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      • Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor–related protein co-stimulation facilitates tumor regression by inducing IL-9–producing helper T cells

        Kim, Il-Kyu,Kim, Byung-Seok,Koh, Choong-Hyun,Seok, Jae-Won,Park, Jun-Seok,Shin, Kwang-Soo,Bae, Eun-Ah,Lee, Ga-Eun,Jeon, Hyewon,Cho, Jaebeom,Jung, Yujin,Han, Daehee,Kwon, Byoung S,Lee, Ho-Young,Chung, Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan P 2015 Nature medicine Vol.21 No.9

        <P>T cell stimulation via glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) elicits antitumor activity in various tumor models; however, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we demonstrate a crucial role for interleukin (IL)-9 in antitumor immunity generated by the GITR agonistic antibody DTA-1. IL-4 receptor knockout (Il4ra(-/-)) mice, which have reduced expression of IL-9, were resistant to tumor growth inhibition by DTA-1. Notably, neutralization of IL-9 considerably impaired tumor rejection induced by DTA-1. In particular, DTA-1-induced IL-9 promoted tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses by enhancing the function of dendritic cells in vivo. Furthermore, GITR signaling enhanced the differentiation of IL-9-producing CD4(+) T-helper (T(H)9) cells in a TNFR-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)- and NF-kappa B-dependent manner and inhibited the generation of induced regulatory T cells in vitro. Our findings demonstrate that GITR co-stimulation mediates antitumor immunity by promoting T(H)9 cell differentiation and enhancing CTL responses and thus provide a mechanism of action for GITR agonist-mediated cancer immunotherapies.</P>

      • KCI등재후보

        흰쥐 경골의 신연 골형성술에서 염증성 싸이토카인의 발현

        황일웅(Il Ung Hwang),조태준(Tae-Joon Cho),최인호(In Ho Choi),정진엽(Chin Youb Chung),유원준(Won Joon Yoo),김은희(Eun Hee Kim) 대한정형외과학회 2004 대한정형외과학회지 Vol.39 No.1

        목적: 본 연구의 목적은 신연 골형성술에서의 염증성 싸이토카인의 발현 양상을 일반 골절 치유 과정과 비교하는 것이다. 대상 및 방법: 흰쥐 경골의 단순 골절 치유 모델과 신연 골형성술 모델을 대상으로 3주에 걸쳐서 단계적으로 골 조직을 채취하였다. 총 리보핵산을 추출하고 각종 염증성 싸이토카인 발현의 시간적 변화를 검사하였다. 수술 후 7일과 9일째에 조직에서 면역조직화학 검사를 통해서 IL-6의 공간적 발현 양상을 조사하였다. 결과: IL-1β, IL-6는 단순 골절 치유 과정에서 수술 후 1일째에 발현이 절정에 달하였다가 3일째부터 발현이 감소하여 수술 전 상태로 회복되었다. IL-1β는 신연 골형성술 중 신연 기간에도 발현의 변화가 없었으나 IL-6은 신연을 시작함에 따라 다시 발현이 증가하는 양상을 보였다. 면역조직화학 검사장 IL-6은 골수 세포 뿐 아니라 연골세포, 골모세포 그리고 신연 간격의 미성숙 간엽세포에서 발현이 확인되었다. 결론: 신연 변형력에 의한 IL-6의 발현이 유도되는 것을 확인하였으며, 이는 조절된 염증 반응이 신연 골형성술 과정에서 신생골 형성에 부분적으로 기여할 가능성을 시사하는 것으로 생각된다. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokines during distraction osteogenesis and to compare these with expression during simple fracture healing. Materials and Methods: Regenerated bones from the rat tibia subjected distraction osteogenesis and simple fracture healing models were harvested over three-week periods. Temporal expressions of mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines were investigated by RNase protection assay. Immunohistochemical studies for IL-6 were performed in postoperative day 7 and 9 tissue section specimens. Results: IL-1β and IL-6 produced detectable signals, while IL-1α, TNF α and TNF β did not. The mRNA expressions of IL-1β and IL-6 were markedly upregulated on postoperative day 1 and then subsided to the preoperative level. IL-1β mRNA expression remained the same even when distraction began. However, IL-6 mRNA expression was reactivated during the distraction phase. Immunohistochemical study revealed the expressions of IL-6 not only at the transitional zone of the transchondroid ossification, in young osteoblasts lining newly formed trabeculae and in hematopoietic cells in the marrow but also in primitive mesenchymal cells at the distraction gap. Conclusion: Distraction strain re-induced IL-6 expression during distraction osteogenesis, which suggests that well-controlled inflammatory reaction might contribute to active new bone formation in distraction osteogenesis.

