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The 19th century in Europe was a century of radical social and economic transformation due to the process of industrialization. This process of industrialization provided the framework for the improvement of communication technologies which allowed the creation of national and now even transnational organizations in all kinds of different fields, for example in economy, in science (the creation of the so called "epistemic communities" as international science communities started in that time) and also religious institutions. Social change and industrialization did not stop to have influence on the Christian community as well. The developing internationalism and the further going globalization were facts the church had to deal with. While the catholic church already was a "global player" as a result of the far-spreading catholic belief through the kings and emperors after the Christianization of the Roman Empire and throughout the Middle Age, the "newly founded" protestant denominations, especially in the "New World" of America, still were splitted and divided on a regional level.<br/> During the process of the colonization of Africa in the 19th century, the missionaries of the protestant denominations were also on "the field" to bring the Africans the word of God and to baptise them. The missionaries, all deriving from different protestant denominations, soon felt the need to organize their work in international organizations and networks.<br/> This essay wants to outline the development of the creation of the "religious" internationalism by showing how religious networks like the YMCA (young men's christian association, founded by John R. Mott) were organized on an international level and, seemingly parallel to this development, how the idea of ecumenism evolved in this process of Christian unification.<br/> By approaching a way of dialogue instead of confrontation, the way for the ecumenical movement between the roman catholic church and the protestant denominations, as it still lasts until today, was slowly to be paved.<br/> The paper clearly shows the interesting coincidence between the internationalism of secular affairs, for example as it can be seen by the means of standardization of global measures in Paris and its religious connotation. The religious internationalism with its elements of interkonfessionalism and transnationalism is to be seen in continuity to the general tendencies of a changing world in the 19th century.
Heritage sites and their management remain an issue in Nigeria in general, and in South-eastern Nigeria in particular. These stem largely from the spate of wanton destruction of cultural heritage in Igboland, Eastern Nigeria by some Christian fundamentalists. Otobo Ugwu Dunoka Lejja, South-eastern Nigeria, is an open public square which serves as the traditional parliamentary, judicial and ritual square for the thirty-three villages in the Lejja community. It was also an iron smelting site and has the highest concentration of iron slag blocks in sub-Saharan Africa. Divided into four sections by rows of iron slag blocks, the square is full of monuments connected with iron smelting and community history. These monuments are linked to the rules and ethical values which form the intangible cultural heritage associated with iron smelting in the community. The approach in this study is multi- and interdisciplinary, as recourse is made to sociology, ethno-history, political economy, anthropology and the interface between these complementary disciplines. Based on extensive field work in the community, the researchers interrogate the meaning and essence of some of the values attached to the square and the monuments therein. These traditional values could help address the problems created by iconoclasts who pride themselves on destroying cultural heritage in Igboland, ostensibly in the name of Christianity.
Christian,Albert,Michael,Haase,Annemarie,Albert,Siegfried,Kropf,Rinaldo,Bellomo,Sabine,Westphal,Mark,Westerman,Rüdiger,Christian,Braun-Dullaeus,Anja,Haase-Fielitz 대한진단검사의학회 2020 Annals of Laboratory Medicine Vol.40 No.2
Background: The ability of urinary biomarkers to complement established clinical risk prediction models for postoperative adverse kidney events is unclear. We assessed the effect of urinary biomarkers linked to suspected pathogenesis of cardiac surgery-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) on the performance of the Cleveland Score, a risk assessment model for postoperative adverse kidney events. Methods: This pilot study included 100 patients who underwent open-heart surgery. We determined improvements to the Cleveland Score when adding urinary biomarkers measured using clinical laboratory platforms (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], interleukin-6) and those in the preclinical stage (hepcidin-25, midkine, alpha-1 microglobulin), all sampled immediately post-surgery. The primary endpoint was major adverse kidney events (MAKE), and the secondary endpoint was AKI. We performed ROC curve analysis, assessed baseline model performance (odds ratios [OR], 95% CI), and carried out statistical reclassification analyses to assess model improvement. Results: NGAL (OR [95% CI] per 20 concentration-units wherever applicable): (1.07 [1.01–1.14]), Interleukin-6 (1.51 [1.01–2.26]), midkine (1.01 [1.00–1.02]), 1-hepcidin-25 (1.08 [1.00–1.17]), and NGAL/hepcidin-ratio (2.91 [1.30–6.49]) were independent predictors of MAKE and AKI (1.38 [1.03–1.85], 1.08 [1.01–1.15], 1.01 [1.00–1.02], 1.09 [1.01–1.18], and 3.45 [1.54–7.72]). Category-free net reclassification improvement identified interleukin-6 as a model-improving biomarker for MAKE and NGAL for AKI. However, only NGAL/hepcidin-25 improved model performance for event- and event-free patients for MAKE and AKI. Conclusions: NGAL and interleukin-6 measured immediately post cardiac surgery may complement the Cleveland Score. The com
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in hospitalized patients, which continues to pose a clinical challenge for treating physicians. The most recent Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes practice guidelines for AKI have restated the importance of earliest possible detection of AKI and adjusting treatment accordingly. Since the emergence of initial studies examining the use of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and cycle arrest biomarkers, tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP7), for early diagnosis of AKI, a vast number of studies have investigated the accuracy and additional clinical benefits of these biomarkers. As proposed by the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative, new AKI diagnostic criteria should equally utilize glomerular function and tubular injury markers for AKI diagnosis. In addition to refining our capabilities in kidney risk prediction with kidney injury biomarkers, structural disorder phenotypes referred to as “preclinical-” and “subclinical AKI” have been described and are increasingly recognized. Additionally, positive biomarker test findings were found to provide prognostic information regardless of an acute decline in renal function (positive serum creatinine criteria). We summarize and discuss the recent findings focusing on two of the most promising and clinically available kidney injury biomarkers, NGAL and cell cycle arrest markers, in the context of AKI phenotypes. Finally, we draw conclusions regarding the clinical implications for kidney risk prediction.
In Europe, the cabbage stem flea beetle (Psylliodes chrysocephala) is a specialized insect feeding on Brassicaceae plants. The plants use the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system, but P. chrysocephala can overcome this chemical defense by detoxification of the emerging ITCs by conjugation with glutathione (mercapturic acid pathway). In addition to known products of the mercapturic acid pathway, previously unreported metabolites were isolated, and their structures were elucidated by means of high resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-ESITOFMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The products found may represent general detoxification products of the mercapturic acid pathway.
In this article I examine changes in the election manifestos of Japan's Liberal Democratic Party. While the existing literature agrees that the LDP's policy platform has changed considerably since the introduction of the new election system in the 1990s, their analysis focuses on material policies such as pork barrel and welfare. Postmaterialist policies such as environmental protection have hardly been discussed, even though they have been relevant since pollution swept progressive mayors into power in the 1960s. I examine election platforms from 1956 through 2013, and argue that the LDP has carefully adjusted its policy mix by putting a greater emphasis on postmaterialist policies. My analysis also shows that while electoral reform has had an impact on the policy balance between postmaterialist and materialist policies as well as clientelist and programmatic policies, these changes are not linear, but vary from decade to decade.