http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
The diagnostic requirements were suggested and explained regarding the systems of differentiation of symptoms and signs in the third year study of standardization and unification of the terms and conditions used for diagnosis in oriental medicine. The systems were as follows : - analyzing and differentiating of epidemic febrile disease - analyzing and differentiating in accordance with the Sasang constitution medicine based on four-type recognition - differentiation of disease according to pathological changes of Chong and Ren channels - standards for diagnosis of women's disease - standards for diagnosis of children's disease - standards for diagnosis of motor and sensor disturbance (-muscle. born, joint, etc.) - standards for diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disease - standards for diagnosis of five sense organ disease - standards for diagnosis of external disease The indivisual diagnosis pattern was arranged by the diagnostic requirements in the following order : another name, notion of diagnosis pattern, index of differentiation of symptoms and signs, the main point of diagnosis, analysis of diagnosis pattern, discrimination of diagnosis pattern, prognosis, a way of curing a disease, prescription, herbs in common use, disease appearing the diagnosis pattern, documents. The standards for diagnosis of each disease was arranged by the diagnostic requirements in the following order : another name, notion of disease, the main point of diagnosis, analyzing and differentiating of disease, analysis of disease, discrimination of disease, prognosis, a way of curing and prescription of disease, disease in western medicine appearing the disease in oriental medicine, documents.
Kim, Jong Hun,Baik, Seung Hee,Chun, Byung Chul,Song, Joon Young,Bae, In-Gyu,Kim, Hyo Youl,Kim, Dong-Min,Choi, Young Hwa,Choi, Won Suk,Jo, Yu Mi,Kwon, Hyun Hee,Jeong, Hye Won,Kim, Yeon-Sook,Kim, Jeong Elsevier 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Vol.74 No.-
<P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P><B>Objectives</B></P> <P>This study aimed to characterize the risk factors for mortality in adult patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) stratified by age groups, after implementation of the national immunization program of 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) for those aged ≥65 years in the Republic of Korea (ROK).</P> <P><B>Methods</B></P> <P>Clinical data and pneumococcal isolates from adult patients with IPD (≥18 years of age) were collected prospectively from 20 hospitals through the nationwide surveillance program from March 2013 to October 2015.</P> <P><B>Results</B></P> <P>A total of 319 patients with IPD were enrolled. Median age was 69 years. Overall in-hospital mortality was 34.2%: 17.1% in those aged 18–49 years, 23.7% in those aged 50–64 years, 33.0% in those aged 65–74 years, and 51.0% in those aged ≥75 years (<I>p<</I> 0.001). In particular, early death within 7days of hospitalization accounted for 60.6% (66/109). While old age (≥65 years), higher Pitt bacteremia score (≥4), and bacteremic pneumonia were independently associated with IPD mortality in all age groups, an additional mortality risk factor of immunocompromised status was identified for patients aged 50–64 years. PPSV23 serotypes accounted for 64.4% (122/189) of the pneumococcal isolates serotyped.</P> <P><B>Conclusions</B></P> <P>This study suggests that vaccine-type IPD continues to place a substantial burden on older adults in the ROK, necessitating an effective vaccination strategy for those at higher risk.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> National immunization of the elderly with the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) was implemented in Korea in 2013. </LI> <LI> Overall in-hospital mortality was 34.2% for adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and 51.0% for patients ≥75 years of age. </LI> <LI> Mortality risks were older age, higher bacteremia score, and immunocompromised status. </LI> <LI> An effective vaccination strategy for those at higher risk of IPD is needed. </LI> </UL> </P>
The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparison of production efficiency of oocytes and OPU (ovum pick‐up) derived embryos of Hanwoo with Holstein. The OPU session of each species (6 cows) was carried out from the Hanwoo (106 sessions) and Holstein (114 sessions) at intervals of 3 4 days (2 times per week) for 3 months. Cumulus‐oocyte‐complexes (COCs) retrieved were classified into 4 grades by the status of oocyte cytoplasm and cumulus cells. The COCs collected were matured in vitro in TCM‐199 supplemented with 10% FBS, 10 mg/ml FSH and 1 mg/ml estradiol‐ 17β in 5% CO2 and over 99% humidity for 24 h. After 24 h co‐incubation with post‐thaw sperm, the presumed zygotes were cultured in CR1aa medium with 4 mg/ml BSA for 3 days and then changed CR1aa medium with 10% of FBS for another 3 4 days. The Mean number of aspirated follicles and collected oocytes were not significantly different between Hanwoo and Holstein spacies (10.4±0.42 vs. 11.4±0.41 and 7.5±0.38 vs. 6.1±0.37 per session). But the collection rate of oocytes from aspirated follicles were significantly higher in Hanwoo (72.8%) than that in Holstein (53.6%) (p< 0.05). Furthermore, the average number of good quality oocytes (Grade I and II) was 5.9±0.28 and 4.1±0.27 (Mean±SD), and the cleavage rate and the development rate to blastocysts was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Hanwoo (40.0%) than Holstein (21.6%). The OPU derived embryos of Hanwoo were transferred 83 times into 52 recipients and then 42 calves were produced from 44 pregnancy recipients. In conclusion, the efficiency of OPU derived embryo was significantly different between Hanwoo and Holstein species. In vitro culture system for OPU derived embryo production should be optimized for industrialization and the improvement of livestock.