      • KCI등재

        Evaluation of ‘TNF-α, IL-6, and MMP-9’ Test Kit for Screening of Meibomian Dysfunction in Patients with Inflammatory Dry Eye Syndrome

        Min-Hye Park,Jung-Eun Park,Jang-Won Byun,Min-Ji Choi,Il-Hoon Cho,Myeong-Jin Jeong,Yoon-Jung Choy,Koon-Ja Lee 대한시과학회 2020 대한시과학회지 Vol.22 No.1

        목적 : 마이봄샘기능저하증(meibomian gland dysfunction, MGD)을 수반하는 염증성 건성안의 감별진단에 대한 ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ 검사키트의 유용성을 평가하였다. 방법 : 건성안 이외의 안질환이 없는 20~30대 중 OSDI 설문 검사에 따른 건성안 총 118안을 대상하였고, 결막낭 메니스커스로부터 소량의 눈물을 채취하여 TNF-α, IL-6 및 MMP-9 검사를 하였다. 각막염색과 결막충혈 이 모두 Grade 1 이상인 경우는 염증성 건성안으로, 마이봄샘폐쇄와 마이봄샘구멍막힘이 모두 grade 1 이상인 경우는 MGD 관련 건성안으로 평가하였다. 염증성 건성안 및 MGD와 TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9과의 상관성은 카 이제곱검정(Chi-square test)으로 분석하였고, ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ 검사키트의 염증성 건성안과 MGD를 수반하는 염증성 건성안 감별능력은 ROC 커브를 이용하여 민감도, 특이도 및 AUC(Area under the curve)를 구하고 정확도를 평가하였다. 결과 : 염증성 건성안은 TNF-α와 IL-6와 유의한 상관성을 보였고(p<.050), ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ 검사 키트는 MMP-9 검사키트와 80.20%의 높은 일치도를 나타냈으나(p<.050), 염증성 건성안 감별에 대한 민감도, 특이도, 정확도는 MMP-9 검사키트보다 낮았다. MGD는 MMP-9 검사와 상관성을 보이지 않았고, TNF-α와 IL-6 검사와는 유의한 상관성을 보였으며, MGD 감별에 대한 민감도, 특이도, 정확도는 각각 85.50%, 34.70%, 0.601, 85.50%, 32.70%, 0.591로 나타났다. MGD 수반한 염증성 건성안 감별에 대한 ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ 검사키트의 민감도, 특이도 및 정확도는 100.00%, 34.10%, 0.670로 MMP-9 검사키트보다 더 높았다. 결론 : MGD 진단에는 TNF-α, IL-6 검사가 유용하며, ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ 검사키트는 MGD를 수반한 염증성 건성안 평가에 유용할 것으로 사료된다. Purpose : To evaluated the ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ test kit for screening of inflammatory dry eye and IDE (inflammatory dry eye) with MGD (meibomian gland dysfunction). Methods : A total of 118 dry eyes were selected using OSDI (ocular surface disease index) questionnaire among participated 20~30s without ophthalmologic diseases except for dry eye. Small amount of tear obtained from meniscus of the conjunctiva were tested with TNF-α, IL-6, and MMP-9 kit. IDE refers to the criteria which specifies the corneal staining and conjunctival hyperemia more than grade 1 and MGD refers to the criteria which specifies meibomian gland blockage and meibomian orifice obstruction with more than grade 1. Chi-square test was performed to analyze the correlation between the IDE, MGD and the results of ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ tests. and ROC (receiver operate characteristics) curve was used for the sensitivity, specificity and AUC (area under the curve) for the accuracy of ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ tests. Results : TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly correlated with IDE (p<.050) and ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ test kit showed a high agreement of 80.20% with MMP-9 test kit(p<.050) although the accuracy was lower than MMP-9 test kit. The MMP-9 showed no correlation with MGD, however TNF-α, IL-6 were significantly correlated with MGD (p<.050). sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of TNF-α, IL-6 tests for MGD were 85.50%, 34.70%, 0.601, 85.50%, 32.70%, and 0.591. The sensitivity, specificity, and AUC of ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ test kit for IDE with MGD were 100.00%, 34.10%, and 0.670, respectively, which shows higher accuracy than MMP-9. Conclusion : TNF-α and IL-6 tests are useful for the diagnosis of MGD, and ‘TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9’ test kit is useful for screening IDE with MGD.

