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Purpose: Persistent pain is a common side effect of breast cancer treatment. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence, associated treatment-related factors, and the type of pain (neuropathic or nociceptive) in patients who had undergone a unilateral mastectomy. Methods: All women who underwent a unilateral mastectomy at a University Hospital between 2009 and 2013 were eligible for inclusion. Women with breast reconstruction or active cancer were excluded. Participants were mailed a questionnaire evaluating the prevalence, location, intensity, and frequency of surgical site pain. Additionally, the painDETECT ®, a validated instrument to evaluate neuropathic pain, was mailed to all participants. Results: A total of 305 women were included, and of them, 261 (85.6%) completed the study questionnaire. After a median follow-up period of 3.0 years, 100 women (38.3%) reported experiencing pain at the surgical site. Body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, radiation therapy, and axillary lymph node dissection were significantly associated with persistent pain in univariate models. However, only body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 was independently associated with persistent pain (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.27; p=0.034) in a multivariate analysis. Of the patients reporting pain, 71.0% were unlikely to have a neuropathic pain component. A moderate, but highly significant, positive correlation was observed between the pain intensity and the painDETECT® score (rs=0.47, p<0.001). Conclusion: Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment continues to have a high prevalence. Our results indicate that the largest proportion of patients experiencing persistent pain after breast cancer treatment do not have a clear neuropathic pain component.
The placement of the complete baseband processing in a centralized pool results in high data rate requirement and inflexibility of the fronthaul network, which challenges the energy and cost effectiveness of the cloud radio access network (C-RAN). Recently, redesign of the C-RAN through functional split in the baseband processing chain has been proposed to overcome these challenges. This paper evaluates, by mathematical and simulation methods, different splits with respect to network level energy and cost efficiency having in the mind the expected quality of service. The proposed mathematical model quantifies the multiplexing gains and the trade-offs between centralization and decentralization concerning the cost of the pool, fronthaul network capacity and resource utilization. The event-based simulation captures the influence of the traffic load dynamics and traffic type variation on designing an efficient fronthaul network. Based on the obtained results, we derive a principle for fronthaul dimensioning based on the traffic profile. This principle allows for efficient radio access network with respect to multiplexing gains while achieving the expected users' quality of service.
( Andrew S. Levey ), ( Kai-uwe Eckardt ), ( Nijsje M. Dorman ), ( Stacy L. Christiansen ), ( Michael Cheung ), ( Michel Jadoul ), ( Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer ) 대한신장학회 2020 Kidney Research and Clinical Practice Vol.39 No.2
The placement of the complete baseband processing in acentralized pool results in high data rate requirement and inflexibilityof the fronthaul network, which challenges the energy andcost effectiveness of the cloud radio access network (C-RAN). Recently,redesign of the C-RAN through functional split in thebaseband processing chain has been proposed to overcome thesechallenges. This paper evaluates, by mathematical and simulationmethods, different splits with respect to network level energy andcost efficiency having in the mind the expected quality of service. The proposed mathematical model quantifies the multiplexinggains and the trade-offs between centralization and decentralizationconcerning the cost of the pool, fronthaul network capacityand resource utilization. The event-based simulation captures theinfluence of the traffic load dynamics and traffic type variation ondesigning an efficient fronthaul network. Based on the obtained results, we derive a principle for fronthauldimensioning based on the traffic profile. This principle allows forefficient radio access network with respect to multiplexing gainswhile achieving the expected users' quality of service.
Christoph-Alexander,J.,von,Klot,Axel,S.,Merseburger,Alena,Böker,Sebastian,Schmuck,Tobias,L.,Ross,Frank,M.,Bengel,Markus,A.,Kuczyk,Christoph,Henkenberens,Hans,Christiansen,Hans-Jürgen,Wester,Wiebke,Sol 대한핵의학회 2017 핵의학 분자영상 Vol.51 No.4
Purpose 68Ga-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has shown promising results in patients with biochemical recurrence after primary therapy for prostate cancer. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of PSMA I&T (imaging and therapy) PET/CT prior to radical prostatectomy. Methods The study population consisted of 21 patients with prostate cancer who underwent 68Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT before either open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Intraprostatic tumor extent, extracapsular extension (ECE) and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) were assessed on the PET/CT scans. Tracer uptake was quantified in terms of standardized uptake values (SUVs). Imaging findings were correlated with final whole-gland histopathology. Results Of the 21 patients, two had T stage 2b disease, nine stage 2c, six stage 3a and four stage 3b. The median Gleason score was 7. The SUVmean of the primary tumors was 9.5 ± 8.8. SUVmean was higher in tumors with ECE than in organconfined tumors (13.8 ± 11.0 vs. 5.6 ± 3.2, p = 0.029). Peak tracer uptake was significantly positively correlated with Gleason score (rs = 0.49, p = 0.025). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were, respectively, 94.7%, 75.0%, 97.3% and 60.0% for tumor infiltration of an individual prostate lobe, 75.0%, 100.0%, 100.0% and 97.4% for SVI, and 90.0%, 90.9%, 90.0% and 90.9% for ECE, using an angulated contour of the prostate as the criterion. Tumor volume derived from 68Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT was significantly correlated with preoperative prostate-specific antigen value (rp = 0.75, p < 0.001) and tumor volume on histopathology (rp = 0.45, p = 0.039). Conclusions 68Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT prior to radical prostatectomy can contribute to presurgical local staging of prostate cancer. In this pilot study, 68Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT showed promising results for prediction of lobe infiltration, ECE and SVI.
Y.,K.,Lee,I.,G.,Bearden,D.,Beavis,C.,Besliu,Y.,Blyakhman,J.,Brzychczyk,B.,Budick,H.,Bggild,C.,Chasman,C.,H.,Christensen,P.,Christiansen,J.,Cibor,R.,Debbe,E.,Enger,J.,J.,Gaardhje,K.,Grotowski,K.,Hagel 한국물리학회 2003 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.43 No.I
The BRAHMS probes the hot and dense nuclear matter at the RHIC which has reached its design energy of psNN = 200 GeV for Au + Au collisions. The BRAHMS uses magnetic spectrometers for hadrons covering a large phase space 0 < y < 4 with good particle identification and momentum resolution. A comprehensive investigation of multiplicity distributions of emitted charged particles is carried out. Ratios of yields of antiparticles to particles are also measured as a function of rapidity. Rapidity dependent net-proton yield indicates that substantial transparency has been achieved in these collisions. Transverse momentum spectra of charged hadrons are measured up to 5 GeV/c which indicates a significant medium eect when compared to nucleon + nucleon reference spectra.