목적 : 혈액배양에서 Staphylococcus epidermidis가 분리될 경우 임상적 의의를 판정하기가 쉽지 않으나, 일반적으로 연속해서 분리된 균주가 동일한 유전형을 보이면 균혈증의 원인균일 가능성이 높다고 한다. 재료 및 방법 : 동일한 환자(12명)의 혈액에서 연속 분리된 S. epidermidis 각 2주씩을 대상으로 PFGE를 이용하여 유전형을 분석하여 동일 균주가 분리되는지 유무를 조사하고, 이를 항균제 내성양상 및 균주간의 분리일 간격과 비교하여 보았다. 결과 : 동일인에서 분리된 두 균주간의 PFGE 양상을 비교한 결과, 8명(66.6%)에서 분리된 균주는 동일한 PFGE 양상을 보였으나 4명(33.3%)에서는 서로 다른 양상을 보였다. PFGE 양상이 동일한 8명 중 7명에서는 항균제 내성양상도 동일하였으며, PFGE 양상이 서로 다른 4명에서는 항균제 내성양상도 서로 달랐다. 따라서 동일인에서 연속 분리된 균주에 대한 PFGE와 항균제 내성검사의 일치율은 91.7% (11/12)였다. PFGE 양상은 동일 환자에서 균이 분리된 시간 간격이 4일 이내 일 때 88.9%(8/9)에서 동일하였고, 분리일의 간격이 5일 이상일 때는 모두(3명)에서 서로 다른 PFGE 양상을 보였다. 결론 : 혈액에서 연속 분리된 S. epidermidis 균주의 PFGE 양상은 상당 수 환자에서 서로 달라, 동일 균종일지라도 오염의 가능성도 상당히 높음을 알 수 있었다. 연속 분리된 S. epidermidis 균주의 항균제 내성양상과 분리된 날짜 간격은 유전자형별 검사가 어려울 경우, 동일균주가 연속 분리되었는지 유무를 아는데 도움을 주리라 생각된다. Background : The significance of Staphylococcus epidermidis positive blood cultures is difficult to determine, but repeated isolation of the same organism with the same genotype is suggestive of true bacteremia. Materials and Methods : Two sequential isolates of S. epidermidis from blood cultures of the same twelve patients were genotyped by PFGE. The results were compared with those of antibiotyping and isolation time intervals between the two strains. Results : The two sequential strains from each patient had identical PFGE patterns in 66.6% (8 of 12) of the patients and two different types in 33.3% (4 of 12) of the patients. Antibiotypes of the two isolates from the same patient were different in all 4 patients whose isolates had different PFGE patterns, and they were the same in 7 of 8 patients whose isolates had identical PFGE patterns:the PFGE results were in agreement with the antibiotyping for 91.7% (11/12) of patients. The isolation time interval between the two strains was ≤4 days in 9 cases, 8 of which had identical PFGE patterns. In the 3 cases whose isolates had different PFGE patterns, the isolation time interval between the two strains was ≥5 days. Conclusion : These data showed that two consecutive isolates of S. epidermidis from blood cultures had different PFGE patterns in 33% of patients, suggesting a high prevalence of contamination. In the absence of genotyping measures, both antibiotype and isolation time interval can be alternative and useful tools for determining strain relatedness of sequential isolates of S. epidermidis from blood cultures.