      • 15-deoxy- <b>Δ<sub>12,14</sub></b> -prostaglandin J <b><sub>2</sub></b> Down-Regulates Activin-Induced Activin Receptor, Smad, and Cytokines Expression via Suppression of NF- <b><i><i><i>κ</i></i></i></b> B and MAPK Signaling in HepG2 Cells

        Park, Seung-Won,Cho, Chunghee,Cho, Byung-Nam,Kim, Youngchul,Goo, Tae Won,Kim, Young Il Hindawi Publishing Corporation 2013 PPAR research Vol.2013 No.-

        <P>15-Deoxy-Δ<SUP>12,14</SUP>-prostaglandin J<SUB>2</SUB> (15d-PGJ<SUB>2</SUB>) and activin are implicated in the control of apoptosis, cell proliferation, and inflammation in cells. We examined both the mechanism by which 15d-PGJ<SUB>2</SUB> regulates the transcription of activin-induced activin receptors (ActR) and Smads in HepG2 cells and the involvement of the nuclear factor-<I><I>κ</I></I>B (NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in this regulation. Activin A (25 ng/mL) inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation, whereas 15d-PGJ<SUB>2</SUB> (2 <I><I>μ</I></I>M and 5 <I><I>μ</I></I>M) had no effect. Activin A and 15d-PGJ<SUB>2</SUB> showed different regulatory effects on ActR and Smad expression, NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B p65 activity and MEK/ERK phosphorylation, whereas they both decreased IL-6 production and increased IL-8 production. When co-stimulated with 15d-PGJ<SUB>2</SUB> and activin, 15d-PGJ<SUB>2</SUB> inhibited the activin-induced increases in ActR and Smad expression, and decreased activin-induced IL-6 production. However, it increased activin-induced IL-8 production. In addition, 15d-PGJ<SUB>2</SUB> inhibited activin-induced NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B p65 activity and activin-induced MEK/ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ<SUB>2</SUB> suppresses activin-induced ActR and Smad expression, down-regulates IL-6 production, and up-regulates IL-8 production via suppression of NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B and MAPK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. Regulation of ActR and Smad transcript expression and cytokine production involves NF-<I><I>κ</I></I>B and the MAPK pathway via interaction with 15d-PGJ<SUB>2</SUB>/activin/Smad signaling.</P>

      • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Atrophic Gastritis and Intestinal Metaplasia in a Korean Population Without Significant Gastroduodenal Disease

        Kim, Nayoung,Park, Young Soo,Cho, Sung-Il,Lee, Hye Seung,Choe, Gheeyoung,Kim, In Wook,Won, Yoo-Deok,Park, Ji Hyun,Kim, Joo Sung,Jung, Hyun Chae,Song, In Sung Wiley (Blackwell Publishing) 2008 Helicobacter Vol.13 No.4

