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      • KCI등재후보

        From Yalta to Malta

        CHOWDHURY, G.W. THE INSTITUTE OF EAST AND WEST STUDIES YONSEI UNIV 1990 Global economic review Vol.19 No.1

        Profound, if not revolutionary changes, are taking place in the East-West relationship; these earth-shaking changes in global politics have taken almost everybody by surprise, mostly pleasantly but they have also caused unknown fears and uncertainty: what will be the shape of Europe from the Urals to Atlanta; what will be the fate of military alliances like NATO and the WARSAW Pact; whether there will be a genuine detente between the two super powers; what will be the impact of super power detente on the Asia-Pacific region and the Third World countries-these and similar questions have been agitating in the minds of political leaders, intellectuals, scholars and students of international affairs as well as the public in general. There can be little doubt that since 1985 the United States and the Soviet Union have been pursuing an entirely new and dynamic phase of relationship. Arms-control negotiation, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force Treaty(INF)and the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) and far- reaching negotiations in Vienna on reduction of conventional foces in Europe have become the centerpiece of East- West relations.

      • Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Comparison of Japanese and Indian Cases

        Chowdhury, Chitta Ranjan,Kirita, Tadaaki,Jose, Maji,Abdullah, Riaz Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2012 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.13 No.7

        A comparative study between 17 Japanese and 19 Indian patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) revealed that the tumour prognostic indicator mean vessel density (MVD) count for angiogenesis was relatively high at 57.1 in Indian as compared to 39.3 in Japanese (P=0.001) cases, whereas the lymph-vessel density (LVD) count for lymphangiogenesis was lower (12.8 vs 48.0, P=0.002). Both male and female Indians had higher MVD counts, but LVD counts were only slightly lower in females. MVD count was relatively high among the cases below 65 years old in both the countries (P=0.4). Japanese cases with Tongue cancer had higher MVD count, but the Indian cases had lower LVD counts. Size-wise, T2 and T3 had higher counts of MVD both in Indian and Japanese cases. MVD and LVD count was higher in grades II and III both in Japanese and Indian cases. There was insignificant difference of the MVD counts among smokers, but the tobacco chewers in Indian cases had higher counts of MVD and LVD (P value by Bartlett test 0.35, 0.57 respectively). The hot-spots of tumour sites had variable rates of lymphocyte infiltration showed higher MVD counts in all the cases. Although the clinical characteristics and demographic variables usually relate to MVD and LVD counts, the tendency of higher values, especially among tobacco chewers, identified as the highest risk group for occurrence of oral cancer needs to be investigated further.

      • Feasibility Study of Case-Finding for Breast Cancer by Community Health Workers in Rural Bangladesh

        Chowdhury, Touhidul Imran,Love, Richard Reed,Chowdhury, Mohammad Touhidul Imran,Artif, Abu Saeem,Ahsan, Hasib,Mamun, Anwarul,Khanam, Tahmina,Woods, James,Salim, Reza Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.17

        Background: Mortality from breast cancer is high in low- and middle-income countries, in part because most patients have advanced stage disease when first diagnosed. Case-finding may be one approach to changing this situation. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot study to explore the feasibility of population-based case finding for breast cancer by community health workers (CHWs) using different data collection methods and approaches to management of women found to have breast abnormalities. After training 8 CHWs in breast problem recognition, manual paper data collection and operation of a cell-phone software platform for reporting demographic, history and physical finding information, these CHWs visited 3150 women >age 18 and over they could find-- from 2356 households in 8 villages in rural Bangladesh. By 4 random assignments of villages, data were collected manually (Group 1), or with the cell-phone program alone (Group 2) or with management algorithms (Groups 3 and 4), and women adjudged to have a serious breast problem were shown a motivational video (Group 3), or navigated/accompanied to a breast problem center for evaluation (Group 4). Results: Only three visited women refused evaluation. The manual data acquisition group (1) had missing data in 80% of cases, and took an average of 5 minutes longer to acquire, versus no missing data in the cell phone-reporting groups (2,3 and 4). One woman was identified with stage III breast cancer, and was appropriately treated. Conclusions: Among very poor rural Bangladeshi women, there was very limited reluctance to undergo breast evaluation. The estimated rarity of clinical breast cancer is supported by these population-based findings. The feasibility and efficient use of mobile technology in this setting is supported. Successor studies may most appropriately be trials focusing on improving the suggested benefits of motivation and navigation, on increasing the numbers of cases found, and on stage of disease at diagnosis as the primary endpoint.