In recently, much pesticides were used for control of agricultural and medical insects. The result of using pesticides were social problem because of environmental pollutions with pesticides in urban and farm village. The environmental pollutions were very serious. This experiment was conducted to eluciated of reduce to environmental pollution bring about using pesticides (organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, and insect growth regulators) for control of medical insects(house fly, Musca domestica L and mosquito, culex pipiens pallens copuillett) and carried out the method of pest control. And the result are summarized as follows. The Kyongbuk house fly strain treated with pyriproxyfen on third instar larvae were very high mortality and low emergence. When use it, at the same time, we can reduce degree of environ-mental pollution and house fly populations. Using of imidan was effective in Seoul and Chungnam house fly strains. In mosquito larvae, the efficacy of icon to chungbuk strain, propoxur to Chungnam and Chungbuk strain, imidan to Kyongbuk strain, fenthion to Chungnam strain were excellent. In result of spraying imidan and icon on adult mosquitoes, the efficacy of icon was excellent than imidan. In esterase electrophoresis, third instar larvae of Chungnam house fly strain fed on artificial diet mixed with pyriproxyfen LC50 were very high activity of -Est-αl in early stage(second day after third instar larvae fed on diet), and the activity of Est-αl was very strong in late stage(se-vents day after third instar larvae fed on diet). In Kyongbuk strain, -Est-αl and Est-αl were detected in early and late stage, and activities of and -Est-αl and Est-αl were detected almost equally in late stage. It was very characteristic in this experiment. Third instar larvae fed on diet mixed with pyriproxyfen LC95 were detected -Est-αl and Est-αl almost equally. It was believed moulting control in insects. In electrophoresis with head, thorax, abdomen of house fly adult, -Est-α2 -Est-αl, Est-αl, Est-α2, Est-α3 were detected in abdomen in susceptible strain and only -Est-αl, was net detected in thorax -Est-αl, was detected in head, thorax and abdomen of Chungbuk strain and -Est-αl was detected in head, -Est-α2 in thorax of same strain. Activities of chitinase in late instar larvae of house flies fed on artificial diet mixed with pyrip-roxyfen LC50 and LC95, in pyriproxyfen LC95, analysised low and high again with the lapse of time in Kyongbuk strain. This was believed that the activity of chitinase was became high just before emergence. The result of filter paper test with mosquitoes were very high index(265) of esterase activity in Chungnam strain among all mosquito strains. In this reason, we can suppose that used pyrip-roxyfen (IGR) in Chungnam area for control pest. In this reason, it was more reasonable made use of pyriproxyfen than other pesticide in Chungnam area.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on lipid peroxidation and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) levels in the hippocampus of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean control rats (ZLC) during the onset of diabetes. At 7 weeks of age, ZLC and ZDF rats were either placed on a stationary treadmill or made to run for 1 h/day for 5 consecutive days at 16∼22 m/min for 5 weeks. At 12 weeks of age, the ZDF rats had significantly higher blood glucose levels and body weight than the ZLC rats. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were significantly higher than those of the ZLC rats whereas SOD1 levels in the hippocampus of the ZDF rats were moderately decreased. Notably, treadmill exercise prevented the increase of blood glucose levels in ZDF rats. In addition, treadmill exercise significantly ameliorated changes in MDA and SOD1 levels in the hippocampus although SOD activity was not altered. These findings suggest that diabetes increases lipid peroxidation and decreases SOD1 levels, and treadmill exercise can mitigate diabetes-induced oxidative damage in the hippocampus.