        <P>BACKGROUND AND AIM: The prevalence of gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection is unacceptably high in Korea. This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) and to identify their risk factors with respect to H. pylori virulence factors, and environmental and host factors, in Korean population without significant gastroduodenal disease. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 389 subjects (> or = 16 years). AG and IM were scored histologically using the Sydney classification in the antrum and body, respectively. Prevalences and bacterial factors (i.e. cagA, vacA m1, and oipA), environmental factors (i.e. smoking and alcohol), and host factors (i.e. genetic polymorphisms of IL-1B-511, IL-1RN, TNF-A-308, IL-10-592, IL-10-819, IL-10-1082, IL-8-251, IL-6-572, GSTP1, p53 codon 72, and ALDH2) were evaluated. RESULTS: Prevalences of AG in the antrum and body were 42.5% and 20.1%, and those of IM were 28.6% and 21.2%, respectively. The presences of AG and IM were significantly higher in H. pylori-positive than in the H. pylori-negative subjects. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors for AG were H. pylori infection, age > or = 61 years, and cagA and vacA m1 positivity. For IM the risk factors were H. pylori infection, age > or = 61 years, a smoking history (rather than current smoking), strong spicy food, occupation (unemployed or nonprofessional vs. professional), and the presence of IL10-592 C/A as opposed to A/A. In addition, IL6-572 G carrier was found to have a protective effect against IM development as compared with C/C. CONCLUSION: H. pylori infection was most important risk factor of AG and IM. Bacterial factors were found to be important risk factor for AG but environmental and host factors were more important for IM.</P>

      • KCI등재

        위암에서 Helicobacter pylori cagA, vacA, iceA 유전자와 숙주 Interleukin-1β및 Interleukin-1 수용체 길항제 유전자 다형성

        이성훈 ( Seong Hun Lee ),김태오 ( Tae Oh Kim ),이동현 ( Dong Hyun Lee ),박원일 ( Won Il Park ),김광하 ( Gwang Ha Kim ),허정 ( Jeong Heo ),강대환 ( Dae Hwan Kang ),송근암 ( Geun Am Song ),조몽 ( Mong Cho ) 대한내과학회 2006 대한내과학회지 Vol.71 No.1

        Background: Both Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cagA, vacA, iceA genotype and host IL-1B/IL-1RN polymorphisms play a role in determining the clinical consequences of H. pylori infection. This study aimed to investigate whether there might be any combinations of H. pylori cagA, vacA, iceA genotype and host IL-1B/IL-1RN polymorphisms that are particularly associated with the occurrence of gastric carcinoma in Korean patients. Methods: This study population was comprised of 239 patients with H. pylori infection: 122 with gastric carcinoma and 117 with gastritis only. DNA was isolated from gastric biopsy sample and H. pylori cagA, vacA and iceA genotype were determined by PCR. IL-1B-511 polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and IL-1RN polymorphisms were analyzed with variable number of tandom repeat after PCR. Results: H. pylori cagA, vacA, and iceA genotype were not associated with an increased risk for gastric carcinoma. IL-1B-511*T carriers and IL-1RN*2 carriers did not show increased risk for gastric carcinoma. On combination of bacterial/host genotypes, cagA+/IL-1B-511*T carriers and cagA+/IL-1RN*2 carriers, vacA s1/IL-1B-511*T carriers, vacA s1/IL-1RN*2 carriers, vacA m1/IL-1B-511*T carriers, vacA m1/IL-1RN*2 carriers, iceA1/IL-1B-511*T carriers, iceA1/IL-1RN*2 carriers showed no increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Conclusions: Combined H. pylori cagA, vacA, iceA genotype and host IL-1B/IL-1RN polymorphisms shows no increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Therefore, it seems other endogenous or exogenous factors may play more important role in the development of gastric carcinoma in Korean.(Korean J Med 71:24-37, 2006)