      • TP53 Codon 72 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk in the Bangladeshi Population

        Chowdhury, Miraj Kobad,Moniruzzaman, Md,Al Emran, Abdullah,Mostafa, Mohammad Golam,Kuddus, Ruhul H,Uddin, M Aftab Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2015 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.16 No.8

        Objective: To assess associations between codon 72 polymorphisms (Pro or B and Arg or b alleles) of the TP53 gene and lung cancer risk among Bangladeshis. Materials and Methods: The distribution of the BB, Bb, and bb genotypes and the frequencies of the B and b alleles were determined by PCR-RFLP method using DNA extracted from leucocytes of 50 confirmed lung cancer patients and 50 age-matched controls and the data were analysed. Results: The ratio of BB, Bb, and bb genotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the male patients (${\chi}2=4.6$). The B allele is overrepresented among all patients (OR=2.0, p=0.02) and the female patients (OR=4.1, $p{\leq}0.01$) compared to the controls. The BB/bb ratio was also higher among the patients (OR=3.0, p=0.03). The relative risk of cancer for having BB over bb genotype was 1.8 (p=0.04) but no effect was observed for the Bb genotype. The B allele was overrepresented among patients with adenocarcinomas (OR=2.4, $p{\leq}0.01$) and squamous cell carcinomas (OR=2.7, $p{\leq}0.01$) over the controls but the difference was not significant for those with small cell lung carcinomas (OR=1.1, p=0.66). The B allele was overrepresented among patients age 50 or younger (OR=2.7, $p{\leq}0.01$), but not for older patients (OR=1.7, p=0.07), and among smokers compared to the controls (OR=1.8-10.0, $p{\leq}0.01-0.03$). However, no correlation between increasing pack-years and lung cancer was observed. Conclusions: The Pro/Pro (BB) genotype and the B allele are risk factors for lung cancer among Bangladeshis, particularly for people under age 50, women and smokers.

      • KCI등재

        The Effect of Conventional Bank's Interest Rate & Islamic Bank's Profit Rate on Investment & Return: An Empirical Investigation in Bangladesh

        Chowdhury, Mohammad Ashraful Ferdous,Rahman, Syed Mohammad Khaled KNU The Institute of Management Economy Research 2014 Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Vol.5 No.1

        Since depositors are motivated by returns, it is important for Islamic banks management to understand the extent that rates of return on deposits influence their customers' decision to deposit. The main objective of the study is to explore the degree of influence of conventional bank's interest rate on Islamic bank's profitability and vice-versa. It has been seen from 2005 to 2011 that the rate of interest declared on deposit by conventional banks has a negative impact on profitability of both types of banks in Bangladesh. Rate of profit declared on deposit by Islamic banks is positively related with their profit earned but negatively related with profit earned by conventional banks. We see that rate of interest declared on deposit by Conventional Banks is positively related with their deposit volume but negatively related with Islamic Bank's deposit. On the other hand, rate of profit declared on deposit by Islamic Banks is negatively related with deposit levels of both types of banks. The survey result shows that almost 85% of the respondents are choosing Islamic banks only from their religious point of view and more than 60% of the sampled Islamic bank customers are reluctant to leave the bank even if conventional banks offer better interest rates.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Call Admission Control Based on Adaptive Bandwidth Allocation for Wireless Networks

        Chowdhury, Mostafa Zaman,Jang, Yeong Min,Haas, Zygmunt J. The Korea Institute of Information and Commucation 2013 Journal of communications and networks Vol.15 No.1

        Provisioning of quality of service (QoS) is a key issue in any multi-media system. However, in wireless systems, supporting QoS requirements of different traffic types is a more challenging problem due to the need to simultaneously minimize two performance metrics - the probability of dropping a handover call and the probability of blocking a new call. Since QoS requirements are not as stringent for non-real-time traffic, as opposed to real-time traffic, more calls can be accommodated by releasing some bandwidth from the already admitted non-real-time traffic calls. If the released bandwidth that is used to handle handover calls is larger than the released bandwidth that is used for new calls, then the resulting probability of dropping a handover call is smaller than the probability of blocking a new call. In this paper, we propose an efficient call admission control algorithm that relies on adaptive multi-level bandwidth-allocation scheme for non-realtime calls. The scheme allows reduction of the call dropping probability, along with an increase in the bandwidth utilization. The numerical results show that the proposed scheme is capable of attaining negligible handover call dropping probability without sacrificing bandwidth utilization.