Ⅰ) Purpose The purpose of this is efficiency study for two basic methods which are criteria of estabishing physical education's system, physical basic condition in order to secure physical activities. One of two methods which are criberia of securing physical education's system worldwidly is to consider the area of facilities per one, according to golden plan method in German, and the other is to consider the number of physical education's facilities which is needed to satisfy the demand of local physical populations by central council of physical recreation in England. Among these, I'll try to examine the method which is effectively more proper in Korea by events. Ⅱ) Method By dividing the whole nation into 14 administrative districts, 25 kinds of events studied, which is based on the data of administrative organ accounts the number of faclities in each district and the occupation rate of nation. After getting the everage of both, through relative comparing, comparative superior group of the number in the view of facilities and comparative superior group of the area in the view of facilites are divided. And by contrasting in game score of National Sports Meet for last 4 years according to districts, superior or inferior of game score among groups are given. Ⅲ) Results (1) As game score in comparative superior group of the area in the view of facilities is better, it occupys 72% of the searched events. On the other hand, comparative superior group of the number in the view of facilities occupys only 24% on the searched events. Therefore it shows that securing sufficient place for physical education by a large scale of facilities is necesary in order to improre national physical education and competition ability. (2) For the criteria of securing the physical education's facilities in district, golden plan method in German is more efficient for improving competition ability, C.C.P.R method in England is only the best alternative plan, when they have difficulty in securing the narrowing ground. (3) To put it concretely, some events including football, table tennis, wrestling, weight lifting, archery, bowling seems to be possible to use C.C.P.R method.
The anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis (MEMO) (Rubiaceae) were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. The effects of MEMO on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)induced responses in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were examined. MEMO potently inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E₂and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these results, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level, and of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α at the mRNA level, was also inhibited by MEMO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEMO inhibited the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with the prevention of degradation of the inhibitor κB (IκB), and subsequently with attenuated p65 protein in the nucleus. The anti-inflammatory effect of MEMO was examined in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema model. The antinociceptive effects of MEMO were assessed in mice using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and the hot-plate test. MEMO (100, 200㎎㎏^(-1) per day, p.o.) exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in these animal models. Taken together, the data demonstrate that MEMO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, inhibiting iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-α expression by down-regulating NF-κB binding activity.
This study inspected community concept, previous community activation studies and relationship between physical surrounding improvement and programs that is the most typical community activation method. Analyses of existing community activation method are as follows ; 1) Physical surrounding improvement to dress up space and expand facilities in recent situation 2) Method to use programs Physical surrounding improvement Method classifies applicable plan regard to community of exterior space in residence complex and application of space expansion, needed to communication behavior in residence complex in the present. Methods to use programs are to develope communality as leading community subject, whether the subject is anyone. It is true that the programs are taking a primary role in activating community. but programs will enlarge the role in mutual complementary relation with the surrounding improvement than independent in relation. In the end, it is propose that we can enhance not only to change better surrounding by programs and to activate programs by the surrounding improvement but also to make the best use of physical surrounding by programs application.
( Joon Young Kim ),( Myung Ho Jeong ),( Yong Woo Choi ),( Yong Keun Ahn ),( Shung Chull Chae ),( Seung Ho Hur ),( Taek Jong Hong ),( Young Jo Kim ),( In Whan Seong ),( In Ho Chae ),( Myeong Chan Cho ) 대한내과학회 2015 The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine Vol.30 No.6
Background/Aims: Data regarding the outcomes of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in nonagenarians are very limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the temporal trends and in-hospital outcomes of primary PCI in nonagenarian STEMI patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR) from November 2005 to January 2008, and from the Korea Working Group on Myocardial Infarction (KorMI) from February 2008 to May 2010. Results: During this period, the proportion of nonagenarians among STEMI patients more than doubled (0.59% in KAMIR vs. 1.35% in KorMI), and the rate of use of primary PCI also increased (from 62.5% in KAMIR to 81.0% in KorMI). We identified 84 eligible study patients for which the overall in-hospital mortality rate was 21.4% (25.0% in KAMIR vs. 20.3% in KorMI, p = 0.919). Multivariate analysis identified two independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, namely a final Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow < 3 (odds ratio [OR], 13.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2 to 59.0; p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock during hospitalization (OR, 6.7; 95% CI, 1.5 to 30.3; p = 0.013). Conclusions: The number of nonagenarian STEMI patients who have undergone primary PCI has increased. Although a final TIMI flow < 3 and cardiogenic shock are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality, primary PCI can be performed with a high success rate and an acceptable in-hospital mortality rate.