      • SCIESCOPUS

        Caffeic acid phenethyl ester promotes anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB signaling in activated HMC-1 human mast cells

        Cho, Mi Suk,Park, Won Sun,Jung, Won-Kyo,Qian, Zhong-ji,Lee, Dae-Sung,Choi, Jung-Sik,Lee, Da-Young,Park, Sae-Gwang,Seo, Su-Kil,Kim, Hak-Ju,Won, Jun Yeon,Yu, Byeng Chul,Choi, Il-Whan Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. 2014 PHARMACEUTICAL BIOLOGY Vol.52 No.7

        <P><I>Context</I>: Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other beneficial medicinal properties. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-allergic effects in mast cells are unknown.</P><P><I>Objective</I>: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether CAPE modulates the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated local allergic reaction in animals, as well as to elucidate the effects of CAPE on mast cells <I>in vitro</I>.</P><P><I>Materials and methods</I>: To investigate the bioactive potential of CAPE (10 or 20 µM), HMC-1 cells were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI) for 24 h in the presence or absence of CAPE. To study the pharmacological effects of CAPE, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), and fluorescence assays were used.</P><P><I>Results</I>: CAPE (10 mg/kg) inhibited local IgE-mediated allergic reactions (0.164 versus 0.065 O.D.) in a mouse model. Additionally, CAPE (20 µM) attenuated PMACI-stimulated histamine release (3146.42 versus 2564.83 pg/ml) and the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β (4.775 versus 0.713 pg/ml, IC<SUB>50</SUB> = 6.67 µM), IL-6 (4771.5 versus 449.1 pg/ml, IC<SUB>50</SUB> = 5.25 µM), and IL-8 (5991.7 versus 2213.1 pg/ml, IC<SUB>50</SUB> = 9.95 µM) in HMC-1 cells. In activated HMC-1 cells, pretreatment with CAPE decreased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, CAPE inhibited PMACI-induced nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by suppressing IκBα phosphorylation and its degradation.</P><P><I>Discussion and conclusion</I>: Our results indicated that CAPE can modulate mast cell-mediated allergic disease.</P>

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Mangostenone F in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages by Suppressing NF-κB and MAPK Activation

        Cho, Byoung Ok,Ryu, Hyung Won,So, Yangkang,Lee, Chang Wook,Jin, Chang Hyun,Yook, Hong Sun,Jeong, Yong Wook,Park, Jong Chun,Jeong, Il Yun The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology 2014 Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) Vol.22 No.4

        Mangostenone F (MF) is a natural xanthone isolated from Garcinia mangostana. However, little is known about the biological activities of MF. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of MF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. MF dose-dependently inhibited the production of NO, iNOS, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-${\alpha}$, IL-6, and IL-$1{\beta}$) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, MF decreased the NF-${\kappa}B$ luciferase activity and NF-${\kappa}B$ DNA binding capacity in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, MF suppressed the NF-${\kappa}B$ activation by inhibiting the degradation of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit of NF-${\kappa}B$. In addition, MF attenuated the AP-1 luciferase activity and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinases. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of MF is associated with the suppression of NO production and iNOS expression through the down-regulation of NF-${\kappa}B$ activation and MAPK signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

      • Characterization of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis.