      • KCI등재

        Update on the Effects of Sound Wave on Plants

        Chowdhury, Md. Emran Khan,Lim, Hyoun-Sub,Bae, Hanhong The Korean Society of Plant Pathology 2014 식물병연구 Vol.20 No.1

        Plant growth is considered the sum of cell proliferation and subsequent elongation of the cells. The continuous proliferation and elongation of plant cells are vital to the production of new organs, which have a significant impact on overall plant growth. Accordingly, the relationship between environmental stimuli, such as temperature, light, wind, and sound waves to plant growth is of great interest in studies of plant development. Sound waves can have negative or positive effects on plant growth. In this review paper we have summarized the relationship between sound waves and plant growth response. Sound waves with specific frequencies and intensities can have positive effects on various plant biological indices including seed germination, root elongation, plant height, callus growth, cell cycling, signaling transduction systems, enzymatic and hormonal activities, and gene expression.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재

        Distribution of Phlorotannins in the Brown Alga Ecklonia cava and Comparison of Pretreatments for Extraction

        Chowdhury, Muhammad Tanvir Hossain,Bangoura, Issa,Kang, Ji-Young,Park, Nam-Gyu,Ahn, Dong-Hyun,Hong, Yong-Ki The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Scienc 2011 Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol.14 No.3

        The brown seaweed Ecklonia cava is known to be a rich source of phlorotannins that have diverse biological activities. Among the phlorotannins in E. cava, concentrations of dieckol and phlorofucofuroeckol-A, which were identified as major active components, were determined in different parts of the tissue. We compared the efficacy of different pretreatments for their extraction. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to determine phlorotannin concentrations showed good accuracy (92.64 and 94.02%, respectively), precision (3.92 and 3.94%, respectively), and linearity (r>0.996). Mature thalli contained 1.5-fold more dieckol (1.82 mg/g-dry tissue) than young thalli. In the tissues of E. cava, blade tissue contained more phlorotannins than the stipe or holdfast. Among differently dried thalli, approximately 90% or more dieckol and phlorofucofuroeckol-A were extracted from shadow-dried tissue as compared with lyophilized tissue. In sun-dried and oven-dried thalli, approximately 60% of the phlorotannins were extracted. Thalli washed with fresh water, boiled thalli, and steamed thalli showed reduced extraction of the compounds.

      • KCI등재

        Service Level Agreement for the QoS Guaranteed Mobile IPTV Services over Mobile WiMAX Networks

        Chowdhury, Mostafa Zaman,Trung, Bui Minh,Jang, Yeong-Min,Kim, Young-Il,Ryu, Won The Korea Institute of Information and Commucation 2011 韓國通信學會論文誌 Vol.36 No.4

        While mobile IPTV services are supported through the mobile WiMAX networks, there must need some guaranteed bandwidth for the IPTV services especially if IPTV and non-IPTV services are simultaneously supported by the mobile WiMAX networks. The quality of an IPTV service definitely depends on the allocated bandwidth for that channel. However, due to the high quality IPTV services and to support of huge non-IPTV traffic over mobile WiMAX networks, it is not possible to guarantee the sufficient amount of the limited mobile WiMAX bandwidth for the mobile IPTV services every time. A Service Level Agreement (SLA) between the mobile IPTV service provider and mobile WiMAX network operator to reserve sufficient bandwidth for the IPTV calls can increase the satisfaction level of the mobile IPTV users. In this paper, we propose a SLA negotiation procedure for mobile IPTV users over mobile WiMAX networks. The Bandwidth Broker controls the allocated bandwidth for IPTV and non-IPTV users. The proposed dynamically reserved bandwidth for the IPTV services increases the IPTV user's satisfaction level. The simulation results state that, our proposed scheme is able to provide better user satisfaction level for the IPTV users.

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Multicut high dimensional model representation for reliability analysis

        Chowdhury, Rajib,Rao, B.N. Techno-Press 2011 Structural Engineering and Mechanics, An Int'l Jou Vol.38 No.5

        This paper presents a novel method for predicting the failure probability of structural or mechanical systems subjected to random loads and material properties involving multiple design points. The method involves Multicut High Dimensional Model Representation (Multicut-HDMR) technique in conjunction with moving least squares to approximate the original implicit limit state/performance function with an explicit function. Depending on the order chosen sometimes truncated Cut-HDMR expansion is unable to approximate the original implicit limit state/performance function when multiple design points exist on the limit state/performance function or when the problem domain is large. Multicut-HDMR addresses this problem by using multiple reference points to improve accuracy of the approximate limit state/performance function. Numerical examples show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed approach in estimating the failure probability.

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