect such features in analyzing gene expression patterns by directly scoring gene sets. Gene annotations have been used to define the gene sets, which have served to reveal specific biological themes from expression data. However, current annotations have limited analytical power, because they are classified by single categories providing only unary information for the gene sets.</P><P><B>Results:</B> Here we propose a method for discovering composite biological themes from expression data. We intersected two annotated gene sets from different categories of Gene Ontology (GO). We then scored the expression changes of all the single and intersected sets. In this way, we were able to uncover, for example, a gene set with the molecular function <I>F</I> and the cellular component <I>C</I> that showed significant expression change, while the changes in individual gene sets were not significant. We provided an exemplary analysis for HIV-1 immune response. In addition, we tested the method on 20 public datasets where we found many ‘filtered’ composite terms the number of which reached ∼34% (a strong criterion, 5% significance) of the number of significant unary terms on average. By using composite annotation, we can derive new and improved information about disease and biological processes from expression data.</P><P><B>Availability:</B> We provide a web application (ADGO: http://array.kobic.re.kr/ADGO) for the analysis of differentially expressed gene sets with composite GO annotations. The user can analyze Affymetrix and dual channel array (spotted cDNA and spotted oligo microarray) data for four species: human, mouse, rat and yeast.</P><P><B>Contact:</B> email@example.com</P><P><B>Supplementary information:</B> http://array.kobic.re.kr/ADGO</P>
1997년 4월부터 12월까지 진주산업대학교 학생실습포장에서 목화 10개 품종을 이면교배하여 얻은 F_1, F_2 45개 조합을 재료로 하여 생육 형질의 조합능력을 분석한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 조합능력의 분산량은 GCA 및 SCA는 전형질에서 유의하여 조합능력은 상가적, 비상가적 효과가 함께 작용하였으나 형질에 따라 차이가 있었다. 2. GCA의 효과는 개화일수 및 개서일수에서는 세대에 관계없이 순천과 서산이 부의 효과를 주당개화수는 제주가 세대에 관계없이 높은 정의 효과를 나타내었다. 초장에서는 Jackson, Ouall, Stonevil 및 임성이 세대에 관계없이 정의 효과를 나타내었으며, 결과지수는 Stonevill 및 순천이 세대에 관계없이 정의 효과를 나타내었다. 삭장 및 삭폭은 세대에 관계없이 Tancot와 임성이 정의 효과를 나타내었으며, 주당전경중 및 근중은 제주에서 높은 정의 효과를 나타내었다. 3. SCA효과에서는 개화일수에서 F_1은 Tamcot×승주, F_세대에서는 Jackson×순천 조합과 개서일수에서는 F_1은 Ouall×Tamcot, F_2세대에서는 임성×순천 조합에서 높게 평가되었다. 주당개화수에서는 F_1은 승주×무안, F_2는 임성×순천조합에서 정으로 높게 평가되었다. 초장에서는 F_1은 제주×무안, F_2에서는 제주×순천 조합과, 절간장에서는 F_1은 제주×임성, F_2에서는 제주×Tamcot 조합에서 부로 평가되었다. 식장에서는 F_1은 제주×Stoneville 조합과 F_2에서는 서산×Jackson의 조합에서 정으로 평가되었다. 주당전경중에서 F_1은 제주×Stonevill 조합과 F_2에서는 서산×Stonevill 조합과, 근중에서는 양세대 공히 승주×Stonevill 조합에서 정으로 높게 평가되었다. For this study, 45 combinations of F_1 and F_2 generations were bred from 10 varieties of cotton through diallel cross during the period from April to December, 1997. The combining abilities of their growth character were analyzed with the following results: 1. In the variance of combining ability, GCA and SCA were significant in all the characters. Both the additive effect and the non-additive effect were shown in the combining ability, but the difference between characters was significant. 2. In the effect analysis of GCA, 'Soonchun' and 'Seosan' showed a negative effect in days to flowering and days to maturity, regardless of generations. In plant height, 'Jackson', 'Quall', 'Stoneville' and 'Imsung' showed a positive effect, regardless of generations. The number of fruiting branches showed a positive effect in 'Stoneville' and 'Soonchun'. Boll length and boll width showed a positive effect in 'Tamcot' and 'Imsung'. Total weight per plant and root weight showed a highly positive effect in 'Cheju'. 3. In SCA effect, days to flowering showed a highly negative effect in F_1 of 'Tamcot×Seungju' and F_2 of 'Jackson×Soonchun' combination; days to maturity, in F_1 of 'Quall×Tamcot' and F_2 of 'Imsung×Tamcot'; number of flowering per plant showed a highly positive effect in F_1 of 'Seungju×Muan' and F_2 of 'Imsung×Soonchun'; a negative effect was shown in plant height of F_1 of 'Cheju×Muan' and F_2 of 'Cheju×Soonchun', and in internode length of F_1 of 'Cheju×Imsung' and F_2 of 'Cheju×Tamcot'; boll length showed a positive effect in F_1 of 'Cheju×Stoneville' and F_2 of 'Seosan×Jackson'; a highly positive effect was shown in total weight per plant of F_1 of 'Cheju×Stoneville' and F_2 of 'Seosan×Stoneville', and in root weight of both generations of 'Seungu×Stoneville'.
In Korea, cultural institutions and activities are entered in Seoul. As a natural consequence it follws that provincial cultural characteristics disappeared, moreover. it subordinate local culture to Seoul. To correct this cultural subor dination, this author presents some methods as follows. 1. An adequate spece for provincial cultural activities should be established. 2. The space should be managed with consistant and deliberate plans. 3. Cultural activities should be planned and administered by specialists in art administration. 4. Provincial cultural characteristics should be excavated and cultivated 5. The local tours of the special preforming companies, such as opera, drama, ballet and orchastra companies. should planned and administeried under the goverment subsides. 6. Provincial cultural spaces should be opened to students at least once a week. 7. students should be permitted to make their own stages.
Prevertebral soft tissue swelling of cervical spine lateral radiogram is well known as an indirect evidence of occult cervical spine injury. But the clinical and statistical value of it has been of debate. We tried to analyse the value of cervical prevertebral soft tissue width as a screening test for cervical spine injury by comparison of two categorized study groups; the control group, traumatized patients without cervical spine injury and the injury and the injury group, traumatized patients with bony cervical injury. The injury group consisted of patients admitted between September 1993 and December 1994 with an ED diagnosis of bony cervical injury. The control group consisted of patients admitted between January 1994 and June 1994 who received cervical spine lateral radiograph because of suspicion of cervical spine injury or as a routine check. In both group, we sampled the patients who received cervical spine lateral rediograph within 24 hours after injury and excluded the patients less than 15 years old and more than 65 years old, In the control group, we confirmed the patients had no problem in cervical spine of follow-up. 101 control patients and 68 injury patients were identified. The injury group was further divided into two subgroups: those with injuries at C1-C3 to the upper injury subgroup and those with injuries at C4-C7 to the lower injury sub group. The prevertebral soft tissue widths of injury group were larger than of control group at C2(mean 6.1mm versus 4.5mm) and also at C6(mean 13.4mm versus 11.2mm). Especially upper injury subgroup had quite large value of C2 prevertebral soft tissue width(mean 14.1mm). Nevertheless, both in C2 and C6, there is no cutoff value with acceptable sensitivity and specificity as a screening test. But the 7mm at C2 and 14mm at C6 had high specificity(90%) and were thought to be a good radiologic indicators of further evaluation.