        Cho, Bon-A,Sim, Ji Hyun,Park, Ji Ah,Kim, Hye Won,Yoo, Wan-Hee,Lee, Seung-Hyun,Lee, Dong-Sup,Kang, Jae Seung,Hwang, Young-Il,Lee, Wang Jae,Kang, Insoo,Lee, Eun Bong,Kim, Hang-Rae Springer 2012 Journal of clinical immunology Vol.32 No.4

        <P>Little is known about the cellular characteristics of CD8(+) T cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We addressed this by investigating whether the frequency of the CD8(+) T cell subsets and their phenotypic characteristics are altered in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid (SF) from patients with RA. In this study, CD8(+) T cells, mainly CD45RA(-) effector memory (EM) CD8(+) T cells, were increased significantly in the SF, but not in the peripheral blood from RA patients, compared with healthy controls. The synovial EM CD8(+) T cells were activated phenotypes with high levels of CD80, CD86, and PD-1, and had a proliferating signature in vivo upon Ki-67 staining, whereas the Fas-positive cells were prone to apoptosis. In addition, EM CD8(+) T cells in the SF were less cytotoxic, as they expressed less perforin and granzyme B. In particular, the proportions of synovial fluid mononuclear cells that were CCR4(+)CD8(+) T cells and IL-4-producing CD8(+) T cells (i.e., Tc2 cells) were significantly higher than those in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with RA and healthy controls. In addition, the number of IL-10-producing CD8(+) suppressor T (Ts) cells increased significantly in the SF of RA patients. Especially, CD8(+) T cells were inversely correlated with disease activity. These findings strongly suggest that EM CD8(+) T cells in the SF are increased, likely because of inflammation, and they may be involved in modulating inflammation, thereby affecting the development and progression of RA.</P>

      • KCI등재

        유우석적천인관계론관규(劉禹錫的天人關係論管窺)

        조원 ( Won Il Cho ) 한국철학사연구회 2012 한국 철학논집 Vol.0 No.33

        천인관계에 대한 문제에 있어서 당대 중기의 유우석의 견해는 한유나 유종원의 견해와는 확연하게 구분되는 경향을 보인다. 그의 문집 가운데에서 하늘과 인간의 관계에 대한 논문을 찾아볼 수 있는데, 주로<천론>상, 중, 하편 등에 산재되어 있다. 유우석은 양한시기 이래로 계승되어 온 “천인감응론”에 반대의 입장을 견지했을 뿐만 아니라 “천명결정론”에 대해서도 확고하게 반대의 입장을 나타냈다. 유우석은 하늘에 의지가 있다는 것을 인정하지 않았고, 또 인간의 힘으로 바꿀 수 없는 “천명”이란 것이 존재한다는 것도 믿지 않았다. 유우석은 만물은 모두 음양의 이기(二氣)를 타고 형태를 얻게 되며, 하늘과 인간 역시 그러한 존재라고 생각했다. 또한 그는 하늘의 기능과 인간의 기능 사이에는 어떠한 상관관계도 없다고 보는 한편 이 둘은 서로 평행선의 관계를 이루고 있다고 보았다. 유우석은 하늘에는 그 자체로서 자연의 법칙과 기능이 있는 것이고, 인간사회를 위해서 객관적인 생존의 조건을 제공하며, 인간사회 역시 그 자체로서의 규범과 기능이 있어서 자연에 대해서 적극적인 이용을 통하여 그것을 정복해나간다고 하는 등의 “천인교상승”론을 적극적으로 주장한다. 이상과 같은 유우석의 천인관계론의 내용을 만물은 기에 의해서 생성된다고 하는 것과 하늘과 인간은 서로 바탕으로 삼는다는 것 그리고 천명의 부정 등등의 문제를 중심으로 분석해보도록 하겠다. About the Tian-Ren relations problem of middle age of Tang Dynasty seating with a view of the apparent distinction between the views of Han Yu & Liu Jong Wen tend to be. In his books of papers on the relationship between heaven and human beings to be found, mostly<Tianlun>low, medium, high etc are interspersed. Liu Yu Xi seats that have been passed down since the time of the Liang Han Dynasty “Tian-Ren Ganying lun” not only adhere to the position of “Tian ming jueding lun” about the position was firmly opposed. Liu Yu Xi will have seats in the Tian and did not acknowledge that, and no human power can change the “Tian ming” did not believe that there is such a thing.

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